明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月13日 07:39:59
Using public toilets in China can often be a challenging undertaking, particularly for those not practiced in the art of squatting. But researchers in China have come up with a new technology that they say can help eliminate one of the most noxious of problems to plague China’s public lavatories: the overpowering stench.在中国,使用公共厕所往往是一件颇具挑战性的事情,对那些不能熟练深蹲的人而言尤其如此。但中国的研究人员发明了一项新技术,称这项技术能帮助消除困扰中国公厕的最严重的问题之一:刺鼻的臭味。Unlike chemical solutions, which are expensive and can be harmful to the environment, the new biotreatment is being touted as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective way to resolve up to 75 percent of the odors in bathrooms, according to researchers with the Chinese Academy of Sciences.不同于昂贵且可能危及环境的化学手段,这个新的生物处理办法被称为一种环保、经济的方式,中国科学院的研究人员称,这个办法能分解高达75%的公厕臭气。The science behind the treatment lies in a special mixture of two types of bacteria — lactobacillius sp and streptococcus thermopiles — as well as the essence of tangerines. The prepared mixture, which comes in liquid or powder form, feeds on human waste when applied, thereby precluding the growth of aroma-making bacteria.这一处理办法背后的技术原理涉及一种特殊的混合物,该混合物由两类细菌——乳杆菌类细菌和嗜热链球菌——和橘子香精组成。事先备好的这种混合物呈液体或粉末状,使用时会分解人类排泄物,从而防止长出会产生气味的细菌。Not yet available in supermarkets, the odor-killing technology is still undergoing testing, said Yan Zhiying, a bacteriologist at the Chengdu Institute of Biology and the lead researcher on the project.成都生物研究所的细菌学家、该项目的首席研究员闫志英表示,这种除味技术目前还处在测试阶段,尚未向市场推出。Large-scale experiments with the solution are being planned in the Huanglong Nature Preserve and Jiuzhaigou National Park, both popular tourist destinations in Sichuan Province.相关人员正计划在四川的黄龙自然保护区和九寨沟景区对该方案进行大规模试验,这两个地方都是热门的旅游景点。The technology is especially suited for use in the nonflushing toilets often found in these types of nature preserves, Mr. Yan said, since water regulations in these areas are often very strict and plumbing is difficult to install.闫志英表示,该技术尤其适用于非冲水式厕所。自然保护区经常会出现这种厕所,因为那些地区的用水规定往往非常严格,并且很难安装管道系统。Mr. Yan added that portable bathrooms, while convenient, are relatively expensive to maintain compared with the biosolution.闫志英接着说,便携厕所虽然方便,但和这个生物处理办法比,保养费用相对昂贵。“This way tourists can see that not only are your mountains nice, but the toilets and the other facilities at the site are pleasant as well,” said Mr. Yan, who said that the technology has other applications as well, such as the treatment of landfills.“通过这个办法,游客会发现,不仅你这里的山美,景区的厕所和其他设施也很好,”闫志英说。他表示,该技术还有其他用途,比如应用于垃圾填埋场。If claims to its effectiveness prove true, the technology is likely to be embraced by the Chinese health authorities. In February 2013, the Ministry of Health issued a draft regulation setting standards for public toilets. The regulations, which prompted much snickering from the public, included guidelines on the number of flies allowed per square meter and the level of odor permissible in certain types of bathrooms.如果事实明,关于其有效性的说法是真的,该技术可能会被中国卫生机构全面采纳。2013年2月,卫生部公布了一份关于公共厕所制定标准的草案。引来许多民众偷笑的相关规定标明了每平米允许的苍蝇数量,以及特定类型厕所允许的臭味水平等具体标准。On a scale of one to four for strength of odor, four being the strongest, free-standing bathrooms must be less than two — or only “slightly smelly” — while public bathrooms must be less than one and have “no odor,” the regulations said.在臭味强度的4个等级中,4级是臭味最强的。相关规定称,独立式公厕臭味强度必须小于等于2级——即只能“微有臭味”——而附属式公厕臭味强度必须为1级,即“无臭味”。 /201407/310816

The developers in the audience at WWDC may have missed the significance of the attention Apple AAPL 1.41% paid Monday to Spotlight — the little magnifying glass on the top right hand corner of the Mac’s home screen — but Ad Age didn’t.周一召开的苹果全球开发者大会(WWDC)上,开发者们可能忽略了苹果对于Spotlight的重视程度,但行业资讯网站广告时代Ad Age却注意到了这一点。Spotlight是Mac电脑主屏幕右上角的一个小放大镜图标。When it was released in 2005, Spotlight was simply a quick and convenient way to search the contents of your local hard drive — to locate a document, say, or a lost e-mail. It’s been quietly gathering power with each new iteration: doubling as a calculator or a dictionary and offering Boolean (and/or) searches.苹果2005年就推出了Spotlight,最初只是一种搜索本地硬盘内容的便捷方式——比如查找文件或丢失的邮件等。而它每一次改版,都伴随着功能的不断增强:如今的Spotlight既可用作计算器或词典,也可提供布尔(和/或)搜索。But in OS X Yosemite, the new Mac operating system unveiled Monday, Spotlight comes front and center — literally. When you tap on the magnifying glass, a search window pops up in the middle of the screen. And when you type a few characters, it doesn’t just search your local computer, it searches the Internet as well, delivering maps, Wikipedia articles and Web results stripped of their ads. Repeat: Stripped of their ads.而在周一发布的最新Mac操作系统OS X Yosemite中,Spotlight被推到了台前的中心位置——至少从形式上看确实是这样。点击放大镜后,屏幕中央会弹出一个搜索窗口。输入文字之后,Spotlight不仅会搜索本地计算机,还会进行互联网搜索,提供地图、维基百科(Wikipedia)文章和去除广告后的网页搜索结果。注意:是去除广告后的搜索结果。Microsoft MSFT -1.23% is delighted that Apple is using its Bing service to search the Web. “Last year Bing became the default web search for Siri, and will now also be the default web search provider in the redesigned Spotlight search feature for the next generation of iOS and OS X,” a Microsoft spokesperson told Ad Age. “We’re excited about extending the Bing platform to help iOS and Mac customers find what they need to get things done.”微软(Microsoft)很高兴看到苹果利用必应(Bing)提供网页搜索务。一位微软发言人告诉Ad Age:“去年,必应成为语音助手Siri的默认网页搜索引擎;而在新一代iOS与OS X中,必应将作为改版后的Spotlight搜索务的默认网页搜索务提供商。能够扩展必应平台,帮助iOS与Mac用户查找他们需要的信息,我们感到非常兴奋。”Google GOOG -1.62% will not be so happy. Advertising — especially U.S. search advertising — pays for nearly everything Google does, from building driverless cars to wiring whole cities with fiber optics. According to eMarketer estimates, Google took in 70.8% of the .92 billion spent on U.S. search advertising last year.但谷歌(Google)恐怕不会开心。从设计无人驾驶汽车,到建设光纤城市,谷歌每一个项目的资金,几乎都来自广告业务,尤其是美国搜索广告业务。据市场调查公司eMarketer估计,美国去年的搜索引擎广告开为199.2亿美元,其中约70.8%被谷歌收入囊中。If Apple hopes to disrupt Google by giving the information away for free, it’s got its work cut out for it. As Ad Age poins out:苹果如果希望通过免费提供信息来扰乱谷歌的运营,那它还有很长一段路要走。正如Ad Age指出:“Apple’s search tool shows only a few results per query, meaning a lot less real estate for results. That means Apple would have to prove that its small number of results are accurate enough to fulfill someone’s query. Good-enough search has never been enough to unseat or take share from Google.”“苹果搜索工具每次查询只显示很少的几个结果。。这意味着,苹果必须明,它寥寥可数的搜索结果就已经足够准确,可以满足用户的查询需求。一款搜索引擎如果只是足够好,那它不足以撼动谷歌的地位,也不足以抢占谷歌的份额。” /201406/303473



  Another week, another regulatory battle for Uber, the Silicon Valley private car hire network with a German name. This time it is in Germany, where a Frankfurt court has banned its Uber Pop“ride-sharing” service that introduces passengers to unlicensed drivers through a smartphone app.又一起监管争斗,焦点是Uber这个起了德语名的硅谷私营拼车网络。法兰克福一家法庭禁止了其Uber Pop“拼车”务——该务通过一款智能手机应用,为没有出租车牌照的车主招揽乘客。In a narrow sense, the court is right. Not only is Uber breaking German law but the country is correct to demand that a company that operates what is blatantly a private hire business is appropriately licensed and regulated. Pretending that Uber Pop is part of the “sharing economy” and should be allowed to skirt the rules is neither fair to taxi-drivers nor sound policy.从狭义角度看,法庭是正确的。不但Uber违反了德国法律,而且德国要求一家经营私人租车业务的公司通过正当途径获得执照并接受监管,是正确的。以Uber Pop是“分享经济”的一部分为由绕过规则,不仅对出租车司机不公平,也不是稳妥的政策。In the broad sense, however, Uber is right. If what the state of California now calls a Transportation Network Company – a technology platform such as Uber and Lyft that expands the market for minicabs and private hire – is prevented from operating on a commercial basis, it is bad for consumers. The potential benefits of innovation are lost.然而,从广义角度看,Uber又是正确的。如果加利福尼亚州目前所称的交通网络公司(Transportation Network Company)——如Uber和Lyft这样的扩大了电话预约出租车和私车出租市场的技术平台——被禁止商业运营,那对消费者是不利的。创新的潜在收益会被浪费掉。Germany is a good test of the skirmishes in which Uber is engaged around the US and Europe. Its regulations – although they involve some very long words, such as Personenbef#246;rderungsschein, the licence for taxi drivers – have served consumers fairly well. Most cities have plenty of Mercedes taxis, which are both comfier and cheaper than London cabs.德国是Uber在美欧各地卷入的遭遇战的一块良好试金石。德国的法规——尽管有些使用了Personenbef#246;rderungsschein这样特别长的名字——迄今为消费者起到了相当好的作用。大多数城市拥有足量的梅赛德斯(Mercedes)出租车,与伦敦出租车相比,不但更舒适,而且更便宜。It is also a world leader in actual, as opposed to rhetorical, ride-sharing. There are lots of carpooling agencies, including Carpooling.com, that co-ordinate travel as a mutual service. Drivers share the fuel costs with passengers on long-distance rides, without profiting.德国也是事实上的——并非口头上的——拼车市场世界领袖。德国拥有Carpooling.com等大量拼车机构,可以协调出行,提供一种共享务。车主与远程搭载乘客共担燃料费用,并非为了盈利。As in many other countries, however, the city regulations are tilted in favour of the co-operatives that operate the bulk of taxi services. German private hire operators have little freedom of manoeuvre – they face restrictions including having to operate from registered offices to which all the cars must return between rides – and most people use taxis.不过,就像其他许多国家一样,城市法规仍向运营大部分出租车务的联营机构倾斜。德国私车出租运营商基本没有回旋空间——他们受到各种限制,包括必须通过注册办公室运营,所有车辆在结束一次务后,必须返回经营地点,才能启动下一次务——大多数人都使用出租车。Uber obeys the private hire rules for its Uber Black limousine service – both drivers and cars are licensed and commercially insured – while defying them for Uber Pop, its basic service. Uber Pop drivers use their own vehicles and are not officially licensed, although the company carries out criminal record checks and says they are fully insured.Uber旗下的Uber Black豪华轿车务遵守私车出租规则,司机和车辆都已取得执照并已参加商业保险,而其基本务Uber Pop没有遵守规则。Uber Pop司机使用的是私车,也没有获得商业执照,尽管该公司进行犯罪记录核查,并称司机们有完善的保险。The company has adopted its usual approach in awkward markets – if it comes up against a regulatory barrier, it ignores it and hopes to gain popular backing for a change in the rules. In London, transport authorities have allowed Uber to operate despite protests from taxi drivers that its app is an illegal taximeter.Uber在难缠的市场采取了其惯常手法——如果遭遇监管障碍,就不予理会,寄望获得公众持以改变规则。在伦敦,交通当局已放行Uber展开运营,尽管出租车司机抗议称,Uber的应用是一种非法计程表。The company, which raised .2bn in funding from backers including Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins at a bn valuation in June, is in a hurry to establish its network before Lyft and other rivals. Treating legal challenges as a cost of doing business is characteristic of its aggression – it is also poaching drivers from Lyft in the US.今年6月,Uber从Google Ventures和Kleiner Perkins等资金后台筹得12亿美元,使其估值达到170亿美元。Uber急于抢在Lyft等竞争对手之前建立自己的网络。把法律挑战视为一种经营成本,是Uber咄咄逼人特点的体现;它在美国正试图吸引Lyft的司机跳槽。Taxi Deutschland, the consortium of taxi operators that brought the Frankfurt case, accuses Uber of “[wrapping] itself in a start-up look and selling itself as a new economy saviour” while hurting the public good. It is not alone in being sceptical – Berlin’s DIW research institute argued recently that the taxi market should not be subjected to “full deregulation”.出租车运营商联盟Taxi Deutschland在法兰克福法庭对Uber提起了诉讼,指责Uber“把自己‘装扮成’一家初创企业,以新经济救世主的身份进行自我推销”,同时损害了公共利益。不仅该联盟产生怀疑,柏林的德国经济研究所(DIW)不久前也声称,出租车市场不应“完全放开管制”。Regulation of taxis clearly has benefits – people climb into taxis and private hire cars without knowing who the driver is or how safe the vehicle is, and they need some safeguards. They also benefit from official taxis being required to take a passenger to any destination, based on a clear fare structure.对出租车实施监管显然有很多好处——人们钻进出租车和私租汽车时,不知司机是谁,也不知车辆是否安全,他们需要一些安全保障。官方许可的出租车必须按乘客要求前往任何地点,收费结构清清楚楚,乘客从中受益。It makes sense to give taxis privileges, such as the right to be hailed in the street, to compensate for being tightly regulated (and not, for example, applying “surge pricing” at times of scarcity, as Uber does). It would be short-sighted to permit a free-for-all private hire, or unfettered amateur ride-sharing, and put taxis out of business.对出租车给予特权是合情合理的(比如有权在街头接纳招手打车的乘客),这些特权是对受到严密监管的补偿(比如说,他们不能像Uber那样,在供应紧缺时段实行“峰时价格”)。放行所有私车出租,或任由业余司机提供拼车务,从而把出租车赶出市场,将是短视做法。The problem, however, is not that taxis are endangered, but the opposite – they are overly protected. “The private for-hire market is very extremely locked down in many cities,” says Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty, the head of Uber in western Europe. Two legislative efforts to liberalise private hire in Germany have failed amid taxi opposition.但问题不是出租车被置于危险之中,而是相反,它们受到了过度保护。Uber西欧业务主管皮埃尔-迪米特里#8226;戈尔-柯提(Pierre-Dimitri Gore-Coty)表示,“在很多城市,私车出租市场非常受限。”在德国,由于出租车行业的反对,两次放开私车出租市场的立法努力以失败告终。As a result, the bulk of the market in many cities is taken by taxis, with a slice of private hire operators at the top and bottom. These provide executive limousines for companies and radio cabs for people who do not want to pay the taxi fare. Taxis face very weak competition in the middle – well-trained and courteous drivers in smart, clean cars.其结果是,许多城市的大部分市场份额由出租车占据,私车出租运营商仅在顶层和底层市场占据很小份额。后者向企业提供高管豪车,向不想付打车费的人提供电话预约的出租车。在中层市场,受过良好培训、彬彬有礼的司机开着整洁的出租车,他们面临的竞争非常弱。Where Uber and others have been allowed to enter in a regulated way – Uber drivers in London must hold a commercial licence and insurance – they have helped to expand it. There are more cars for hire in London and the quality has risen. Minicabs used to be battered and smelly bangers; many are now BMWs.在Uber等公司获准以受监管方式进入的地方——Uber司机在伦敦必须持有商业牌照和保险——这些公司帮助扩大了市场。伦敦有了更多轿车可供出租,务质量也得到了提升。过去的电话预约出租车是破旧不堪、味道难闻的老爷车;如今许多都换成了宝马(BMW)。There is starting to be a similar effect in France, where the number of limousine companies has grown rapidly as a result of new entrants being allowed. It is better for cities to reap the advantages of new technology than try to ignore it, and provoke an outbreak of illegal ride-sharing by outsiders.法国也开始出现类似效果,由于新公司获准进入,豪车出租公司的数量大幅增加。城市最好利用新科技的优势,而不是努力忽视它,导致不受监管的非法拼车现象大量涌现。As Germany has found, Uber is not only willing to become a ride-sharing outlaw, but the resulting publicity serves it well. Infuriating, aggressive and American it may be; it is still worth learning from.正如德国所发现的,Uber不但愿意在拼车领域打法律的擦边球,而且随之而来的宣传效果对它很有利。尽管Uber可能令人抓狂、咄咄逼人且具有美国人的做派,但它仍有值得借鉴的地方。 /201410/333773

  Frank Nuovo, the former chief designer at Nokia Corp., NOK +2.37% gave presentations more than a decade ago to wireless carriers and investors that divined the future of the mobile Internet. 十多年前,原诺基亚(Nokia Corp.)首席设计师诺沃(Frank Nuovo)向无线运营商和投资者做报告,猜想移动互联网的未来。 More than seven years before Apple Inc. AAPL -0.11% rolled out the iPhone, the Nokia team showed a phone with a color touch screen set above a single button. The device was shown locating a restaurant, playing a racing game and ordering lipstick. In the late 1990s, Nokia secretly developed another alluring product: a tablet computer with a wireless connection and touch screen-all features today of the hot-selling Apple iPad. 在苹果(Apple Inc.)推出iPhone七年多之前,诺基亚团队就演示了一款拥有色触屏、屏幕下方有一个单独按键的手机。演示中,这款手机能够定位餐馆、玩赛车游戏,还可以订购唇膏。20世纪90年代晚期,诺基亚秘密开发出另一款诱人的产品。那是一款平板电脑,有无线连接功能,配备了触摸屏,这些都是苹果热销产品iPad今天拥有的特色与功能。 #39;Oh my God,#39; Mr. Nuovo says as he clicks through his old slides. #39;We had it completely nailed.#39; 诺沃一边浏览着他昔日的幻灯片,一边说:天哪,我们完全抓住了要害。 Consumers never saw either device. The gadgets were casualties of a corporate culture that lavished funds on research but squandered opportunities to bring the innovations it produced to market. 消费者从未看到这两款产品。诺基亚斥巨资用于研发,却浪费了把创新引入市场的机会。上述两款产品正是这种企业文化的牺牲品。 Nokia led the wireless revolution in the 1990s and set its sights on ushering the world into the era of smartphones. Now that the smartphone era has arrived, the company is racing to roll out competitive products as its stock price collapses and thousands of employees lose their jobs. 诺基亚在90年代引领了无线革命,并下定决心要把世界带进智能手机时代。现在智能手机时代已经到来,诺基亚却还在为推出有竞争力的产品而忙得不亦乐乎,而此时该公司的股价已大幅下跌,成千上万的员工丢掉了饭碗。 This year, Nokia ended a 14-year-run as the world#39;s largest maker of mobile phones, as rival Samsung Electronics Co. 005930.SE -1.20% took the top spot and makers of cheaper phones ate into Nokia#39;s sales volumes. Nokia#39;s share of mobile phone sales fell to 21% in the first quarter from 27% a year earlier, according to market data from IDC. Its share peaked at 40.4% at the end of 2007. 今年诺基亚结束了连续14年成为世界最大手机生产商的历史。竞争对手三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)抢过头把交椅,生产更廉价手机的公司也在分食诺基亚的市场。IDC提供的市场数据显示,一季度诺基亚在手机市场的份额已经从去年同期的27%下降到21%。其最高份额是在2007年第四季度,当时达到了40.4%。 The impact was evident in Nokia#39;s financial report for the first three months of the year. It swung to a loss of 929 million, or .1 billion, from a profit of 344 million a year earlier. It had revenue of 7.4 billion, down 29%, and it sold 82.7 million phones, down 24%. Nokia reports its second-quarter results Thursday and has aly said losses in its mobile phone business will be worse than expected. Its shares currently trade at 1.37 a share, down 64% so far this year.份额下降的影响明显体现在诺基亚一季度的财务报表里。财报显示诺基亚从去年一季度盈利3.44亿欧元变为亏损9.29亿欧元(合11亿美元)。收入为74亿欧元,下降29%;手机销量为8,270万部,下降24%。诺基亚周四发布第二季度财报,而且还表示手机业务的亏损可能比预期更大。目前诺基亚股价为1.37欧元,年初迄今下降了64%。 Nokia is losing ground despite spending billion on research and development over the past decade-nearly four times what Apple spent in the same period. And Nokia clearly saw where the industry it dominated was heading. But its research effort was fragmented by internal rivalries and disconnected from the operations that actually brought phones to market. 尽管过去10年该公司投资400亿美元用于研发──这一数额接近苹果同一时期研发投入的四倍,诺基亚仍然在市场上节节败退。而且诺基亚明显是看到了它所主导的行业的发展方向。然而,研发工作因为内部不和而碎片化,并且跟生产销售手机的实际运营活动脱节。 Instead of producing hit devices or software, the binge of spending has left the company with at least two abandoned operating systems and a pile of patents that analysts now say are worth around billion, the bulk of the value of the entire company. Chief Executive Stephen Elop plans to start selling more of that family silver to keep the company going until it can turn around its fortunes. 大规模的投入并没有带来大受欢迎的终端或软件,而是给诺基亚留下了至少两款被抛弃的操作系统和一大堆专利。据分析师现在估计,这些专利的价值在60亿美元左右,构成了整个公司价值的主要部分。首席执行长埃洛普(Stephen Elop)准备从这些“传家宝”里面拿出更多东西卖掉,让公司撑到能够扭转自身命运的时刻。 #39;If only they had been landed in products,#39; Mr. Elop said of the company#39;s inventions in a recent interview, #39;I think Nokia would have been in a different place.#39; 埃洛普在最近接受的一次采访中说,要是诺基亚的创新当初落实在产品上面,诺基亚就不是现在这个样子了。 Nokia isn#39;t the only company to lose its way in the treacherous cellphone market. Research In Motion Ltd. RIMM +0.43% had a dominant position thanks to its BlackBerry email device, but it hasn#39;t been able to come up with a solution to the iPhone either. 在危机四伏的手机市场迷失方向的公司不只诺基亚一家。Research In Motion Ltd.(简称RIM)曾因电子邮件终端黑莓(BlackBerry)而占据霸主地位,但它也没有能够拿出一款与iPhone一较高下的产品。 As a result, the company has lost about 90% of its market value in the past five years, and its CEO is trying to convince investors the company isn#39;t in a #39;death spiral.#39; 受此影响,RIM的市值在过去五年缩水约90%,其CEO正在努力让投资者相信该公司并没有陷入“死亡螺旋”。 Whereas RIM lacked the right product, Nokia actually developed the sorts of devices that consumers are gobbling up today. It just didn#39;t bring them to market. In a strategic blunder, it shifted its focus from smartphones back to basic phones right as the iPhone upended the market. RIM的问题是缺乏合适的产品,而诺基亚实际上是开发出了今天消费者疯狂抢购的几类终端,只是没有把这些终端引入市场。就在iPhone颠覆市场的时候,诺基亚把重心从智能手机移回到基本款手机上面,犯下了战略错误。 #39;I was heartbroken when Apple got the jump on this concept,#39; says Mr. Nuovo, Nokia#39;s former chief designer. #39;When people say the iPhone as a concept, a piece of hardware, is unique, that upsets me.#39; 原诺基亚首席设计师诺沃说,苹果在这一概念上占得先机时,我感觉非常心痛;每当别人说iPhone作为一个概念和一款硬件产品是独一无二的,我都感到难过。 Mr. Elop, a Canadian who took over as Nokia#39;s first non-Finnish chief executive in 2010, is now trying to refocus a company that he says grew complacent because of its market dominance. 加拿大人埃洛普在2010年成为诺基亚首位非芬兰籍的首席执行长,现在他正努力调整公司的战略重心。他说,诺基亚过去因为它在市场的主导地位而变得自满了。 Shortly after taking the job, Mr. Elop scrapped work on Nokia#39;s homegrown smartphone software and said the company would use Microsoft Corp.#39;s MSFT +2.66% Windows mobile operating system. By doing so, he was able to deliver a new line of phones to compete with the iPhone in less than a year, much quicker than if Nokia had stuck with its own software, he says. 埃洛普上任不久后,就停止了诺基亚自有智能手机软件的研发,他说该公司将使用微软(Microsoft Corp.)的Windows移动操作系统。埃洛普说,这样他就能够在不足一年之内推出一个新的手机系列与iPhone竞争,比诺基亚坚持使用自己的软件推出产品的速度要快得多。Those phones aren#39;t selling strongly. The company hasn#39;t broken out numbers but said in April that initial sales were #39;mixed,#39; and two months later said competition had been tougher than expected. Mr. Elop was forced in mid-June to announce another 10,000 layoffs and .7 billion in cost cuts that will fall heavily on research and development. On Sunday, Nokia cut the U.S. price of the phones in half, to . 诺基亚推出的Windows手机销售情况并不好。该公司尚未公布销售数据,但今年4月曾说初期销售情况喜忧参半,两个月后又说竞争比他们预期的更激烈。埃洛普被迫在6月中旬宣布诺基亚再裁员1万人并削减成本17亿美元,裁员和成本削减主要将针对研发部门。周日,诺基亚将在美国销售的Windows手机降价一半,至50美元。 Nokia has a long history of successfully adapting to big market shifts. The company started out in 1865 as a lumber mill. Over the years, it diversified into electricity production and rubber products. 诺基亚长期以来一直能够成功适应巨大的市场变化。该公司创立于1865年,最初是一家木材厂,后来逐渐将业务多样化,进入发电和塑料产品领域。 At the end of the 1980s, the Soviet Union#39;s collapse and recession in Europe caused demand for Nokia#39;s diverse slate of products to dry up, leaving the company in crisis. Jorma Ollila, a former Citibank banker, took over as CEO in 1992 and focused Nokia on cellphones. 上世纪80年代末,苏联的解体和欧洲的衰退造成诺基亚各类产品的需求大幅下滑,公司陷入危机。1992年,曾为花旗(Citibank)家的奥利拉(Jorma Ollila)接任首席执行长一职,将诺基亚的业务重点放到手机上。 Nokia factories eventually sprang up from Germany to China, part of a logistics machine so well-oiled that Nokia could feed the world#39;s demand for cellphones faster than any other manufacturer in the world. Profits soared, and the company#39;s share price followed, giving Nokia a market value of 303 billion at its peak in 2000. 诺基亚的工厂最终出现在从德国到中国的诸多国家,诺基亚的物流环节运转得非常顺畅,以致于它能够比世界上任何其他制造商都更快地满足全球消费者的手机需求。诺基亚的利润大幅上升,该公司股价也随之飙升,2000年诺基亚的市值最高曾达到3,030亿欧元。 Mr. Ollila and other top executives became stars in Finland, often requesting private dining rooms when they went out to eat, senior executives said. 高管们说,奥利拉和其他高层管理人员在芬兰成了明星,他们出去用餐时常常要用包间。 Early on, the CEO started laying the groundwork for the company#39;s next reinvention. Nokia executives predicted that the business of producing cellphones that do little but make calls would lose its profitability by 2000. So the company started spending billions of dollars to research mobile email, touch screens and faster wireless networks. 早在当年,奥利拉即开始为诺基亚的下一阶段改造打下基础。诺基亚的高管们曾预测,2000年前,生产仅具有电话功能的手机将难以继续盈利。于是,诺基亚开始斥资数十亿美元研发手机电子邮件、触控屏和更快速的无线网络。 In 1996, the company unveiled its first smartphone, the Nokia 9000, and called it the first mobile device that could email, fax and surf the Web. It weighed slightly under a pound. 1996年,该公司发布了其首款智能手机“诺基亚9000”,并称它是首款能够收发电子邮件、发传真和上网的手机。这款手机重量略低于一磅。 #39;We had exactly the right view of what it was all about,#39; says Mr. Ollila, who stepped down as chief executive in 2006 and retired as chairman in May. #39;We were about five years ahead.#39; 奥利拉说,我们对手机行业的发展曾有着准确的预见。2006年,他辞去首席执行长一职,今年5月辞去了董事长一职。他说,我们的眼光超前了约五年。 The phone, also called the Communicator, made an appearance in the movie #39;The Saint#39; and drew a dedicated following among certain business users, but never commanded a mass audience. “诺基亚9000”又被称为“Communicator”,曾在影片《圣人》(The Saint)中亮过相,在某些企业用户中获得了很大的关注,但从未征过普通大众。 /201207/191367A microchipped bulb can produce data speeds of up to 150 megabits per second (Mbps), Chi Nan, IT professor at Shanghai#39;s Fudan University told Xinhua News.上海复旦大学信息技术学院迟楠教授对新华网记者表示,一个微芯片灯泡可以产生高达150M每秒的网速。A one-watt LED light bulb would be enough to provide net connectivity to four computers, researchers say.研究者还表示,一个1瓦的LED灯泡已经足以为四台电脑提供网络连接。But experts told the B more evidence was needed to back up the claims. There are no supporting or photos showing the technology in action.不过专家也告诉B记者,佐上述说法需要更多的信息。目前还没有实该技术成功运用的视频或照片。Li-fi, also known as visible light communications (VLC), at these speeds would be faster - and cheaper - than the average Chinese broadband connection.Li-fi光保真,又称为可见光通信(VLC) 将会比中国一般的宽带网络连接速度更快,且价格更便宜。In 2011, Prof Harald Haas, an expert in optical wireless communications at the University of Edinburgh, demonstrated how an LED bulb equipped with signal processing technology could stream a high-definition to a computer.在2011年,来自英国爱丁堡大学的光无线通信专家、哈拉尔德·哈斯教授,演示了一只配备有信息处理装置的LED灯泡是如何将高保真视频传输到电脑上的。He coined the term ;light fidelity; or li-fi and set up a private company, PureVLC, to exploit the technology.他创造了“光保真”这一术语,并且成立了一家私营公司,PureVLC来进一步开发这种技术。This year, the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute claimed that data rates of up to 1Gbit/s per LED light frequency were possible in laboratory conditions, making one bulb with three colours potentially capable of transmitting data at up to 3Gbit/s.今年,德国弗朗霍夫海因里希赫兹研究所科学家称,在实验室的数据连接中,一个LED灯泡已经可以实现1兆比特每秒的速度,这样一个三色的灯泡传达数据的速度将可以达到3兆比特每秒。Li-fi promises to be cheaper and more energy-efficient than existing wireless radio systems given the ubiquity of LED bulbs and the fact that lighting infrastructure is aly in place.考虑到LED灯泡的普遍性,而且照明基础设施是既有的,光保真将比现有的无线广播系统更加节能,更加环保。Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and 10,000 times bigger than the radio spectrum, affording potentially unlimited capacity.可见光是电磁光谱的一部分,比无线电频谱要大1万倍,因而可说具有无限的开发潜力。But there are drawbacks: block the light and you block the signal.但是它也有弊端:遮住光源,就遮住了信号。Prof Chi#39;s research team includes scientists from the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Her team is hoping to show off sample li-fi kits at the China International Industry Fair in Shanghai on 5 November,the report says.据报道称,迟教授的研究团队包括中国科学院上海技术物理研究所的众多专家。她的团队希望能够在11月5号上海举办的中国国际工业览会上展出光保真样品。 /201310/261751Apple hires Burberry CEO to spruce up its retail operation苹果雇用巴宝莉首席执行官加强其零售业务CUPERTINO, California-October 14, 2013-Apple#174; today announced that Angela Ahrendts, CEO of Burberry, will be joining Apple in a newly created position, as a senior vice president and member of our executive team, reporting to CEO Tim Cook.2013年10月14日,加州库珀迪诺的苹果公司宣布巴宝莉首席执行官安吉拉·阿伦德加盟苹果,任职一个新设立职位,担任高级副总裁和我们的执行团队成员,并向首席执行官蒂姆·库克报告。Ahrendts will have oversight of the strategic direction, expansion and operation of both Apple retail and online stores, which have redefined the shopping experience for hundreds of millions of customers around the world. Apple retail stores set the standard for customer service with innovative features like the Genius Bar#174;, Personal Setup and One to One personal training to help customers get the most out of their Apple products.阿伦德将会监督苹果零售店和网上商店的战略方向,扩张和运营,苹果的在线商店重新定义了全球各地数亿消费者的购物体验。苹果的零售店通过创新的特色,诸如天才吧,个人设置和一对一个性化培训帮助消费者了解他们的苹果产品,树立了消费者务标准。;I am thrilled that Angela will be joining our team,; said Cook. ;She shares our values and our focus on innovation, and she places the same strong emphasis as we do on the customer experience. She has shown herself to be an extraordinary leader throughout her career and has a proven track record.;库克表示:“很高兴安吉拉将加入我们的团队,她跟我们的价值观相同,跟我们一样专注于创新,和我们一样重视消费者体验。她已经在自己的职业生涯中明了自己超凡的领导力,并且记录良好。”;I am profoundly honored to join Apple in this newly created position next year, and very much look forward to working with the global teams to further enrich the consumer experience on and offline,; said Ahrendts. ;I have always admired the innovation and impact Apple products and services have on people#39;s lives and hope in some small way I can help contribute to the company#39;s continued success and leadership in changing the world.;阿伦德说:“能够在明年加入苹果任职新设立的职位,我深感荣幸,我非常期待与全球团队合作,进一步丰富消费者的线上线下体验。我一直很钦佩苹果产品和务的创新以及它们对人们生活的影响力,并且我希望从一些细节上能帮助促进公司的持续性成功以及改变世界的领导力”Ahrendts will join Apple in the spring from Burberry, where she serves as CEO and has led the company through a period of outstanding global growth. Prior to Burberry, she was executive vice president at Liz Claiborne Inc., and earlier in her career she served as president of Donna Karan International.阿伦德将会咋明年春天从巴宝莉加盟苹果,她在巴宝莉担任首席执行官,在其任职期间,公司迎来了一段时间的强势的全球增长。在巴宝莉之前,她是Liz Claiborne公司的执行副总裁,在职业生涯更早期,她是唐娜·凯伦国际的总裁。Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad.苹果公司设计世界上最好的个人电脑Mac,还有OSX操作系统,iWork办公软件以及其他专业软件。苹果通过iPod播放器以及iTunes在线音乐商店引领了数字音乐革命。苹果通过革命性的iPhone和App Store软件商店重新发明了手机,并且通过iPad定义了移动媒体和计算机设备的未来。 /201310/260420

  The first paragraph of the commentaryposted Wednesday on the website of the Economic Policy Institute, a liberal think tank founded by, among others, Clinton-era labor secretary Robert Reich, lays out the thrust of the argument pretty succinctly:由美国前劳工部长罗伯特?里奇等人创建的开明智库经济政策研究所(Economic Policy Institute)本周三在自己的网站上刊登了一篇,开篇第一段就扼要地论述了这样做的目的所在:;For more than a year, there has been a high-profile debate over what Apple should do with its enormous cash reserve, now amounting to 7 billion. The proposals have been curiously one-dimensional, with a nearly exclusive focus on how the reserves should be used to reward its shareholders. Almost entirely absent from the discussion has been whether those reserves should also be used to provide fairer compensation to the workers making its products abroad or selling its products here. This imbalance is part and parcel of a larger trend: the share of economic rewards going to workers is diminishing.;“一年多来,围绕苹果(Apple)应该如何处置其庞大的现金储备(如今已高达1,370亿美元)展开的热烈讨论引人瞩目。奇怪的是,种种提议几乎都是一边倒地探讨如何用这些现金回馈股东。讨论几乎从未涉及这些现金是否也应该用于为海外制造苹果产品的工人和在美国销售苹果产品的员工提供更加公平合理的薪酬。它只是大范围失衡趋势的一个缩影:给予员工的经济回报比例正在下降。”It#39;s not an idea many Apple (AAPL) investors are going to want to hear, especially with the stock down more than 36% from last September#39;s highs. But as author Isaac Shapiro points out, long-term shareholders have nothing to complain about. Those who stuck with the company over the past five years have seen the value of their investments grow more than three-fold.这个提议可不是很多苹果投资者希望听到的,特别是眼下,苹果股价已经从去年9月的高点下跌超过了36%。但正如作者伊萨克?夏皮罗所指出的一样,长期股东没有什么好抱怨的。如果过去5年一直持有这只股票,它的投资市值已经增长超过了3倍。Less amply rewarded are the 30,000 Apple Store employees who make as little as ,000 a year. Or the roughly 1 million Asian contract workers who take home, before overtime, between 5 and 8 per month.没有获得充分回报的是苹果零售店的3万名雇员,他们的薪水低到只有25,000美元/年。而且,约100万名亚洲合同工每个月如果不算加班收入,工资仅225-288美元。Shapiro doesn#39;t diminish the work Apple has done to raise pay scales and improve working conditions in its Asian supply chain. Nor does he suggest that Apple#39;s competitors are doing better.夏皮罗没有抹杀苹果为提高亚洲供应链系统员工的薪酬水平和工作环境所做出的努力,也没有说苹果的竞争对手做得更好。But he does point out that some of the pledges Apple made have not been fulfilled.但他指出,苹果承诺过的一些事情并没有兑现。For example, in March 2012 Apple promised that workers assembling Apple#39;s devices in Foxconn#39;s factories would be compensated for hours they had worked in the past that had not been paid for, including pre- and post-shift meetings, time spent in mandatory trainings, and as many as 30 minutes of ;unscheduled overtime; on any given day.例如,2012年3月,苹果曾经承诺,在富士康工厂组装苹果设备的工人过去未获得报酬的工作时间将获得补偿,包括参加班前会和班后会的时间、用于参加强制性培训的时间,和一天多达30分钟的“临时加班”时间。According to Shapiro, none of that back pay was ever issued, and it appears that none is forthcoming.据夏皮罗称,这些补偿都没有发放,而且,近期似乎也不准备发放。He#39;s got more examples, laid out fairly dispassionately, in + billion for Apple shareholders, nothing yet for Apple workers.他平心静气地给出了更多的例子,比如,苹果给股东发放了450亿美元现金,同样没有苹果工人的份儿。正如我所说的,在苹果股票继续下跌的过程中,这种声音可能是苹果投资者最不愿听到的,但它会在某种程度上抑制增加派息和进行数十亿美元股票回购的要求。As I say, it#39;s probably the last thing Apple investors want to hear on yet another down day for the stock, but it does put those demands for bigger dividends and multibillion dollar stock buybacks in some perspective. /201303/231608Five years ago, Facebook turned down Brian Acton for a job.五年前,Facebook曾经拒绝了软件工程师布莱恩o阿克顿的求职。The Orlando, Fla.-raised software engineer had worked at Yahoo YHOO 0.60% for over a decade when he decided to take time off. For two years he did, exploring places as far-flung as Antarctica before returning to Silicon Valley to work again. After companies like Facebook FB -0.24% and Twitter TWTR 3.01% rejected him, he started building WhatsApp, a mobile messaging service that eventually exploded, amassing 500 million users worldwide. Then last February, Facebook stunned the world when it announced it was scooping up WhatsApp for a jaw-dropping billion – the most it had ever paid for a startup. By one estimate, Acton will be worth at least billion when the deal closes, which is expected later this year.国佛罗里达州奥兰多市,在雅虎(Yahoo)工作了十多年后,阿克顿决定歇一歇。他在两年的时间里四处游历,甚至远赴南极,后来才回到硅谷重新开始工作。先后遭到Facebook和Twitter等公司拒绝后,阿克顿开始开发移动短信务WhatsApp,结果一炮而红,在全球吸引了5亿用户。今年二月,Facebook宣布豪掷190亿美元收购WhatsApp,震动了外界。这也是Facebook收购新创企业最大手笔的一次。交易预计在今年晚些时候达成,据估计,届时阿克顿的身家至少将达到30亿美元。That Facebook once rejected Acton, 42 is an irony not lost on him. But far from being bitter he says he looks forward to working with Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and crew. “We might disagree on some topics, but they understand what communication is like, and they understand the issues around privacy and security,” Acton explained Wednesday at StartX, a non-profit organization for Stanford University entrepreneurs.阿克顿明白,如今看来,他曾求职Facebook被拒颇有些讽刺意味。不过,他完全没有因此而忿忿不平。相反,他表示自己很期待与Facebook首席执行官马克o扎克伯格及其团队共事。上周三,在为斯坦福大学(Stanford University)创业者务的非营利机构StartX上,阿克顿说:“我们或许在某些问题上看法不同,但他们明白通讯是怎么回事,他们也了解与隐私和安全相关的问题。”Reaching a billion deal was a roundabout journey for Acton and Koum. For one, Acton was aly 38 when he helped build WhatsApp. Before that, he spent three years at Apple AAPL 0.39% and over 11 years at Yahoo, where he met WhatsApp CEO and cofounder Jan Koum and eventually became the company’s vice president of engineering. (Acton also weathered a divorce and had children.) It’s a different — and far longer — trajectory compared to many of today’s entrepreneurs, who jump into a startup right after college or drop out, Acton points out.阿克顿和另一位创始人库姆经历了不少曲折,才把WhatsApp发展到了作价190亿美元的规模。其一,帮助创办WhatsApp时,阿克顿已经38岁了。在此之前,他在苹果(Apple)干了三年,在雅虎干了11年多。阿克顿在雅虎结识了WhatsApp首席执行官兼联合创始人简o库姆,并最终成为WhatsApp公司负责工程设计的副总裁。(阿克顿曾经历离婚,并育有子女。)阿克顿指出,他与今天的许多创业者不同,后者大多大学毕业后就直接开始创业,甚至辍学创业。Still, Acton and Koum’s late-blooming strategy worked. With WhatsApp, they developed a dead-simple mobile app that works a lot like traditional text, or SMS messaging, allowing users to send and receive calls, , and pictures in addition to messages. (“I used to call SMS black and white,” Acton said. “We’re color.”) Because it was free, the app developed a huge following, particularly in Europe and parts of Asia, where traditional texting can be pricey. That’s despite a mobile messaging space crowded with competitors like Line, Viber and MessageMe. “It just effing works,” said Acton, explaining in semi-profane terms WhatApp’s appeal. “We don’t have a lot of gimmickry. We don’t collect messages or do anything with them. We respect our users.”不过,阿克顿和库姆大器晚成的战略行之有效。他们开发的WhatsApp是一款超级简单的移动应用,原理很像传统的手机短信,在文本信息外,用户还能发送和接收呼叫、视频和图片。(阿克顿说:“我常说短信是黑白的,而我们的务则是色的。”)因为不收费,WhatsApp吸引了大量的追捧者,尤其是在传统短信务收费较高的欧洲和亚洲,尽管移动通讯领域充斥着Line、Viber以及MessageMe等一种竞争对手。谈到WhatsApp 大受欢迎,阿克顿说道:“它就是火了。我们没有什么花招,我们也不收集信息或干那些有的没的。我们尊重我们的用户。”Talks with Zuckerberg about a potential WhatsApp acquisition began heating up in early February, when Zuck – as he is known to tech insiders – presented Acton and Koum with a hard number. “We said, ‘Oh, shit,’ We’ve got to pay attention to this,” Acton said, who recalled a mind-numbing 96-hours straight in conference rooms with a “flotilla” of lawyers as they hammered out a deal.早在今年二月初,同扎克伯格关于可能收购WhatsApp的谈判就开始升温。扎克伯格向阿克顿和库姆开出了一个确切的数字——高科技界人士都知道,这是他的一贯做法。阿克顿回忆道:“我们说:‘靠’,我们得好好琢磨琢磨这事。”于是他们同“一大帮”律师一起,在会议室整整煎熬了96个小时,直到他们制定出交易方案。For now, the thing Acton looks forward to most isn’t working with the employer who once rejected him – or even getting to 600 million WhatsApp users – it’s closing the deal with Facebook. Admitted Acton: “When it closes, it’ll be with a sense of relief.眼下,阿克顿最期待的,不是与曾拒绝自己的雇主共事,甚至也不是使WhatsApp的用户数增长到6亿,而是与Facebook达成交易。阿克顿坦言:“等到交易达成,我肯定会感到如释重负。” /201406/304907



  DARJEELING, India — The tea plantations here in the shadow of the cloud-shrouded valleys of the Himalayan mountains may be the last place to find technological innovation. Many of the colonial-era practices involved in tea-growing and processing still follow the time-honored manual labor and handwritten bookkeeping.印度大吉岭——这里的茶叶种植园位于喜马拉雅山麓云雾笼罩的山谷里,从这样的地方找到科技创新的影子恐怕并不容易。很多殖民地时期就已经采用的茶叶种植及加工方法依然沿用至今,比如人工采摘茶叶和手写的账目。But as global consumers increasingly become connoisseurs of high-quality products, one entrepreneur is seeking to give the industry a Silicon Valley makeover.但是随着全球愈来愈多的消费者成了品鉴高档茶叶的行家,一位创业者正在尝试对茶叶产业开展一番硅谷式的改造。India is the world#39;s second-largest tea grower after China. Yet, even as the country produces quality specialty varietals that are as highly regarded as wines from France and whisky from Scotland, its industry is antiquated.印度仅次于中国,是全球第二大茶叶种植国。虽然印度出产特有品种的优质茶叶,可与法国的葡萄酒和苏格兰的威士忌相媲美,但是当地的制茶产业已经过时了。With the backing of one of Silicon Valley#39;s biggest venture capital firms, Accel Partners, Kaushal Dugar, a Singapore-trained financial analyst, is among those slowly bringing the sector into the modern era via his online tea retailing start-up, Teabox.曾在新加坡受过教育的金融分析师考沙尔·杜伽尔(Kaushal Dugar),在硅谷最大的风险投资企业之一,阿克塞尔合伙公司(Accel Partners)的持下,正在通过在线销售茶叶的初创企业Teabox逐步让制茶产业现代化。The bulk of India#39;s production — about one billion of the total 1.2 billion kilograms (2.6 billion pounds) — is consumed by the domestic market, where mass-market brands from the Indian conglomerate Tata and the multinational Unilever hold sway. But the remaining 200 million kilograms is a market ripe for shake-up.大部分印度出产的茶叶都由国内市场消费,在12亿公斤(约合26亿磅)的总产量里,印度消费者购买了约10亿公斤。其中,大众市场由印度塔塔集团(Tata)和跨国企业联合利华(Unilever)这样的品牌控制,而余下的2亿公斤所面向的市场则亟需变革。;We grow some of the best teas in the world, but our processes are archaic and marketing is nonexistent,; said Arun Kumar Gomden, a tea industry consultant who managed tea estates for 35 years.As is the case with other successful e-commerce sites, technology forms the core of Teabox#39;s online operations. Algorithms predict demand based on such factors as past sales, internal ranking of tea varieties and pricing. Information about a tea#39;s picking date, season and origins is made available to online customers.制茶产业顾问阿伦·库马尔·戈穆登(Arun Kumar Gomden)说,“我们种植的茶叶在全球名列前茅,但加工手段落后,也谈不上有什么营销,”戈穆登已有35年管理茶园的经验。与其他成功的电子商务网站一样,科技是Teabox网络运营的核心。该公司利用算法,根据价格、以往销量,以及内部对茶叶品种的评级等因素,来预测消费者的需求。消费者可以在网上查看茶叶的采摘日期、季节和产地等信息。Taking a cue from the successful wine industry, Teabox is bringing in wine tasters to provide engaging online descriptions for its products. Gone are the flowery but opaque descriptions like ;distinctly high-grown character; and ;surprising malty nuance.; They have been replaced by more consumer-friendly taster phrases like ;light-bodied tea with a slight woodiness in its flavor,; along with detailed steeping instructions.Teabox借鉴葡萄酒行业的成功经验,邀请品酒师为网站编写引人入胜的产品介绍。那些辞藻华丽但晦涩难懂的描述不见了,例如“鲜明的高海拔种植特征”、“有一丝出人意料的麦芽口感”。取而代之的是一些读者比较容易明白的措辞,例如“含有一丝木头清香的淡茶”,还附有详细的冲泡说明。Teabox, which started in mid-2012, is introducing a subscription model offering personalized tea selections, replicating similar successes of online sites selling wine, razor blades, cosmetics and organic products.创立于2012年中期的Teabox,还效仿销售葡萄酒、剃须刀片、化妆品和有机产品的网站的成功做法,推出了一套提供个性化选择的订购模式。All of these steps aim to hook a new generation of customers in countries such as Russia and the ed States. As consumers on a quest for the latest niche food products veer toward drinking the brew in upscale salons and tea bars, Indian tea could tap into the large addressable global tea market, estimated to be billion in size.这些举措的目的是从俄罗斯、美国等国家,吸引新一代的顾客。对新近流行的小众饮食趋之若鹜的消费者们,现在开始在高档沙龙或茶吧里喝茶,因此印度茶有望打入全球商机巨大的潜在市场,其规模估计高达900亿美元(约合5500亿元人民币)。;Tea is a time-sensitive product, but the industry#39;s supply chain is quite broken and has many intermediaries,; said Prashanth Prakash, a partner at Accel India, which along with Singapore#39;s Horizon Ventures has provided some million in early-stage funding to Teabox. ;The business is ripe for disruption, both in terms of price and quality,; he said.阿克塞尔印度公司的合伙人普拉申特·普拉卡什(Prashanth Prakash)说,“茶这种产品对时间很敏感,但业内的供应链相当低效,而且涉及过多中间环节。”这家公司连同新加坡的Horizon Ventures为Teabox提供了100万美元的前期资助。他说,“从价格和质量两方面而言,颠覆这个行业的时机都已经成熟。”The venture capital approach is helping Teabox change operations. It was Accel Partners that suggested the wine industry method to ;product discovery; — industry jargon for helping shoppers discern and select products online.风险投资的持,帮助Teabox改变了经营模式。正是阿克塞尔建议采用葡萄酒行业的“产品发掘”手段。“产品发掘”是指帮助顾客在网站上查看和选择产品的过程。;By employing tactics used by the wine industry, we want to demystify tea and present it in a more accessible manner along with how-to brewing directions so that buyers can explore varieties, regions and flavors,; said Mr. Dugar, 31, founder and chief executive of Teabox, which is based in Siliguri, Darjeeling, the heart of India#39;s tea-growing region.杜伽尔表示,“通过使用葡萄酒行业的手法,我们想让茶在顾客眼中不再陌生,以更容易领会的方式推介茶,并且给出冲泡指示,这样一来顾客就能探究茶的品种、产地和口味。”31岁的杜伽尔是Teabox的创始人和首席执行官。这家公司的总部位于印度产茶区域的中心,大吉岭的西里古里(Siliguri)。His family#39;s trade connections go back four decades and give Mr. Dugar access to high-quality teas from the estates of Assam and Darjeeling. From his childhood summers spent on plantations, he recalls the tea pluckers picking two leaves and a bud that was transformed into brewed tea within hours. ;I imagined that the workers in tea plantations were magicians.;Mr. Dugar had worked for a few years as a corporate finance analyst at consultancy firm KPMG in Singapore, but he then returned to India to become an entrepreneur. He and his backers quickly discovered that the industry first organized by British colonizers about 200 years ago has not changed at all. Many plantations are controlled by third- or fourth-generation owners, using machines dating back a half-century or more.杜伽尔家族与茶的渊源已有40年了,这也让他在栽种阿萨姆茶和大吉岭茶的茶园里,品尝到了优质的茶叶。杜伽尔童年时,夏天会在茶园里度过。他回忆起当时情景说,采茶工摘下两片叶子和一朵花蕾,几个小时后就变成了沏好的茶。“我觉得茶园里的工人都是魔法师。”杜伽尔曾在咨询公司毕马威(KPMG)的新加坡分公司工作数年,担任企业财务分析师,后来返回印度开始创业。他和投资人很快就发现,这个大约200年前由英国殖民者组织起来的产业,至今仍然没有任何改变。很多茶园都是由第三或第四代老板经营,他们所用的机器已有至少半个世纪甚至更长的历史。;Traditional processes such as withering, rolling, drying are all manually monitored just like it was when the tea industry was first established in this region centuries ago,; said Amar Nath Jha, a senior manager of the 162-year old Steinthal Tea Estate in Darjeeling, a supplier to Teabox.阿马尔·纳特·杰哈(Amar Nath Jha)说,“传统的制茶工序,例如萎凋、揉捻、干燥都是人手处理,就像很多个世纪以前,这个产业刚刚在这里形成时一样。”杰哈在大吉岭已有162年历史的斯坦塔茶园(Steinthal Tea Estate)担任高级经理,这家茶园也是Teabox的供应商。Because of the lengthy auction and distribution process, it can take up to six months for the tea to reach a consumer overseas.由于拍卖和分销茶叶所需时间很长,因此可能需要长达六个月的时间才能到达海外消费者手上。;The lack of modern infrastructure leads to tea quality deteriorating and losing aroma along the way,; said Mr. Gomden, the tea consultant.制茶产业顾问戈穆登表示,“在整个过程中,由于缺乏现代化的设施,茶叶的质量会下降,茶香也会流失。”To change that, Teabox set up sourcing centers in Darjeeling and Assam, within a few hours from the gardens where the leaves are plucked and processed. (Other buyers have also begun to bypass the auction system and buy premium teas directly from producers).为了改变这种情况,Teabox在大吉岭和阿萨姆邦设立了采购中心,距离采摘和加工的茶园只有数小时路程。(其他买家也开始跳过拍卖体系,直接通过生产商采购优质茶叶。)Almost as soon as the teas are procured fresh from the production centers, Teabox stores them in temperature- and humidity-controlled warehouses. Then, within 48 hours, the teas are checked, vacuum-packed and dispatched to fulfillment centers in major markets such as Russia, the ed States and Australia.Teabox从生产中心将新鲜的茶叶采购到手,就会立即储存在能够调节温度和湿度的仓库里。然后在48小时以内,茶叶就会经过检查和真空包装,发往俄罗斯、美国、澳大利亚等主要市场的配送中心。Data analytics also help. When they log into the website, buyers are served personalized recommendations according to one of Teabox#39;s 53 tea profiles.数据分析也很有帮助。买家登录之后,网站便会依据Teabox供应的53种茶叶的特征,给出个性化的推荐。Customer feedback goes quickly back to the producers. For example, Teabox now sells tea only in 100-gram vacuum packs after complaints that tea in larger packs lost aroma.生产商很快就能收到顾客的反馈。比如,由于有顾客投诉称,包装容量太大以致茶香流失,Teabox现在只出售100克真空包装的茶叶。The company tries to win over customer share its audience by offering high-end teas at a discount to established brands like Twinings and upscale European, Asian and American tea salons, all of which sell online (Teabox#39;s products can sell for as much as ,099 per kilogram).Teabox试图通过以优惠价格出售川宁(Twinings)等知名公司,以及欧洲、亚洲和美洲的高档茶店所出售的茶叶,来吸引消费者。这些产品都在网上出售。(Teabox产品的售价每公斤可高达1099美元)。For instance, a French tea salon called Palais des Thés sells the Mission Hill tea at 0 per kilogram, but Teabox sells the same product about 60 percent less at 6 per kilogram. TWG, a high-end tea bar in Singapore, sells the Okayti at 0 per kilogram while Teabox sells it as 0, less than half the price.例如,一家名为茶宫(Palais des Thés)的法国茶庄以每公斤340美元的价格销售Mission Hill的茶叶,而Teabox的售价是每公斤126美元,价格低近六成。新加坡的高级茶吧TWG以每公斤390美元的价格出售欧凯帝(Okayti)茶园的茶叶,而Teabox则只售180美元,低于其价格的一半。Teabox is still a small player in the industry: It has shipped 10 million cups#39; worth of tea to customers in 65 countries so far. The challenges are many. Traditional distributors have blocked access to plantations and Teabox has had to counter rumors from rivals that it is an unreliable buyer.Teabox在茶叶产业中仍然是个小角色。迄今为止,它已向65个国家的顾客出售了相当于1000万杯的茶。该公司面临很多挑战:传统分销商阻挠他们接触茶园,竞争对手造谣称他们是个不可靠的买家,Teabox需要进行反驳。Mohan Chirimar, 53, of Raghunath Exports, a bulk supplier to Starbucks as well as retail chains and supermarkets in 30 countries, said Teabox was chasing a big opportunity that had room for other entrepreneurs.拉古拿夫出口公司(Raghunath Exports)向星巴克(Starbucks)以及全球30个国家的零售商和超市供货。该公司现年53岁创始人莫汉·其利马(Mohan Chirimar)说,Teabox正在追求的这个巨大商机,其他企业也可以参与其中。Raghunath Exports is itself gearing up to compete online as Mr. Chirimar#39;s 23-year old son, Aditya, a recent graduate from Cornell University, has returned this month to join the business. ;He is going to expand our business online; it offers more opportunities and will speed up our growth,; Mr. Chirimar said.拉古拿夫出口公司正准备参与网上竞争。其利马23岁的儿子阿迪蒂亚(Aditya)最近刚从康奈尔大学(Cornell University)毕业,并于本月回国参与公司经营。其利马说,“他将会扩展网上业务,这能给我们提供更多机会,加快业务增长。”Teabox does have an early-mover advantage but must now build its name. Regular access to financing will help Teabox ramp up its brand in crucial markets like the ed States where tea drinking growth rates are overtaking coffee. The start-up aims to grow 300 to 500 percent in the coming year and cross million in annual revenue.Teabox的确有率先进入这一市场的优势,但它现在必须建立自己的品牌。定期融资能帮助Teabox加速进军美国等重要市场,美国的茶叶消耗增长率正在赶超咖啡。这家初创公司明年的业务增长目标是300%到500%,年收入超过100万美元。;With cash in the bank and support from investors, we can dream about quickly building a billion-dollar tea brand from India, something that has never been attempted before,; Mr. Dugar said.杜伽尔说,“利用里的现金和投资者的持,我们希望可以迅速建立一个价值十亿美元的印度茶叶品牌,以前没人尝试做过这些。” /201409/325538


  The moment you’ve all been waiting for it here — possibly. LG Electronics has rolled out what it says is the first mobile device that can be bent out of shape or pressed flat onto a desk.这个时刻,大家都在等待这款手机——或许是。LG电子推出了其自称的全球第一款柔性手机,该手机可弯曲,也可放在桌面上压平。It’s a neat party trick, but LG along with that other flexi-phone frontrunner Samsung, will be carefully watching how consumers take these devices up before spending more to make them bend any further.这非常吸引人,但LG和另一家柔性手机领域的先锋企业三星在花更多心思让它们能进一步弯曲之前,将谨慎观察消费者对此类设备的接受程度。This week, LG Electronics launched what it’s calling the world’s first flexible smartphone, the six-inch, gently-curving G Flex. It went on sale in South Korea and will stay on the shelves for 10 days, with a not-so-gentle price of 0. If and when LG brings it to the U.S. in early 2014, a spokesman says the price with carrier contracts would be on par with other high-end smartphones. It goes on sale in Hong Kong on Dec. 13, and France in February 2014 with France Telecom本周,LG电子发布了它称之为全球首款柔性智能手机的最新产品——G Flex,该6英寸屏手机可轻微弯曲,将在韩国销售,上架时间为10天,售价高达940美元。一位发言人表示,如果LG在2014年初在美国发售这款手机,合约机价格会与其他高端智能机相当。在香港的发售时间为12月13日,在法国会由法国电信公司Orange在2014年2月发售。LG representatives stopped by Forbes’s San Francisco office on Wednesday to give a demo of the G Flex, and show off its flexible qualities.LG的代表周三拜访了福布斯位于旧金山的办公室,对G Flex进行了一番演示,并展示了它的柔性特色。Actually, “flexible” is a subjective here. Place the curved phone face down on a level surface and you can press it flat. Try to bend each end with your fingers and it will give way somewhat. When I asked if the device could bend right the other way, LG spokesman Chaz Abbott managed, with some effort, to get it to give a little more.实际上,这里的“柔性”具有主观性。把弯起的手机面朝下放在水平表面上,你就能把它压平。用你的手指握住手机的两端向内弯折,手机会在一定程度上弯曲。当我问到这款设备是否能在另一个方向弯曲时,LG发言人查斯·阿特(Chaz Abbott)用了点力气,让手机更弯了一点。The G Flex is the product of years of research and development, with LG and arch rival Samsung the big device makers rushing to be the first to bring a curved phone to market. There had been rumors in 2012 that such phones would hit shelves earlier than now, and there are various reasons why it’s taken this long. First, executives need to be confident these kinds of devices will actually sell. LG’s CTO Skott Ahn told me earlier this year that it was hard to tell if consumers wanted phones with curved screens, never mind phones that were flexible.G FLEX是多年研发的成果,LG和主要竞争对手三星这两大生产商争着要做第一个推出曲面手机的公司。2012年时曾有传言称,此类手机将早于现在这个时间上架,而为何花了这么久才最终推出,存在多种原因。首先,高管们需要确信,这类设备实际上将能够销售。LG的首席技术官安承权(Skott Ahn)今年早些时候曾告诉我,很难说消费者是否会想要一款曲面手机,更不要提柔性手机了。Curved phones fit the face nicely when you’re talking, they bring the mic closer so that your voice sounds clear, and the curved display makes for a slightly more enjoyable movie-watching experience. Plus that pliability makes the G Flex a little more durable when it’s dropped or knocked. It’s an open question, though, whether LG’s manufacturing efforts will pay off in sales, and they were big efforts.当你打电话时,曲面手机能很好地贴合面部线条,你的嘴离通话麦克风更近,这样你的声音听起来会更清晰,而且曲面显示屏可略微提升在手机上观看视频的体验。此外,在掉落或磕碰的情况下,手机的柔韧性可让G Flex更耐用。然而,销售是否能弥补LG在制造工艺上付出的努力——是艰巨的努力——仍然没有定论。“It took a while to get the manufacturing tools in place, ” said Abbott, adding that LG had to buy and make its own machinery to manufacture the flexible phones.“准备好制造工具就花了一段时间。”阿特说,他补充说,LG不得不购买并制造自己的机器设备,以生产柔性手机。Another challenge was in creating displays that can bend over and over. The G Flex contains a plastic OLED display, covered by a thin glass coating from LG Chem另一个挑战就是制造出能一再被弯折的显示屏。G Flex采用塑料OLED显示屏,上面覆盖薄薄的一层由LG化学公司生产的玻璃涂层,最后的大猩猩玻璃层由康宁公司(Corning)生产。Universal Display, which does joint development on flexible screens with Samsung and LG. The other challenge is making sure plastic OLED displays can withstand the temperatures for processing substrates on top.美国通用显示器公司(Universal Display)技术商品化副总裁贾尼斯·马翁(Janice Mahon)表示,像LG这样的显示屏生产商花了多年时间,才打造出最初的一款足够密封、不会轻易让气体和水汽透过屏幕的塑料OLED层。通用显示器公司与三星和LG联合开发柔性屏幕。另一个挑战是要确保塑料OLED显示屏能够经受住加工叠加在其上的基板时的温度。Samsung’s own curved device, the Round, curves horizontally and is in a fixed position, making it an early step in the gradual evolution flexible devices. “We look at the whole flexible whole opportunity as being akin to learning to crawl, then walk, then learning to run a marathon, ” said Universal Display’s Mahon. “The first flexible displays on the market will be put into a fixed, rigid embodiment, curved into a smartphone.” They’ll aim to be better on form factor and ergonomics. “Those are benefits at the first stage, ” she said. Eventually the technology will become more robust and manufacturers can take small steps towards something more advanced, like a pen with a screen that rolls out. (See the concept image from Universal Display below.)三星自己的曲面设备GALAXY Round为横向弯曲,且弯曲弧度固定,在向柔性设备的逐渐演化中迈出了较早的一步。“我们将整个研发柔性屏的过程看成这样一个过程:先学习爬、然后学会走、然后学会跑马拉松。”通用显示器公司的马翁表示,“市场上第一批柔性显示屏将采用固定弧度,不能自由弯曲,在智能手机中使用。”这种显示屏具有更出色的硬件规格和人体工程学设计。“这些是第一阶段就能实现的好处。”她说。最终,该技术将更为可靠稳健,制造商可采取小步走的方式,生产出某种更先进的产品,比如在一笔上,屏幕可以展开(参见下面的通用显示器公司的概念产品图片)。Mahon believes the world is three to five years away from something like this concept pen. In fact, a recent patent filing by Samsung shoes a very similar, pen-like device with a pull-out, flexible display. Mahon says researchers are currently looking at use cases for flexible displays in pens, wearable technology and even fabrics.马翁相信,再过三至五年,类似这种概念钢笔的某样东西就会出现。事实上,最近由三星提交的一份专利申请就是一款与之非常类似、像钢笔一样的设备,上面有一块可以拉出的柔性显示屏。马翁说,研究人员目前正在研究柔性显示屏在钢笔、可穿戴技术甚至织物上的使用案例。LG’s Ramchan Woo, head of the company’s mobile product planning division, said at a launch event for the G Flex on Tuesday that he saw smartphones moving towards “curved, bendable, foldable, and wearable” devices, but he didn’t elaborate on how LG would further develop its flexible device technology.LG移动产品策划部门主管Ramchan Woo在本周二G Flex的发布会上表示,他看到智能手机正向“曲面、可弯曲、可折叠、可穿戴”设备的方向发展,但他未详细说明LG柔性设备技术会如何进一步发展。Might LG bring out a smaller version of a bendable phone? “The engineers figure that the six-inch display is optimal for that curvature, ” Abbott answered.可能LG会推出一款较小型的可弯曲智能手机?“工程师们认为,6英寸显示屏对这类可弯曲手机来说是最合适的。”阿特回答道。For now LG is targeting early adopters and people who like watching movies or playing games on their phones. “That content could be viewed more easily in an immersive display, ” he added. The proof will be in unit sales, which is probably why LG is sitting tight, and not saying very much about where the G Flex might go from here.眼下,LG的目标是早期采用者和喜欢用手机看电影或玩游戏的人。“那类内容在一款沉浸式显示屏上看起来会更加轻松。”他补充说。据就是销量,这可能是LG为何采取观望态度,没有对G Flex未来的发展方向做太多说明的原因。 /201312/269044

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