明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月18日 20:50:28
[Nextpage视频演讲]Vice President Joe Biden speaks on the end of combat operations in Iraq, the Administration’s commitment to Afghanistan, and our nation’s obligations to our veterans in remarks to the Veterans of Foreign Wars 111th National Convention in Indianapolis, IN.Download mp4 (400MB) | mp3 (38MB) [Nextpage文本]“Honor the dead by helping the living.” That’s what you’re all about. That’s what the VFW has always been about. Like you, I know that our nation has just one truly sacred obligation: to prepare and equip those we send into harm’s way, and to care for them when they come home.Commander Tradewell—Tommy—you’ve walked that walk. You served bravely in Vietnam, then came back and kept right on fighting to make sure your comrades got everything they deserved. Thank you for your service, over there, and over here.To Richard Eubank, who also served at the height of the Vietnam War, I want to wish you the best of luck as you take the helm of this great organization at a critically important time.And Bob—thank you for having me, and for all you do on behalf of the VFW, every day in Washington. And to Jan Tittle, President of the Ladies Auxiliary. Thank you for all that you do. And to my home state commander, Bob Wilkinson. And to the Ladies Auxiliary, Roberta Walter. Thank you all for your service. I particularly want to acknowledge those veterans of the Korean War, who this summer are marking the 60th Anniversary of the start of that conflict. Over the last 111 years—from San Juan Hill to the Argonne Forest, Midway to Inchon, Hue City to Kuwait City, and the Korengal Valley to the Sunni Triangle—VFW members have fought for our country on both the frontlines and the home front. You and your predecessors helped establish the Department of Veterans Affairs and build a National Cemetery System. You worked to secure a better future for service members and their families by helping pass two GI bills.And you have spoken out time and again on behalf of your 2.2 million members, and for all those who have fought in America’s wars. This work—your work—has never been more important than it is today.Over the past decade, our military has embarked on a longer period of sustained combat than ever before in our history. More than two million service members have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, more than half of whom have now returned to a civilian life with the honored title of “Veteran.”Of those men and women—the very best our nation has—almost 40,000 have been wounded and 5,640 have made the ultimate sacrifice.And President Obama is taking a major step toward concluding one of those wars, just as he pledged to do before he ever took office. One month after his inauguration, at Camp Lejeune, President Obama laid out a plan for ending the war in Iraq responsibly, and we have followed it closely ever since.As a result, one week from tomorrow, the U.S. combat phase of that war will close. From more than 140,000 troops in Iraq when our Administration took office, by the end of August, 50,000 will remain. Our last remaining combat unit, one that I visited with and know well, the 4th Stryker Brigade of the Army’s Second Infantry Division, left Iraq last week.I’m proud to say that as of September 1, the mission of the ed States Forces in Iraq will be to advise, assist, train, and equip the Iraqi Security Forces; to conduct partnered counterterrorism operations; and to provide security for our military and civilian personnel and infrastructure.I recently went to Fort Drum, to meet with the Army’s proud 10th Mountain Division, whose motto is “climb to glory.” God, have they climbed to glory. I was there to welcome nearly 3,000 of them back from Iraq, three months early, after they accomplished all of their goals.These homecomings are something I have long looked forward to, and I know many of you have as well. The day my son Beau returned from a yearlong tour in Iraq, and I watched him embrace his wife and children, was one of the proudest and happiest moments of my life.By the end of next year—2011—our remaining troops in Iraq will have come home to their families and a grateful nation. This is only possible because of the extraordinary progress our military—the finest fighting force this planet has ever seen—has brought about, led by the great General Ray Odierno.Three accomplishments are worth singling out.First, violence in Iraq has decreased to such a degree that those who last served there three or four years ago—when the country was being torn apart by sectarian conflict—would hardly recognize the place. Al Qaeda in Iraq and the Shiite extremists remain dangerous, and their attacks still claim innocent lives. But they have utterly failed to achieve their objectives of inflaming sectarian conflict and undermining the Iraqi government.Second, Iraq’s security forces—now more than 650,000 strong—are aly leading the way to defend and protect their country. We have transferred control over hundreds of bases, and many thousands of square miles of territory. Some said that our drawdown would bring more violence. They were wrong, because the Iraqis are y to take charge. And in recent months, operations that they led, based on intelligence they developed, killed two key leaders of Al Qaeda in Iraq and purged more than 30 other top terrorists from its ranks.Third, but no less important, is the fact that Iraqi leaders who once settled disputes through violence are at this very moment, ironing out their differences in face-to-face negotiations.The Iraqis recently held their second national election that the world all agreed was legitimate, and although it is taking a long time to form a government, I am convinced that this will happen soon.Another way of putting this is that politics has broken out.Now, I certainly don’t need to tell you that politics is not always pretty, even our own. But the hard work of forming a new government is well underway, and we urge these politicians to match the courage their citizens have shown, by completing that process.Ever since the President asked me to oversee our Iraq policy, I have been actively engaged, on a daily basis. I have visited the country 13 times; I know all the players from all the leading coalitions; I speak regularly with Iraqi leaders; and I understand Iraq’s intricate politics. We have a first-rate Embassy team, now led by Ambassador Jim Jeffrey, that is interacting daily with the Iraqis throughout the government formation process.Many people point to the Iranian influence in Iraq but I believe this to be exaggerated. The Iranian government spent over 0 million dollars to try to sway the national elections but Iran failed. The Iraqi people voted for their desired candidate, not who the Iranians wanted them to vote for.Now the Iraqi leaders are working to form a government and we urge them to do so in a way that reflects the will of the Iraqi people. An important step in this process is formalizing a power-sharing arrangement, which the Iraqi leaders are currently undertaking to do. This process can sometimes be frustrating, and there will be ups and downs, but I am confident that the Iraqis will form a national unity government soon.And one more thing: Drawing down our troops does not mean we are disengaging from Iraq. In fact, quite the opposite is true. While our warriors that remain there are as capable as any in our armed services—they know how to fight if they have to—their mission has changed. They are there now to help the Iraqis help themselves. Meanwhile, we are also ramping up a civilian-led effort to help ensure Iraq remains stable, sovereign, and self-reliant. We will continue to help strengthen its economic and political institutions, foster new ties of trade and commerce, and support Iraq’s return to its rightful place in the region and the broader community of nations.While the Iraq war winds down, our troops continue to take the fight to our enemies in Afghanistan. That is where Al Qaeda plotted and trained to launch the devastating attack on 9-11.全文下载201008/112338IaCziub0dhRCAkA generation ago, a presidential candidate had to prove his independence of undue religious influence in public life, and he had to do so partly at the insistence of evangelical Protestants. John Kennedy said at that time: ;I believe in an America where there is no religious bloc voting of any kind.; Only twenty years later, another candidate was appealing to a[n] evangelical meeting as a religious bloc. Ronald Reagan said to 15 thousand evangelicals at the Roundtable in Dallas: ; I know that you cant endorse me. I want you to know I endorse you and what you are doing.;8sovxU[uy.6e8oF0MuTo many Americans, that pledge was a sign and a symbol of a dangerous breakdown in the separation of church and state. Yet this principle, as vital as it is, is not a simplistic and rigid command. Separation of church and state cannot mean an absolute separation between moral principles and political power. The challenge today is to recall the origin of the principle, to define its purpose, and refine its application to the politics of the present.KjL)f*1NT.UDKZOnDT;pLrMrGpc2Lae6DbBe*6ti_-8;~d!J162946

President Hoover Mister Chief Justice, my friends:This is a day of national consecration, and I am certain that on this day my fellow Americans expect that on my induction in the Presidency I will address them with a candor and a decision which the present situation of our people impeIs. This is preeminently the time to speak the truth, the whole truth, frankly and boldly Nor need we shrink from honestly facing the conditions facing our country today This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper So first of all, let me express my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself - nameless, unreasoning, un justified terror, which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life, a leadership of frankness and vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves, which is essential to victory And I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days.In such a spirit on my part and on yours, we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunken to fantastic levels; taxes have risen, our ability to pay has fallen, government of all kinds is faced by serious curtaiIment of income, the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side, farmers find no markets for their produce, and the savings of many years and thousands of families are gone.More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equal and great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment.And yet, our distress comes from no failure of substance, we are stricken by no plagUe of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered, because they believed andwere not afraid, we have so much to be thankful for Nature surrounds us with her bounty and human, efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply Primarily this is because the rulers of the exchange of mankinds goods have failed, through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men.True, they have tried, but their efforts have been cast in the patten of an outworn tradition. Faced by a failure of credit, they have proposed only the lending of more money Stripped of the lure of profit by which they induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortation, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They only know the rules of a generation of self seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision, the people perish.Yes, the money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civiIization. We may now restore that temp1e to the ancient truths. A measure of that restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social value, more noble than mere monetary profits.Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative efforts, the joy and moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days, my friends, will be worth all they cost us, if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered on to, but to minister to ourselves, to our fellow men.Recognition of the falsity of material wealth as the standard of success goes hand in hand with the abandonment of a false belief that public office and high political position are to be valued only by the standards of pride of place and personal profits, and there must be an end to our conduct in banking and in business, which too of ten has given to a sacred trust the likeness of callous and selfish wrong-doing. Small wonder that confidence languishes, for it thrives only on honesty on honon on the sacredness of our obligation, on faithful protection and on unselfish performance. Without them it cannot live.Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This nation is asking for action, and action now.Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we take it wise1y and courageously It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our great natural resources.Hand in hand with that, we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution in an effort to provide better use of the land for those best fitted for the land.Yes the task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the value of the agricultural product and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically the tragedy of the growing losses through fore closures of our small homes and our farms. It can be helped by insistence that the federal, the state, and the local government act forthwith on the demands that their costs be drastically reduce. It can be helped by the unifying of relief activities which today are of ten scattered, uneconomical, unequal. It can be helped by national planning for, and supervision of all forms of transportation, and of communications, and other utilities that have a definitely public character. There are many ways in which it can be helped, but it can never be helped by mere1y talking about it. We must act, we must act quickly.And finally in our progress toward a resumption of work, we require two safeguards against the return of the evils of the old order; there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments; there must be an end to speculation with other people-s money; and there must be provisions for an adequate but sound currency.These, my friends, are the lines of attack. I shall presently urge upon a new Congress in special session, detailed measures for their fulfillment, and I shall seek the immediate assistance of the 48 states.Through this program of action, we address ourselves to putting our own national house in order, and making income balance outflow Our international trade relations, though vastly important, are in point of time and necessity secondary to the establishment of a sound national economy I favor as a practical policy the putting of first things first. I shall spare no effort to restore world trade by international economic justment, but the emergency at home cannot wait on that accomplishment.The basic thought that guides these specific means of national recovery is not narrowly nationalistic. It is the insistence, as a first consideration upon the inter-dependence of the various elements in all parts of the ed States of America - a recognition of the old and the permanently important manifestation of the American spirit of the pioneer. It is the way to recovery it is the immediate way it is the strongest assurance that recovery will endure.In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor. The neighbor who resolutely respects himself, and because he does so, respects the rights ofothers. The neighbor who respects his ob1igation, and respects the sanctity of his agreement, in and with, a world of neighbor.If I the temper of our people correctly we now realize what we have never realized before, our inter-dependence on each other, that we cannot merely take, but we must give as well. That if we are to go forward, we must move as a trained and loyal army willing to sacrifice for the good of a common discipline, because without such discip1ine, no progress can be made, no leadership becomes effective. We are all y and willing to submit our lives and our property to such discipline because it makes possible a 1eadership which aims at the larger good. This, I propose to offet we are going to larger purposes, bind upon us, bind upon us all, as a sacred obligation with a unity of duty hitherto evoked only in times of armed strife.With this pledge taken, I assume unhesitatingly, the leadership of this great army of our people dedicated to a disciplined attack upon our common problems. Action in this image, action to this end, is feasible under the form of government which we have inherited from my ancestors. Our constitution is so simple, so practical, that it is possible always, to meet extraordinary needs, by changes in emphasis and arrangements without loss of a central form, that is why our constitutional system has proved itself the most superbly enduring political mechanism the modern world has ever seen. It has met every stress of vast expansion of territory of foreign wars, of bitter internal strife, of world relations.And it is to be hoped that the normal balance of executive and legislative authority wi1l be fully equal, fully adequate to meet the unprecedented task before us. But it may be that an unprecedented demand and need for underlay action may call for temporary departure from that normal balance of public procedure.We face the arduous days that lie before us in the warm courage of national unity in the clearest consciousness of seeking all and precious moral values, with the clean satisfaction that comes from the stern performance of duty by old and young alike, we aim at the assurance of a rounded, a permanent national life.We do not distrust the future of essential democracy The people of the ed States have not failed. In their need, they have registered a mandate that they want direct, vigorous action. They have asked for discipline, and direction under leadership, they have made me the present instrument of their wishes. In the spirit of the gift, I take it.In this dedication, in this dedication of a nation, we humbly ask the b1essings of God, may He protect each and every one of us, may He guide me in the days to come.我们唯一恐惧的就是恐惧本身胡佛总统,首席法官先生,朋友们:今天,对我们的国家来说,是一个神圣的日子。我肯定,同胞们都期待我在就任总统时,会像我国目前形势所要求的那样,坦率而果断地向他们讲话。现在正是坦白、勇敢地说出实话,说出全部实话的最好时刻。我们不必畏首畏尾,不老老实实面对我国今天的情况。这个伟大的国家会一如既往地坚持下去,它会复兴和繁荣起来。因此,让我首先表明我的坚定信念:我们唯一不得不害怕的就是害怕本身--一种莫名其妙、丧失理智的、毫无根据的恐惧,它把人转退为进所需的种种努力化为泡影。凡在我国生活阴云密布的时刻,坦率而有活力的领导都得到过人民的理解和持,从而为胜利准备了必不可少的条件。我相信,在目前危急时刻,大家会再次给予同样的持。我和你们都要以这种精神,来面对我们共同的困难。感谢上帝,这些困难只是物质方面的。价值难以想象地贬缩了;课税增加了;我们的付能力下降了;各级政府面临着严重的收入短缺;交换手段在贸易过程中遭到了冻结;工业企业枯萎的落叶到处可见;农场主的产品找不到销路;千家万户多年的积蓄付之东流。更重要的是,大批失业公民正面临严峻的生存问题,还有大批公民正以艰辛的劳动换取微薄的报酬。只有愚蠢的乐天派会否认当前这些阴暗的现实。但是,我们的苦恼决不是因为缺乏物资。我们没有遭到什么蝗虫的灾害。我们的先辈曾以信念和无畏一次次转危为安,比起他们经历过的险阻,我们仍大可感到欣慰。大自然仍在给予我们恩惠,人类的努力已使之倍增。富足的情景近在咫尺,但就在我们见到这种 情景的时候,宽裕的生活却悄然离去。这主要是因为主宰人类物资交换的统治者们失败了,他们固执己见而又无能为力,因而已经认定失败了,并撒手不管了。贪得无厌的货币兑换商的种种行径。将受到舆论法庭的起诉,将受到人类心灵理智的唾弃。是的,他们是努力过,然而他们用的是一种完全过时的方法。面对信贷的失败,他们只是提议借出更多的钱。没有了当诱饵引诱 人民追随他们的错误领导的金钱,他们只得求助于讲道,含泪祈求人民重新给予他们信心。他们只知自我追求者们的处世规则。他们没有眼光,而没有眼光的人是要灭亡的。如今,货币兑换商已从我们文明庙宇的高处落荒而逃。我们要以千古不变的真理来重建这座庙宇。衡量这重建的尺度是我们体现比金钱利益更高尚的社会价值的程度。幸福并不在于单纯地占有金钱;幸福还在于取得成就后的喜悦,在于创造努力时的。务必不能再忘记劳动带来的喜悦和激励,而去疯狂地追逐那转瞬即逝的利润。如果这些暗淡的时日能使我们认识到,我们真正的天命不是要别人侍奉,而是为自己和同胞们务,那么,我们付出的代价就完全是值得的。认识到把物质财富当作成功的标准是错误的,我们就会抛弃以地位尊严和个人收益为唯一标准,来衡量公职和高级政治地位的错误信念;我们必须制止界和企业界的一种行为,它常常使神圣的委托混同于无情和自私的不正当行为。难怪信心在减弱,信心,只有靠诚实、信誉、忠心维护和无私履行职责。而没有这些,就不可能有信心。但是,复兴不仅仅只要改变伦理观念。这个国家要求行动起来,现在就行动起来。我们最大、最基本的任务是让人民投入工作。只要我信行之以智慧和勇气,这个问题就可以解决。这可以部分由政府直接征募完成,就象对待临战的紧要关头一样,但同时,在有了人手的情况下,我们还急需能刺激并重组巨大自然资源的工程。我们齐心协力,但必须坦白地承认工业中心的人口失衡,我们必须在全国范围内重新分配,使土地在最适合的人手中发表挥更大作用。明确地为提高农产品价值并以此购买城市产品所做的努力,会有助于任务的完成。避免许多小家庭业、农场业被取消赎取抵押品的权利的悲剧也有助于任务的完成。联邦、州、各地政府立即行动回应要求降价的呼声,有助于任务的完成。将现在常常是分散不经济、不平等的救济活动统一起来有助于任务的完成。对所有公共交通运输,通讯及其他涉及公众生活的设施作全国性的计划及监督有助于任务的完成。许多事情都有助于任务完成,但这些决不包括空谈。我们必须行动,立即行动。最后,为了重新开始工作,我们需要两手防御,来抗御旧秩序恶魔卷土从来;一定要有严格监督业、信贷及投资的机制:一定要杜绝投机;一定要有充足而健康的货币供应。以上这些,朋友们,就是施政方针。我要在特别会议上敦促新国会给予详细实施方案,并且,我要向18个州请求立即的援助。通过行动,我们将予以我们自己一个有秩序的国家大厦,使收入大于出。我们的国际贸易,虽然很重要,但现在在时间和必要性上,次于对本国健康经济的建立。我建议,作为可行的策略、首要事务先行。虽然我将不遗余力通过国际经济重新协调所来恢复国际贸易,但我认为国内的紧急情况无法等待这重新协调的完成。指导这一特别的全国性复苏的基本思想并非狭隘的国家主义。我首先考虑的是坚持美国这一整体中各部分的相互依赖性--这是对美国式的开拓精神的古老而永恒的明的体现。这才是复苏之路,是即时之路,是保复苏功效持久之路。在国际政策方面,我将使美国采取睦邻友好的政策。做一个决心自重,因此而尊重邻国的国家。做一个履行义务,尊重与他国协约的国家。如果我对人民的心情的了解正确的话,我想我们已认识到了我们从未认识的问题,我们是互相依存的,我们不可以只索取,我们还必须奉献。我们前进时,必须象一训练有素的忠诚的军队,愿意为共同的原则而献身,因为,没有这些原则,就无法取得进步,领导就不可能得力。我们都已做好准备,并愿意为此原则献出生命和财产,因为这将使志在建设更美好社会的领导成为可能。我倡议,为了更伟大的目标,我们所有的人,以一致的职责紧紧团结起来。这是神圣的义务,非战乱,不停止。有了这样的誓言,我将毫不犹豫地承担领导伟大人民大军的任务,致力于对我们普遍问题的强攻。这样的行动,这样的目标,在我们从祖先手中接过的政府中是可行的。我们的宪法如此简单,实在。它随时可以应付特殊情况,只需对重点和安排加以修改而不丧失中心思想,正因为如此,我们的宪法体制已自为是最有适应性的政治体制。它已应付过巨大的国土扩张、外战、内乱及国际关系所带来的压力。而我们还希望行使法律的人士做到充分的平等,能充分地担负前所未有的任务。但现在前所未有的对紧急行动的需要要求国民暂时丢弃平常生活节奏,紧迫起来。让我们正视面前的严峻岁月,怀着举国一致给我们带来的热情和勇气,怀着寻求传统的、珍贵的道德观念的明确意识,怀着老老少少都能通过克尽职守而得到的问心无愧的满足。我们的目标是要保国民生活的圆满和长治久安。我们并不怀疑基本民主制度的未来。合众国人民并没有失败。他们在困难中表达了自己的委托,即要求采取直接而有力的行动。他们要求有领导的纪律和方向。他们现在选择了我作为实现他们的愿望的工具。我接受这份厚赠。在此举国奉献之际,我们谦卑地请求上帝赐福。愿上帝保信我们大家和每一个人,愿上帝在未来的日子里指引我。 /201205/182045

President's Radio Address   THE PRESIDENT: Good morning. It's not every day that Americans look forward to hearing from the Internal Revenue Service, but over the past few weeks many Americans have received a letter from the IRS with some good news. The letters explain that millions of individuals and families will soon be receiving tax rebates, thanks to the economic growth package that Congress passed and I signed into law last month.   Americans who are eligible for a rebate will get it automatically by simply filing their taxes. If you are not a tax filer, you should visit your local IRS office to fill out the necessary paperwork so you can get your rebate on time.   The growth package also contains incentives for businesses to invest in new equipment this year. On Wednesday I visited a printing company in Virginia that has decided to use these incentives to purchase new software. As more businesses begin taking advantage of these incentives, investment will pick up and so will job creation. And together with the individual tax rebates, these incentives will help give our economy a shot in the arm.   For many families, the greatest concern with the economy is the downturn in the housing market. My Administration has taken action to help responsible homeowners keep their homes. In October, we helped bring together a private sector group called the HOPE NOW Alliance. HOPE NOW has helped streamline the process for refinancing and modifying mortgages, and it runs a national hotline to connect struggling homeowners with mortgage counselors.   On Friday, I visited an impressive mortgage counseling center in New Jersey. At the center, I met with homeowners who have been able to get help, thanks to HOPE NOW. One of them is Danny Cerchiaro. Danny owns a home in New Jersey that also serves as a studio for his movie production company. When Danny and his wife learned that their adjustable rate mortgage was resetting to a higher rate this past summer, they became concerned about their financial security. So Danny called HOPE NOW for help. Less than two months later, he was able to get a more affordable fixed-rate mortgage. And today Danny calls the mortgage counselor who helped him, "the magic lady."   Theresa Torres from Kansas City is another homeowner who has been helped. Theresa called HOPE NOW after she and her husband fell behind on their mortgage payments in December. A mortgage counselor helped Theresa modify her mortgage. Today she no longer worries about losing her home.   There are hundreds of thousands of homeowners like Theresa and Danny who could benefit from calling HOPE NOW. If you're a homeowner struggling with your mortgage, please take the first step toward getting help by calling the hotline at 888-995-H-O-P-E. That's 888-995-H-O-P-E.   HOPE NOW can help homeowners find the right solution for them. One solution for some homeowners is a new program we launched at the Federal Housing Administration called FHASecure. This program has given the FHA greater flexibility to offer struggling homeowners with otherwise good credit histories a chance to refinance. So far this program has helped more than 130,000 families refinance their mortgages. And by the end of the year we expect this program to have reached nearly 300,000 homeowners in all.   This is a good start, and my Administration is committed to building on it. So we're exploring ways this program can help more qualified homebuyers. The problems in the housing market are complicated and there is no easy solution. But by supporting responsible homeowners with wise policies, we'll help them weather a difficult period, we will help get our economy back on track, and we will ensure America remains the most prosperous Nation in the world.   Thank you for listening. 200806/41348

  THE PRESIDENT: Good morning. Today, I am traveling to Minneapolis to the site of Wednesday's tragic bridge collapse. Like millions of Americans, I was shocked and saddened when I heard the news that the I-35 bridge gave way during rush hour. The bridge was a major traffic artery, and when it collapsed dozens of cars fell into the Mississippi River. Laura and I join all Americans in mourning those who lost their lives and in sending our thoughts and prayers to their families. And we pray that those injured will make a full recovery. On Thursday morning, Transportation Secretary Mary Peters and Federal Highway Administrator Richard Capka traveled to Minneapolis. They announced million in immediate federal funding for debris removal and to help restore the flow of traffic. This is just the beginning of the financial assistance we will make available to support the state in its recovery efforts. Several federal agencies are on the ground aiding state and local officials, including the National Transportation Safety Board, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Coast Guard, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the Environmental Protection Agency. I recognize how important the I-35 bridge is to the state of Minnesota, and my administration is committed to working closely with Governor Pawlenty and Mayor Rybak to rebuild this bridge as quickly as possible. In times of tragedy, our hearts ache for those who suffer, yet our hearts are also lifted by acts of courage and compassion. We saw those qualities in the residents of a nearby apartment building who rushed to the scene to offer their help. We saw them in the divers who fought the mighty currents of the Mississippi to reach victims. And we saw them in the firefighters who searched car to car for survivors. Among the survivors was a group of kids returning from a summer field trip. Their school bus had just passed over the Mississippi River, when the bridge below them gave way. The bus dropped more than 20 feet and came to rest on the guardrail of the collapsed bridge span. A staff member named Jeremy Hernandez quickly swung into action. He broke open the backdoor and helped evacuate the terrified children to safety. The mother of one of the children on board credited Jeremy's presence of mind with helping spare her daughter from tragedy. She put it this way: "I don't know what he was thinking but it must have been something really good." Our country is fortunate to have brave and selfless citizens like Jeremy, and all those who risked their own safety to aid in the rescue. This is a difficult time for the community in Minneapolis, but the people there are decent and resilient, and they will get through these painful hours. As they do, they know that all of America stands with them, and that we will do all we can to help them recover and rebuild. May God bless those who are hurting in Minneapolis, and may God bless our wonderful country. Thank you for listening. END 200801/23805

  One of the fundamental challenges of our time is building an economy where everyone gets a fair shot, everyone does their fair share, and everyone plays by the same rules.And as many Americans rush to file their taxes this weekend, itrsquo;s worth pointing out that wersquo;ve got a tax system that doesnrsquo;t always uphold the principle of everyone doing their part.Now, this is not just about fairness. This is also about growth. Itrsquo;s about being able to make the investments we need to strengthen our economy and create jobs. And itrsquo;s about whether we as a country are willing to pay for those investments.In a perfect world, of course, none of us would have to pay any taxes. Wersquo;d have no deficits to pay down. And wersquo;d have all the resources we needed to invest in things like schools and roads and a strong military and new sources of energy ndash; investments that have always bolstered our economy and strengthened the middle class.But we live in the real world, with real choices and real consequences. Right now, wersquo;ve got significant deficits to close. Wersquo;ve got serious investments to make to keep our economy growing. And we canrsquo;t afford to keep spending more money on tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans who donrsquo;t need them and didnrsquo;t even ak for them.Warren Buffett is one of the wealthiest men in the world. But he pays a lower tax rate than his secretary. Thatrsquo;s just the way the system is set up. In fact, one in four millionaires pays a lower tax rate than millions of hardworking middle-class households.As Warren points out, thatrsquo;s not fair and it doesnrsquo;t make sense. Itrsquo;s wrong that middle-class Americans pay a higher share of their income in taxes than some millionaires and billionaires.This week, Members of Congress are going to have a chance to set things right. They get to vote on what we call the Buffett Rule.Itrsquo;s simple: If you make more than million every year, you should pay at least the same percentage of your income in taxes as middle-class families do. On the other hand, if you make less than 0,000 a year -- like 98 percent of American families do -- your taxes shouldnrsquo;t go up.Thatrsquo;s all there is to it. Itrsquo;s pretty sensible. Most Americans support this idea. One survey found that two-thirds of millionaires do, too. So do nearly half of all Republicans.We just need some Republican politicians to get on board with where the country is.I know theyrsquo;ll say that this is all about wanting to raise peoplersquo;s taxes. They probably wonrsquo;t tell you that if you belong to a middle-class family, then Irsquo;ve cut your taxes each year that Irsquo;ve been in office, and Irsquo;ve cut taxes for small business owners 17 times.But the thing is, for most Americans like me, tax rates are near their lowest point in 50 years. In 2001 and 2003, the wealthiest Americans received two huge new tax cuts. We were told these tax cuts would lead to faster job growth. Instead, we got the slowest job growth in half a century, and the typical American family actually saw its income fall.On the flip side, when the most well-off Americans were asked to pay a little more in the 1990s, we were warned that it would kill jobs. Instead, tens of millions of jobs followed.So wersquo;ve tried this trickle-down experiment before. It doesnrsquo;t work. And middle class families have seen too much of their security erode over the past few decades for us to tell them theyrsquo;re going to have to do more because the wealthiest Americans are going to do less. We canrsquo;t stop investing in the things that will help grow our economy and create jobs ndash; things like education, research, new sources of energy ndash; just so folks like me can get another tax cut.So I hope yoursquo;ll ask your Member of Congress to step up and echo that call this week by voting for the Buffett Rule. Remind them that in America, prosperity has never just trickled down from a wealthy few. Prosperity has always been built by a strong, thriving middle class. Thatrsquo;s a principle worth reaffirming right now.Thank you, God bless you, and have a great weekend.201204/177847。

  The First State Dinner: President Obama Welcomes His Excellency Dr. Manmohan Singh of IndiaIn honor of the arrival of His Excellency Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of the Republic of India, and his wife, Mrs. Gursharan Kaur, President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama will hold the first official State Dinner of the Presidency. The event promises to be a celebration of President Obama’s deep respect for India and its people, setting the tone for a long-lasting relationship between the nations.Earlier today during the Arrival Ceremony, President Obama spoke of the enduring bonds shared by the US and India, and looked forward to continued cooperation rooted in strong democratic values:mp4视频下载 11/90242

  (President Barack Obama tours the DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center with Lew Hey, left, and Greg Bove, right, in Arcadia, Fla, Oct. 27, . Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy)Download Video: mp4 (326MB) | mp3 (15MB) 相关文本:Standing amongst thousands of black-and-white solar panels, President Obama today discussed an exciting new chapter in the quest for clean and renewable energy: a .4 billion investment of Recovery Act funds to modernize the electric grid. Speaking at the Florida Power and Light’s (FPL) DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center, the President outlined how a smarter, more reliable energy system will benefit Americans—not to mention the planet:On their own, the opening of this new solar plant or the installation of new smart meters or the investment in grid modernization will not be enough to meet the challenges posed by our dependence on fossil fuels. But together, we can begin to see what a clean energy future will look like. We can imagine the day when you'll be able to charge the battery on your plug-in hybrid car at night, because your smart meter reminded you that nighttime electricity is cheapest. In the daytime, when the sun is at its strongest, solar panels like these and electricity stored in car batteries will be able to power the grid with affordable, emission-free energy. The stronger, more efficient grid would be able to transport power generated at dams and wind turbines from the smallest towns to the biggest cities. And above all, we can see all this work that would be created for millions of Americans who need it and who want it, here in Florida and all across the country.So we're on the cusp of this new energy future. In fact, a lot of it is aly taking place. Even as I'm here today, Vice President Biden is in Delaware announcing the reopening of a once-shuttered GM factory that will soon put people back to work building plug-in, electric hybrid vehicles. On Friday, I was in Boston -- that's good news. (Applause.) On Friday, I was in Boston, where workers will soon be breaking ground on a new Wind Technology Testing Center that will allow researchers in the ed States to test the world's newest and largest wind turbine blades for the very first time. And there are recovery projects like this in cities and counties all across the country.So at this moment, there is something big happening in America when it comes to creating a clean energy economy. But getting there will take a few more days like this one and more projects like this one. And I have often said that the creation of such an economy is going to require nothing less than the sustained effort of an entire nation -- an all-hands-on-deck approach similar to the mobilization that preceded World War II or the Apollo Project. And I also believe that such a comprehensive piece of legislation that is taking place right now in Congress is going to be critical. That's going to finally make clean energy the profitable kind of energy in America -- legislation that will make the best use of resources we have in abundance, through clean coal technology, safe nuclear power, sustainably grown biofuels, and energy we harness from the wind, waves, and sun. 10/87966President Bush Departs for EuropeTHE PRESIDENT: Good morning. Im just about to leave for Europe. Im looking forward to my trip. Im looking forward to meeting with our friends and allies. Weve got strong relations in Europe, and this trip will help solidify those relations. And we got a lot to talk about.First, Im looking forward to talking about the freedom agenda with the European nations. Got a lot of work to do in Afghanistan. The countries Im going to have committed troops to Afghanistan, and, of course, want to thank them, and remind them theres a lot of work to be done. I talked to Laura yesterday, who, as you now know, took a trip to Afghanistan. I want to thank her for going. She gave me a good assessment about what she saw. She saw progress, but she also saw there needs to be a lot of work to be done -- theres a lot of work to be done. And so shes going to go to the Paris Conference, along with Secretary Rice, on our behalf to ask nations to contribute to the development of Afghanistan, which will mean theyll be contributing to peace.Then, of course, well be talking about the economy. A lot of Americans are concerned about our economy. I can understand why. Gasoline prices are high; energy prices are high. I do remind them that we have put a stimulus package forward that is expected to help boost the economy. And of course, well be monitoring the situation.Well remind our friends and allies overseas that were all too dependent on hydrocarbons. We must work to advance technologies to help us become less dependent on hydrocarbons. Ill also remind them, though, that the ed States has an opportunity to help increase the supply of oil on the market, therefore, taking pressure off gasoline for hardworking Americans, and that Ive proposed to the Congress that they open up ANWR, open up the Continental Shelf, and give this country a chance to help us through this difficult period by finding more supplies of crude oil, which will take the pressure off the price of gasoline.These are global issues well be discussing. Secretary Paulson will be also discussing issues at the G8 -- the G8 ministers in Japan this week.As well, Ill talk about our nations commitment to a strong dollar. A strong dollar is in our nations interests. It is in the interests of the global economy. Our economy is large and its open and flexible. Our capital markets are some of the deepest and most liquid. And the long-term health and strong foundation of our economy will shine through and be reflected in currency values.The U.S. economy has continued to grow in the face of unprecedented challenges. We got to keep our economies flexible; both the U.S. economy and European economies need to be flexible in order to deal with todays challenges.Im looking forward to my trip and Im looking forward to seeing Laura. Thank you.200806/41928The young men of the country those who from their age must be its rulers twenty five years hence美国青年——25岁以后将成为国家的领导者have a peculiar interest in maintaining the national honor.特别关心维护国家荣誉。A moments reflection as to what will be our commanding influence among the nations of the earth in their day,如果说他们只对自己真诚,那么,稍许考虑一下我们对世界各国的重大影响,if they are only true to themselves,should inspire them with national pride.也应该激起他们的民族自豪感。All divisions geographical,political,and religious can join in this common sentiment.一切部门——地理的、政治的和宗教的——都能以这种共同的情感团结起来。How the public debt is to be paid or specie payments resumed is not so important as that a plan should be adopted and acquiessced in.政府公债如何偿还,硬币如何付等问题都不及采取和同意一项计划重要。A united determination to do is worth more than divided counsels upon the method of doing.关于行动的统一决心,比关于行动方法的有分歧的意见有价值。Legislation upon this subject may not be necessary now,or even advisable,也许我们现在没有必要,也不适宜采取立法来完成这一计划。but it will be when the civil law is more fully restored in all parts of the country and trade resumes its wonted channels.但是,当全国更全面地恢复实施民法,当贸易恢复常规时,就必须采取立法手段了。It will be my endeavor to execute all laws in good faith,我将真诚地致力于执行所有法律,to collect all revenues assessed,课征一切应征税款,and to have them properly accounted for and economically disbursed.妥善安排,节省开。I will to the best of my ability appoint to office those only who carry out this design.我将尽力选拔称职者担任公职。The question of suffrage is one which is likely to agitate the public so long as a portion of the citizens of the nation are excluded from its privileges in any State.选举权的问题受到公众的密切注意。在任何一州内,只要有部分公民被剥夺了选举极,就必定会使公众不满。It seems to me very desirable that this question should be settled now,我认为现在这个问题是非解决不可了。and I entertain the hope and express the desire that it may be by the ratification of the fifteenth article of amendment to the Constitution.我希望并要求这个问题通过宪法第十五条修正案的批准获得解决。In conclusion I ask patient forbearance one toward another throughout the land,总之,我希望全国人民彼此宽容,决心各尽所能,and a determined effort on the part of every citizen to do his share toward cementing a happy union;建立一个幸福的联邦。and I ask the prayers of the nation to Almighty God in behalf of this consummation.我请求全国人民为实现这个伟大的目标而向全能的上帝祈祷。02/436804

  [Nextpage视频演讲]The President and First Lady attend a performance at Ford's Theatre, where the President gives remarks honoring the historic venue.Download Video: mp4 (46MB) | mp3 (5MB) [Nextpage演讲文本]Hello, everybody. It is a pleasure to welcome all of you to the White House. I'm going to be very brief, because I know you're all looking forward to heading down the street a little bit later for a wonderful night -- and Michelle just mentioned, and the women are wearing heels. (Laughter.) That’s why I want to take a moment to thank all the performers for taking time out of their busy schedules to share their gifts with us and be part of this wonderful event. I also want to thank the Cabinet officials and members of Congress who are with us –- including Senator Reid. Thank you all for coming and for your support of this wonderful institution. (Applause.) Tonight is about celebrating the great work at Ford Theatre, what it’s done to preserve the legacy of our 16th President and highlight the importance of the arts and education in our own lives and in the life of our nation. In many ways, it’s impossible to separate the history of America from the history of its music and its spoken word. Soldiers have sung as they marched to war, and raised their voices again while laying a brother to rest. Lyrics on a page and voices on a stage have helped connect us across generations and across cultures, backgrounds and faiths. Our greatest leaders -– including Lincoln himself -– have drawn inspiration and courage from the arts. And on a personal level, they help each of us express the joys and hardships of life while bringing us closer to each other.This is especially true during moments of trial -- and we have had a lot of trials over the past year and a half. Right now we've got brothers and sisters in the Gulf Coast who are going through an incredibly difficult time in the face of a disaster unlike any that we’ve ever seen of late. I want to emphasize again that we're going to do everything we can in the weeks and months and years ahead to make things right. And I know everybody here feels the same way.But tonight we will celebrate not only music and song and performances, but we're also going to be celebrating the incredible legacy of the Ford’s Theatre -- celebrating some award recipients who are extraordinarily worthy and have done so much to help not just people in this country but all around the world.So, on behalf of Michelle and our entire family, I want to say how grateful I am that all of you are here. Thank you for support the theatre. We are looking forward to a wonderful evening. Good night. (Applause.) END201006/105719John F. Kennedy:American University Commencement Addressdelivered10June1963AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED:Textversion belowtranscribeddirectlyfromaudioPresident Anderson, members of the faculty, board of trustees, distinguished guests, my oldcolleague,Senator Bob Byrd, whohas earned his degree through many years of attendingnight law school, while I am earning mine in the next30 minutes, distinguished guests, ladiesand gentlemen:Itis with great pride that I participate in this ceremony of the AmericanUniversity, sponsoredby the Methodist Church, founded by Bishop John Fletcher Hurst, and first opened byPresidentWoodrow Wilsonin 1914. This is a young and growing university, but it has alyfulfilled Bishop Hursts enlightened hope for the study of history and public affairs in a citydevoted tothe making of history and tothe conduct of the publics business.By sponsoring this institution of higher learning for all who wishtolearn, whatever their coloror their creed,the Methodists of this area and the nation deserve the nations thanks, and Icommend all those who are today graduating. Professor WoodrowWilson once said thateverymansent out from a university should be a man of his nation as well as a man of his time,and I am confidentthatthe men and women who carry the honor of graduating from thisinstitution will continue to give from their lives, from their talents, a high measure of publicservice and public support.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page1AmericanRhetoric.com;There are fewearthly things more beautifulthan a university,; wrote John Masefield in histribute to English universities andhis words are equally true today. He did not refer totowers or to campuses. He admired the splendid beauty of a university, because it was, hesaid, ;a place where those who hate ignorance may strive toknow, where those who perceivetruth may strive tomake others see.;I have, therefore, chosen this time and place todiscuss a topic on which ignorance too oftenabounds and the truthtoo rarely perceived.And that is the most importanttopic on earth:peace. Whatkind of peace do I mean and whatkind of a peace do we seek? Not a PaxAmericana enforced on the world by American weapons of war. Notthe peace of the grave orthe security of the slave. I am talking about genuine peace,the kind of peace that makes lifeon earth worthliving, and the kind that enables men and nations to grow, and to hope, andbuild a better life for their childrennotmerely peace for Americans but peace for allmenand women, notmerely peace in our time but peace in alltime.I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age wheregreat powers canmaintainlarge and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse tosurrender without resort tothose forces. Itmakes no sense in an age where a single nuclearweapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by allthe allied air forces inthe Second World War.Itmakes no sense in an age whenthe deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange wouldbe carried by wind and water and soil and seedto the far corners of the globe and togenerations yetunborn.Today the expenditure of billions of dollars every year on weapons acquired for the purpose ofmaking sure we never need them is essentialtothe keeping of peace.Butsurely theacquisition of such idle stockpiles whichcan only destroy and never create isnottheonly, much less the most efficient, means of assuring peace. I speak of peace, therefore, asthe necessary, rational end of rationalmen. I realize the pursuit of peace is not as dramatic asthe pursuit of war, and frequently the words of the pursuers fall on deaf ears. But we have nomore urgent task.Some say thatit is useless to speak of peace orworld law or world disarmament, and that itwill be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hopethey do. I believe we canhelp them doit. But Ialso believe that we must reexamine our ownattitudes, as individuals and as a Nation, for our attitude is as essential as theirs.And every graduate of this school, every thoughtfulcitizen who despairs of war and wishes tobring peace, should begin by looking inward, byexamining his own attitude towards thepossibilities of peace, towards the SovietUnion, towards the course of the cold war andtowards freedom and peace here athome.First examine our attitude towards peace itself. Too many of us think it is impossible.Toomany think itis unreal. Butthatis a dangerous, defeatistbelief. Itleads tothe conclusion thatwar is inevitable, that mankind is doomed,that we are gripped by forces we cannotcontrol.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page2AmericanRhetoric.comWe need not accept that view. Our problems are manmade. therefore,they can be solved byman. And mancan be as big as he wants. No problem of humandestiny is beyond humanbeings. Mans reason and spirithave oftensolved the seemingly unsolvable, and we believethey can doit again. I am notreferring tothe absolute,infinite concept of universal peace andgood will of which some fantasies and fanatics dream.I donot deny the value of hopes anddreams but we merely invite discouragement and incredulity by making that our only andimmediate goal.Letus focus instead on a more practical, more attainable peace, based not on a suddenrevolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in humaninstitutions ona series ofconcrete actions and effective agreements which are in the interest of all concerned. There isno single, simple key to this peace. no grand or magic formula to be adopted by one or twopowers. Genuine peace must be the product ofmany nations, the sum of many acts. It mustbe dynamic, notstatic, changing to meet the challenge of eachnewgeneration. For peace is aprocess away of solving problems.With such a peace,there will still be quarrels and conflicting interests, as there are withinfamilies and nations. World peace, like community peace, does not require that eachmanlovehis neighbor, it requires only thatthey live together in mutualtolerance, submitting theirdisputes to a just and peaceful settlement. And history teaches us that enmities betweennations, as betweenindividuals, donotlast forever. However fixed our likes and dislikes mayseem, the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations betweennations and neighbors. So let us persevere. Peace need not be impracticable, and war neednot be inevitable. By defining our goal more clearly, by making it seem more manageable andless remote, we canhelp all people to see it, todraw hope from it, and to move irresistiblytowards it.And second, let us reexamine our attitude towards the Soviet Union. Itis discouraging to thinkthattheir leaders may actually believe what their propagandists write.Itis discouraging to a recent, authoritative Soviet text on military strategy and find, on page after page,wholly baseless and incredible claims, such as the allegationthat American imperialist circlesare preparing to unleash differenttypes of war, thatthere is a very real threat of a preventivewar being unleashed by American imperialists againstthe SovietUnion, and thatthe politicalaims andI e ;of the Americanimperialists are to enslave economically and politicallythe European and other capitalist countries and to achieve world domination by means ofaggressive war.;Truly, as it was writtenlong ago: ;The wicked flee whennoman pursueth.;Yetitis sad to these Soviet statements, torealize the extent of the gulf betweenus. Butit is also a warning, a warning tothe American people notto fall into the same trap as theSoviets, not tosee only a distorted and desperate view of the other side, notto see conflict asinevitable, accommodation as impossible, and communication as nothing more than anexchange of threats.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page3AmericanRhetoric.comNo government or socialsystem is soevilthat its people must be considered as lacking invirtue. As Americans, we find communism profoundly repugnant as a negation of personalfreedom and dignity. But we canstillhailthe Russian people for their many achievements inscience and space, in economic and industrial growth, in culture, in acts of courage.Among the many traits the peoples of our two countries have in common, none is strongerthan our mutual abhorrence of war. Almostunique among the major world powers, we havenever been at war with each other. And nonationin the history of battle ever suffered morethanthe SovietUnion in the SecondWorld War.Atleast20 millionlost their lives. Countlessmillions of homes and families were burned or sacked.A third of the nations territory,including two thirds of its industrial base, was turned into a wasteland aloss equivalenttothe destruction of this country east of Chicago.Today, should total war ever break out again nomatter how ourtwo countries will be theprimary target. Itis an ironic but accurate fact that the two strongest powers are the two inthe most danger of devastation. All we have built, all we have worked for, would be destroyedin the first24 hours. And evenin the cold war,which brings burdens and dangers toso manycountries, including this Nations closest allies, our two countries bear the heaviest burdens.For we are both devoting massive sums of money to weapons that could be better devoted tocombat ignorance, poverty, and disease.We are both caughtup in a vicious and dangerouscycle, with suspicion on one side breeding suspicion on the other, and new weapons begettingcounterweapons.In short, both the ed States and its allies, and the SovietUnion and itsallies, have a mutually deep interest in a just and genuine peace and in halting the arms race.Agreements tothis end are in the interests of the Soviet Union as well as ours. And eventhemosthostile nations can be relied uponto accept and keep those treaty obligations, and onlythose treaty obligations, which are in their own interest.So letus not be blind to our differences, butletus also direct attentionto our commoninterests and the means by which those differences can be resolved. And if we cannot endnow our differences, atleast we can help makethe world safe for diversity. For in the finalanalysis, our most basic commonlink is that weallinhabit this small planet. We all breathethe same air. We all cherish our childrens futures. And we are all mortal.Third,let us reexamine our attitude towards the cold war, remembering were not engaged ina debate, seeking to pile up debating points. We are nothere distributing blame or pointingthe finger of judgment. We must deal with theworld as itis, and not as itmighthave beenhadthe history of the last18 years been different. We must, therefore, persevere in thesearch for peace in the hope that constructive changes withinthe Communist bloc might bringwithin reach solutions which nowseem beyond us. We must conduct our affairs in such a waythatit becomes in the Communists interest to agree on a genuine peace. And above all, whiledefending our own vitalinterests, nuclear powers must avert those confrontations which bringan adversary to a choice of either a humiliating retreat or a nuclear war. To adopt thatkind ofcourse in the nuclear age would be evidence only of the bankruptcy of our policy orof acollective deathwishfor the world.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page4AmericanRhetoric.comTo secure these ends,Americas weapons are nonprovocative, carefully controlled, designedto deter, and capable of selective use. Our military forces are committed to peace anddisciplined in selfrestraint.Our diplomats are instructed to avoid unnecessary irritants andpurely rhetorical hostility. For we can seek a relaxation of tensions without relaxing our guard.And,for our part, we do not need touse threats to prove we are resolute. We donotneed tojam foreign broadcasts out of fear our faith willbe eroded. We are unwilling toimpose oursystem on any unwilling people, but we are willing and able to engage in peacefulcompetitionwith any people on earth.Meanwhile, we seek tostrengthen the ed Nations, to help solve its financial problems, tomake it a more effective instrument for peace,to develop it into a genuine world securitysystem asystem capable of resolving disputes onthe basis of law, of insuring the securityof the large and the small, and of creating conditions under which arms canfinally beabolished.At the same time we seek tokeep peace inside the nonCommunistworld, wheremany nations, all of them our friends, are divided over issues which weakenWesternunity,whichinvite Communistintervention, or whichthreaten toerupt into war. Our efforts in WestNew Guinea,in the Congo, inthe Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, have beenpersistent and patient despite criticism from both sides. We have alsotried to set anexamplefor others, by seeking to adjust small but significant differences with our own closestneighbors in Mexico and Canada.Speaking of other nations, I wishto make one point clear.We are bound tomany nations byalliances. Those alliances exist because our concern and theirs substantially overlap. Ourcommitmentto defendWesternEurope and West Berlin, for example,stands undiminishedbecause of the identity of our vital interests. The ed States will make no deal withtheSovietUnion at the expense of other nations and other peoples, not merely because they areour partners, but also because their interests and ours converge.Our interests converge,however, not only in defending the frontiers of freedom, but in pursuing the paths of peace.Itis our hope, and the purpose of allied policy, to convince the SovietUnion that she,too,should let eachnation choose its ownfuture, solong as that choice does notinterfere with thechoices of others. The Communist drive toimpose their political and economic system onothers is the primary cause of world tensiontoday. For there can be no doubtthatif allnations could refrain from interfering in the selfdeterminationof others, the peace would bemuchmore assured.This will require a new effort to achieve world law, a new contextfor world discussions. It willrequire increased understanding betweenthe Soviets and ourselves. And increasedunderstanding will require increased contact and communication.One step in this directionis the proposed arrangementfor a direct line between Moscow andWashington, to avoid on each side the dangerous delays, misunderstandings, and misingsof others actions whichmight occur at a time of crisis.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page5AmericanRhetoric.comWe have also beentalking in Geneva about our firststepmeasures of arm[s] controlsdesigned tolimitthe intensity of the arms race and reduce the risk of accidental war. Ourprimary long range interest in Geneva,however, is general and complete disarmament,designed totake place by stages, permitting parallel politicaldevelopments to build the newinstitutions of peace which would take the placeof arms. The pursuit of disarmament hasbeen aneffort of this Government since the 1920s. Ithas beenurgently sought by the pastthree administrations. And however dim the prospects are today, we intend to continue thisefforttocontinue it in order that all countries, including our own, can better grasp what theproblems and possibilities of disarmament are.The only major area of these negotiations where the end is in sight, yet where a fresh start isbadly needed, is in a treaty to outlaw nuclear tests. The conclusion of such a treaty, sonearand yetso far, would check the spiraling arms race in one of its most dangerous areas. Itwould place the nuclear powers in a positiontodealmore effectively with one of the greatesthazards which manfaces in1963, the further sp of nuclear arms. It would increase oursecurity. it would decrease the prospects of war. Surely this goal is sufficiently importanttorequire our steady pursuit, yielding neither to the temptationto give up the whole effortnorthe temptationto give up our insistence on vital and responsible safeguards.Im taking this opportunity, therefore, to announce twoimportant decisions in this regard.First, Chairman Khrushchev, Prime Minister Macmillan, and I have agreed that highleveldiscussions will shortly begin in Moscowlooking towards early agreement on a comprehensivetest bantreaty. Our hope must be tempered Ourhopes must be tempered with the cautionof history. but with our hopes gothe hopes of all mankind. Second,tomake clear our goodfaith and solemn convictions on this matter, Inow declare thatthe ed States does notpropose toconduct nuclear tests in the atmosphere solong as other states donot do so. Wewillnot Wewillnot be the firstto resume. Such a declaration is no substitute for a formalbinding treaty, but Ihope it will help us achieve one. Nor would such a treaty be a substitutefor disarmament, but I hope it willhelp us achieve it.Finally, my fellow Americans, let us examine our attitude towards peace and freedom here athome. The quality and spirit of our ownsocietymust justify and support our efforts abroad.We must show it in the dedication of our ownlives asmany of you who are graduatingtoday willhave an opportunity to do, by serving without pay in the Peace Corps abroad or inthe proposed National Service Corps here athome. But wherever we are, we must all, in ourdaily lives, live up to the ageoldfaiththat peace and freedom walk together. Intoo many ofour cities today, the peace is not secure because freedom is incomplete. Itis the responsibilityof the executive branch at alllevels of governmentlocal,State, and National toprovideand protectthat freedom for all of our citizens by allmeans within our authority. Itis theresponsibility of the legislative branch at alllevels, wherever the authority is notnowadequate, tomake it adequate.And it is the responsibility of all citizens in all sections of thiscountry torespect the rights of others and respectthe law of the land.Transcription byMichaelE. Eidenmuller. Propertyof AmericanRhetoric.com. . Copyright 2006. All rights reserved.Page6AmericanRhetoric.comAll this Allthis is notunrelated to world peace. ;When a mans way[s] please the Lord,; theScriptures tellus, ;he maketh even his enemies to be at peace withhim.;And is not peace, inthe last analysis, basically a matter of human rights: the rightto live out our lives withoutfearof devastation. the rightto breathe air as nature provided it. the right of future generations toa healthy existence?While we proceed tosafeguard our nationalinterests, letus also safeguard humaninterests.And the elimination of war and arms is clearly in the interest of both. Notreaty, howevermuchit may be tothe advantage of all, however tightly it may be worded, can provideabsolute security againstthe risks of deceptionand evasion. Butitcan, if it is sufficientlyeffective inits enforcement, and itis sufficiently in the interests of its signers, offer far moresecurity and far fewer risks than an unabated,uncontrolled,unpredictable arms race.The ed States, as the world knows, willnever start a war. We do not want a war. We donotnow expect a war. This generation of Americans has aly had enoughmorethanenough ofwar and hate and oppression.We shall be prepared if others wish it. We shallbe alerttotry tostop it. But we shall also doour partto build a world of peace where the weak are safe and the strong are just. We are nothelpless before thattask or hopeless of its success. Confident and unafraid, we mustlabor onnottowards a strategy of annihilation but towards a strategy of peace. /201205/182138


  Thank you all. Thank you, Justice O'Connor. Laura and I are really happy to join you today. This state is known at the "Mother of Presidents," which reminds me, I needed to call my Mother today. (Laughter.) I wish all mothers around our country a happy Mother's Day. And if you haven't called your mother, you better start dialing here after this ceremony. (Applause.) We're honored to be in Jamestown on this historic day. We appreciate the opportunity to tour the beautiful grounds here. I would urge our fellow citizens to come here, see the fantastic history that's on display. I think you'll be amazed at how our country got started. And I want to thank all the good folks who are working to preserve the past for your hard work, and I appreciate the fact that you spent a lot of time educating our fellow citizens.Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America; it predated the Mayflower Compact by 13 years. (Applause.) This is a very proud state, and some people down here like to point out that the pilgrims ended up at Plymouth Rock by mistake. (Laughter.) They were looking for Virginia. (Laughter.) They just missed the sign. (Laughter.)As we celebrate the 400th anniversary of Jamestown to honor the beginnings of our democracy, it is a chance to renew our commitment to help others around the world realize the great blessings of liberty. And so Laura and I are proud to join you. Justice, it's good to see you. There's no finer American than Sandra Day O'Connor, and I'm proud to share the podium with her. (Applause.)We're also proud to be with Governor Tim Kaine and Anne Holton. I'm proud to call them friends, and I hope, Ms. Kaine, that the Governor recognized Mother's Day. Glad you're here. I want to thank Secretary Dirk Kempthorne of the Department of the Interior; Michael Griffin, the administrator of NASA; members of the ed States Congress; members of the statehouse, including the Lieutenant Governor. I appreciate the Attorney General being here. I thank the Speaker for joining us. Most of all, thank you for coming.I thank the members of the Jamestown 400th Commemoration Commission. Those are all the good folks who worked hard to get this celebration in order. I appreciate the members of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Laura and I saw members of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities digging in dirt. (Laughter.) It just so happened we wandered up, and they found some artifacts. (Laughter.) I appreciate members of the Jamestown 2007 Steering Committee.The story of Jamestown will always have a special place in American history. It's the story of a great migration from the Old World to the New. It is a story of hardship overcome by resolve. It's a story of the Tidewater settlement that laid the foundation of our great democracy.That story began on a dock near London in December of 1606. More than a hundred English colonists set sail for a new life across the ocean in Virginia. They had dreams of paradise that were sustained during their long months at sea by their strong spirit. And then they got here, and a far different reality awaited them.On May 13, 1607, 400 years today, they docked their ships on a marshy riverbank. Being loyal subjects, they named the site after their King, and that's how Jamestown was born. Today we celebrate that moment as a great milestone in our history, yet the colonists who experienced those first years had little reason to celebrate.Their search for gold soon gave way to a desperate search for food. An uneasy peace with the Native Americans broke into open hostilities. The hope for a better life turned into a longing for the comforts of home. One settler wrote, "There were never Englishmen left in a foreign country in such misery as we were in the new discovered Virginia."Looking back, 400 years later, it is easy to forget how close Jamestown came to failure. The low point came after the terrible winter of 1610. The survivors boarded their ships. They were prepared to abandon the settlement, and only the last minute arrival of new settlers and new provisions saved Jamestown. Back in London, one court official summed up the situation this way: "This is an unlucky beginning. I pray God the end may prove happier."Well, the prayers were answered. Jamestown survived. It became a testament to the power of perseverance and determination. Despite many dangers, more ships full of new settlers continued to set out for Jamestown. As the colony grew, the settlers ventured beyond the walls of their three-sided fort, and formed a thriving community. Their industry and hard work transformed Jamestown from a distant English outpost into an important center for trade. And during those early years, the colonists also planted the seeds of American democracy, at a time when democratic institutions were rare. On their first night at Jamestown, six of the leading colonists held the first presidential election in American history. And you might be surprised to know that the winner was not named George. (Laughter.) A matter of fact, his name was Edward Wingfield. I call him Eddie W. (Laughter and applause.)From these humble beginnings, the pillars of a free society began to take hold. Private property rights encouraged ownership and free enterprise. The rule of law helped secure the rights of individuals. The creation of America's first representative assembly ensured the consent of the people and gave Virginians a voice in their government. It was said at the time that the purpose of these reforms was, "to lay a foundation whereon a flourishing state might, in time, by the blessing of Almighty God, be raised."Not all people shared in these blessings. The expansion of Jamestown came at a terrible cost to the native tribes of the region, who lost their lands and their way of life. And for many Africans, the journey to Virginia represented the beginnings of a life of hard labor and bondage. Their story is a part of the story of Jamestown. It reminds us that the work of American democracy is to constantly renew and to extend the blessings of liberty.That work has continued throughout our history. In the 18th century our founding fathers declared our independence, and dedicated America to the principle that all men are created equal. In the 19th century our nation fought a terrible civil war over the meaning of those famous words, and renewed our founding promise. In the 20th century Americans defended our democratic ideals against totalitarian ideologies abroad, while working to ensure we lived up to our ideals here at home. As we begin the 21st century, we look back on our history with pride, and rededicate ourselves to the cause of liberty. (Applause.)Today democratic institutions are taking root in places where liberty was unimaginable not long ago. At the start of the 1980s, there were only 45 democracies on Earth. There are now more than 120 democracies, and more people now live in freedom than ever before. (Applause.)America is proud to promote the expansion of democracy, and we must continue to stand with all those struggling to claim their freedom. The advance of freedom is the great story of our time, and new chapters are being written every day, from Georgia and Ukraine, to Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon, to Afghanistan and Iraq. From our own history, we know the path to democracy is long, and it's hard. There are many challenges, and there are setbacks along the way. Yet we can have confidence in the outcome, because we've seen freedom's power to transform societies before.In World War II, we fought Germany on battlefields across Europe, and today a democratic Germany is one of our strongest partners on the Continent. And in the Pacific, we fought a bloody war with Japan. And now our alliance with a democratic Japan is the linchpin for freedom and security in the Far East. These democracies have taken different forms that reflect different cultures and traditions. But our friendship with them reminds us that liberty is the path to lasting peace, and that democracies are natural allies for the ed States.Today we have no closer ally than the nation we once fought for our own independence. Britain and America are united by our democratic heritage, and by the history that began at this settlement 400 years ago. Last month some of the greatest legal minds in Britain and America, including Justice O'Connor and Chief Justice John Roberts, came to Jamestown to lay a plaque commemorating our shared respect for the rule of law and our deeply held belief in individual liberty.Over the years, these values have defined our two countries. Yet they are more than just American values and British values, or Western values. They are universal values that come from a power greater than any man or any country. (Applause.) These values took root at Jamestown four centuries ago. They have flourished across our land, and one day they will flourish in every land.May God bless you, and may God bless America. (Applause.) 200705/13232。

  [Nextpage视频演讲] President Obama holds a discussion on the economy with local families in the backyard of the Weithman family in Columbus, OH.Download mp4 (559MB) | mp3 (54MB) [Nextpage文本]THE PRESIDENT: Well, I am -- I'm just thrilled to be here. And I want to thank Joe and Rhonda and the entire family for being such great hosts. And I want to thank all of you for taking the time to be here. I see the mayor of Columbus is here, a great friend. Somebody who’s going to be running and I hope winning for the U.S. Senate, Lee Fisher is here. And Mary Jo Kilroy is here. We've got one of the best senators I believe in the ed States Senate in Sherrod Brown -- is here. And one of the finest governors in the country, Ted Strickland, is here. So give those folks a big round of applause. (Applause.) Should we tell them to take off their jackets, too? (Laughter.) Take off your jackets, guys. Lighten up a little bit. Sheesh! (Laughter.) This is just a great opportunity for me to have a conversation with you. And I don't want this to be too formal. What I want to do is have a chance to listen to you and also answer your questions. What we've tried to do whenever we are in a setting like this is to talk about the things that folks are going through day to day -- because, look, I'll be honest with you, sometimes when you're in Washington you get caught up with the particular legislative battles or the media spin on certain issues, and sometimes you lose touch in terms of what folks are talking about around the kitchen table.One of the ways that I stay in touch is through events like this, as well as ing letters from constituents and voters all across the country every night. And obviously what’s on a lot of people’s minds right now is the economy. We went through the worst recession that we've had since the Great Depression. And when I was sworn in about 18 months ago, we had aly lost several million jobs and we were about to lose several million more. We lost 800,000 jobs the month I was sworn in. And so we had to act fast and take some emergency steps to prevent the economy from going back into what could have been a Great Depression. And we were successful in doing so. We stabilized the economy; we stabilized the financial system. We didn’t have a complete meltdown. And whereas we were losing jobs in the private sector when I was first sworn in, we're now gaining jobs, and we've gained jobs seven consecutive months in the private sector. The economy was shrinking about 6 percent; the economy is now growing. So we've made progress. But let’s face it, the progress hasn’t been fast enough. And Joe, Rhonda and I were just talking about the challenges that they’ve had to go through when Rhonda got laid off -- and, by the way, also lost her health insurance in the process, at a time when her son was going through some significant medical needs. So, in addition to trying to stop the crisis, what we also wanted to do was make sure that we were helping people get back on their feet. So something that I'm very pleased with is that Rhonda was able to use the provisions that we passed to help her get COBRA so that she had health insurance, could keep her health insurance, at a time when the family was very much in need. And millions of people across the country have been able to keep their health insurance.文本下载[Nextpage相关报道]【相关中文报道】据美国媒体报道,根据美联社和消费调研公司联合进行的民意调查显示,奥巴马的经济政策持率降至新低,同时调查发现,大多数美国人看淡美国的经济前景。  现在距离今年11月2日美国国会中期选举还有11周,选民的持率可能会大大影响奥巴马的成绩。  此次调查显示,仅有41%的受调查者认同奥巴马的经济政策,这个数字比4月份的44%降低了3个百分点,另外有56%对奥巴马的表现持否定态度。在受调查者中,有61%认为美国经济在下滑或者止步不前。  不过,有3/4的人表示,在新总统上任18个月内,看到经济显著回升是不现实的。同时,奥巴马的综合表现并没有受到经济问题的影响,其综合持率仍保持在49%,部分原因是因为大多数美国人从个人角度对奥巴马仍有好感。 (本段文字来源:中新网)201008/111762

  [Nextpage视频演讲] The President speaks to the press after meeting with Congressional leaders from both parties and discussing a number of issues including support for small business, energy and climate reform, and the release of documents related to the war in Afghanistan.Download mp4 (62MB) | mp3 (6MB) [Nextpage文本] THE PRESIDENT: Good afternoon, everybody. I just concluded a productive discussion with the leaders of both parties in Congress. This was one of a series of regular meetings that I called for in the State of the Union because I think it’s important for us to come together and speak frankly about the challenges we face and to work through areas where we don’t agree; hopefully find some areas where we do.Our conversation today focused on an issue that’s being discussed every day at kitchen tables across this country -- and that’s how do we create jobs that people need to support their families. I believe that starts with doing everything we can to support small businesses. These are the stores, the restaurants, the start-ups and other companies that create two out of every three new jobs in this country -- and that grow into the big businesses that transform industries, here in America and around the world. But we know that many of these businesses still can’t get the loans and the capital they need to keep their doors open and hire new workers. That’s why we’ve proposed steps to get them that help -- eliminating capital gains taxes on investments, making it easier for small lenders to support small businesses, expanding successful SBA programs to help these businesses access the capital that they need. This is how we create jobs -- by investing in the innovators and entrepreneurs that have always driven our prosperity. These are the kind of common-sense steps that folks from both parties have supported in the past -- steps to cut taxes and spur private sector growth and investment. And I hope that in the coming days, we’ll once again find common ground and get this legislation passed. We shouldn’t let America’s small businesses be held hostage to partisan politics -- and certainly not at this critical time.We also talked about the need to move forward on energy reform. The Senate is now poised to act before the August recess, advancing legislation to respond to the BP oil spill and create new clean energy jobs. That legislation is an important step in the right direction. But I want to emphasize it’s only the first step. And I intend to keep pushing for broader reform, including climate legislation, because if we’ve learned anything from the tragedy in the Gulf, it’s that our current energy policy is unsustainable. And we can’t afford to stand by as our dependence on foreign oil deepens, as we keep on pumping out the deadly pollutants that threaten our air and our water and the lives and livelihoods of our people. And we can’t stand by as we let China race ahead to create the clean energy jobs and industries of the future. We should be developing those renewable energy sources, and creating those high-wage, high-skill jobs right here in the ed States of America. That’s what comprehensive energy and climate reform would do. And that’s why I intend to keep pushing this issue forward.I also urged the House leaders to pass the necessary funding to support our efforts in Afghanistan and Pakistan. I know much has been written about this in recent days as a result of the substantial leak of documents from Afghanistan covering a period from 2004 to .While I’m concerned about the disclosure of sensitive information from the battlefield that could potentially jeopardize individuals or operations, the fact is these documents don’t reveal any issues that haven’t aly informed our public debate on Afghanistan; indeed, they point to the same challenges that led me to conduct an extensive review of our policy last fall.So let me underscore what I’ve said many times: For seven years, we failed to implement a strategy adequate to the challenge in this region, the region from which the 9/11 attacks were waged and other attacks against the ed States and our friends and allies have been planned. That’s why we’ve substantially increased our commitment there, insisted upon greater accountability from our partners in Afghanistan and Pakistan, developed a new strategy that can work, and put in place a team, including one of our finest generals, to execute that plan. Now we have to see that strategy through. And as I told the leaders, I hope the House will act today to join the Senate, which voted unanimously in favor of this funding, to ensure that our troops have the resources they need and that we’re able to do what’s necessary for our national security.Finally, during our meeting today, I urged Senator McConnell and others in the Senate to work with us to fill the vacancies that continue to plague our judiciary. Right now, we’ve got nominees who’ve been waiting up to eight months to be confirmed as judges. Most of these folks were voted out of committee unanimously, or nearly unanimously, by both Democrats and Republicans. Both Democrats and Republicans agreed that they were qualified to serve. Nevertheless, some in the minority have used parliamentary procedures time and again to deny them a vote in the full Senate. If we want our judicial system to work -- if we want to deliver justice in our courts -- then we need judges on our benches. And I hope that in the coming months, we’ll be able to work together to ensure a timelier process in the Senate. Now, we don’t have many days left before Congress is out for the year. And everyone understands that we’re less than 100 days from an election. It’s during this time that the noise and the chatter about who’s up in the polls and which party is ahead threatens to drown out just about everything else. But the folks we serve -- who sent us here to serve, they sent us here for a reason. They sent us here to listen to their voices. They sent us here to represent their interests -- not our own. They sent us here to lead. And I hope that in the coming months, we’ll do everything in our power to live up to that responsibility. Thanks very much.END 12:37 P.M. EDT[Nextpage相关报道] 【相关中文报道】美国总统奥巴马27日首度公开回应阿富汗战争机密情报外泄事件,声称被放到网上的军方文件了无新意,但默认外泄文件所描述的阿战乱象的确存在。  奥巴马当天会晤美国两党议员代表,随后在白宫玫瑰园发表讲话。他称担心事件泄露出的敏感信息可能危及阿富汗作战人员及行动,但又指外泄文件所涉话题了无新意,因为早前均已向公众通报。  7月25日,专门揭弊的“维基解密”网站(Wikileaks)将9万多份美国阿富汗战争机密文件公之于众。这些文件详尽描述了近6年阿富汗战争情况,其中包括美军及北约盟军滥杀无辜、巴基斯坦情报部门与塔利班暗中勾结等诸多不为人知的内容。  奥巴马在讲话中默认上述阿战乱象的确存在,表示正是因为这些挑战,“我才在去年秋天对阿富汗战争策略进行了大规模审议”。   他同时强调,过去7年,美国推行的阿战策略未能应对该地区面临的挑战,暗示外泄文件言及的阿富汗混乱战况应归咎于前任总统小布什。迄今“维基解密”网站公布的文件自2004年1月起,止于年12月,基本属于小布什执政时间。  年12月,奥巴马公布阿富汗战争新战略,决定增兵3万,让阿富汗和巴基斯坦承担更多责任,并计划2011年中期开始撤军。在27日的讲话中,奥巴马重申上述内容,并称政府已派出美国最好的将领之一(即现任驻阿富汗美军司令彼得雷乌斯)执行这些计划。  在阿富汗战争情报被泄露后,奥巴马政府上下一直在忙于“灭火”。26日,白宫、国务院、五角大楼同声谴责“维基解密”网站的做法系犯罪行为,并且几乎口径一致地宣称外泄文件属于过时或低级别文件。 (本段文字来源:中新社)201007/110023

  You might never fail on the scale I did, but some failure in life is inevitable. It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all–in which case, you fail by default.Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above rubies.The knowledge that you have emerged wiser and stronger from setbacks means that you are, ever after, secure in your ability to survive. You will never truly know yourself, or the strength of your relationships, until both have been tested by adversity. Such knowledge is a true gift, for all that it is painfully won, and it has been worth more to me than any qualification I ever earned.Given a time machine or a Time Turner, I would tell my 21-year-old self that personal happiness lies in knowing that life is not a check-list of acquisition or achievement. Your qualifications, your CV, are not your life, though you will meet many people of my age and older who confuse the two. Life is difficult, and complicated, and beyond anyone's total control, and the humility to know that will enable you to survive its vicissitudes.You might think that I chose my second theme, the importance of imagination, because of the part it played in rebuilding my life, but that is not wholly so. Though I will defend the value of bedtime stories to my last gasp, I have learned to value imagination in a much broader sense. Imagination is not only the uniquely human capacity to envision that which is not, and therefore the fount of all invention and innovation. In its arguably most transformative and revelatory capacity, it is the power that enables us to empathize with humans whose experiences we have never shared.One of the greatest formative experiences of my life preceded Harry Potter, though it informed much of what I subsequently wrote in those books. This revelation came in the form of one of my earliest day jobs. Though I was sloping off to write stories during my lunch hours, I paid the rent in my early 20s by working in the research department at Amnesty International's headquarters in London.There in my little office I hastily scribbled letters smuggled out of totalitarian regimes by men and women who were risking imprisonment to inform the outside world of what was happening to them. I saw photographs of those who had disappeared without trace, sent to Amnesty by their desperate families and friends. I the testimony of torture victims and saw pictures of their injuries. I opened handwritten, eye-witness accounts of summary trials and executions, of kidnappings and rapes.07/79497

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