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2017年10月23日 07:01:25来源:飞排名服务平台

Finance and economics财经商业Defining class in Mexico墨西哥阶层划定Middle worth中产阶级的价值Politicians and statisticians hunt for the middle class政治家和统计员们寻找中产阶级IN THE hallowed name of the middle class, Mexicos politicians have been doing a lot of huffing and puffing lately.在中产阶级的神圣名义下,墨西哥的政治家最近一直在进行大量愤怒抨击。The source of their indignation is the presidents plan to raise income tax on annual salaries over 500,000 pesos and impose value-added tax on private schooling and mortgage payments.他们愤怒的起因是总统对年工资收入超过500,000比索的人提高所得税和对私人学校和抵押贷款征收增值税的计划。That, the peoples representatives complain, would beat the stuffing out of ordinary, hard-working families, so they plan to spare them the tax on schooling and housing.这样的话,人民的代表们抱怨道,会使普通的,努力工作的家庭一蹶不振,所以他们打算帮他们在教育和房贷方面减轻税务负担。If only the middle class were so lucky.如果中产阶级有这么幸运的话。According to measurements by the national statistics institute, most of its members earn nowhere near the 500,000-peso threshold, let alone send their children to private school or pay mortgages.根据国家统计局的测量,它的大部分成员每年赚的远远不到500,000门槛,更不用说送他们的孩子去私人学校或者付抵押贷款了。Defining the middle class in Mexico has become a subject of fierce debate since two pundits, Luis de la Calle and Luis Rubio, published a book last year called Mexico: A Middle Class Society.明确在墨西哥的中产阶级成为激烈辩论的一个话题,自从两个学者,Luis de Ia Calle and Luis Rubio,去年出版了一本名为墨西哥:一个中产阶级社会。Poor No More, Developed Not Yet.不再贫穷,尚未发达。It claimed that more than half of Mexicos population had joined the bourgeoisie.它声称超过一半的墨西哥人口已经成为了资产阶级。INEGIs statisticians were sceptical, partly because the book used access to technology as a measure of social status.国家统计局的统计员们对此持怀疑态度,部分是因为这本书以接触到现代科技作为社会地位的估量措施。So the institute set out to develop a new definition, not based on any preconceptions of what a middle-class household should look like.所以这个机构着手发展一个新的定义,不是基于任何对中产阶级的房子应该是什么样子的先入之见。First, INEGI looked at spending rather than income.首先,国家统计局把视线投向花费而不是收入。It reckoned spending is less likely to be underreported in its household surveys, and may also incorporate information about savings and expected future earnings.它认为花费更不可能在家庭调查中被低估,并且它可能还包含着储蓄和预期未来收入的信息。Household spending, however, can be a slippery gauge of social status.不过家庭花费可能是社会地位一个不容易捉摸的标准。It may rise in families with many children and fall among the elderly.它可能在孩子很多的家庭上升和老年人下降。It can be distorted by one-off events, such as illness or funerals.它可能被一次性的事件曲解,例如疾病或者葬礼。So INEGI focused on 17 categories of spending that are recurrent and to some extent discretionary, such as the number of rooms in a home, or outlays on chicken, education or haircuts.所以国家统计局集中关注17种周期性的并且在某种程度上具有任意性的花费,例如家里的房间数,或者在鸡肉上的花费,教育或者美发。This allowed INEGI to sort households into seven groups.这样使国家统计局将家庭分为七个种类。It then analysed these using more typical variables, such as income per head, education, age, family size and type of work.它接着使用更多的典型变量来分析这些家庭,如每个人头的收入,教育,年龄,家庭规模和工作类型。The combination of the two forms of analysis allowed it to establish levels of income at which consumption patterns tend to change.两种分析形式的结合让它能确立收入水平,在这种水平下消费模式有变化的趋势。INEGI concluded that Mexicos middle class, at 39% of the population, was much smaller than Messrs De la Calle and Rubio had estimated, but in keeping with the estimates of institutions like the World Bank.国家统计局总结墨西哥的中产阶级,占人口的39%,远远小于两位学者曾经估计的,而与像世界之类的机构估计一致。Moreover, middle-class Mexicans are not nearly as affluent as the politicians imagine, even if they are a lot more secure than those beneath them. Annual incomes reach only about 120,000 pesos—less than a quarter of the sum needed to enter the top tax bracket.更进一步,中产墨西哥人不是如同政治家们想象的那么富裕的,尽管他们要远远比那些在他们之下的人要安全的多。Only 29% of the middle class have children at private school, and just 9% pay mortgages.年度收入仅仅为120,000比索—少于进入最高税级所需要数额的四分之一。仅仅有29%的中产阶级的孩子在私人学校上学,以及9%在付房贷。Politicians, in contrast, earn upwards of 1m pesos a year, which makes them almost ten times wealthier than a middle-class person as defined by INEGI.政治家们,相反,每年赚超过1百万比索,这让他们几乎比一个被国家统计局定义为中产阶级的人富有十倍。No wonder they are out of touch.难怪他们与现实脱节。 /201310/260335。

  • Online gaming网络游戏Streaming down the Amazon流入亚马逊Why Amazon is buying a -game streaming site亚马逊为何要购入一个流媒体视频游戏网站ON OCTOBER 4th 2013, tens of thousands of gamers packed the Staples Centre inLos Angelesto watch SK Telecom T1 triumph over Royal Club in the annual finals of “League of Legends”, a team-based game; 32m people watched the games live at some point, about 50% more than watch “Sunday Night Football”. But they did not watch on television. They used Twitch.tv, a website founded in 2011 that streams live directly to users computers.2013年10月4日,成千上万的游戏玩家挤在洛杉矶的斯台普斯中心围观SK Telecom T1在团队视频游戏“英雄联盟”年度总决赛上击败了Royal Club;观看这场游戏竞赛直播的观众人数多达3200万人,这比观看“周日橄榄球之夜”的观众人数多了约50%。但他们没有用电视观看直播,而是使用Twitch.tv,一家在2011年建立的直接面向用户电脑的流媒体视频直播网站。On August 25th Amazon announced that it would buy Twitch for 0m, an indication of the growing importance of -streaming websites. Amazon was not the only one interested: a few months ago Google had been rumoured to be on the verge of offering billion for the firm as well.在8月25日,亚马逊宣布其将花费9.7亿美元收购Twitch,这显示了流媒体视频网站日益增长的重要性。亚马逊并不是唯一一家对Twitch感兴趣的公司;数月前,有传闻说谷歌也差点想以10亿美元收购这家公司。Video-streaming websites are not new. Twitch.tv was spun out of Justin.tv, a site set up in 2007 to allow Justin Kan, one of its founders, to broadcast his life to anyone who was interested. Soon, everyone could use it, letting them make television shows with nothing more expensive than a webcam and a computer.流媒体视频网站并不是新事物。Twitch.tv是从Justin.tv独立出来的,而Justin.tv是在2007创立的,其创建者之一Justin Kan可以通过其传播他的生活点滴,任何对此感兴趣的人都可以订阅。不久后,每个人都可以使用这个网站制作发布他们各自的视频节目,且只用一个摄像头和一台电脑就能完成。It is the combination of streaming and games that has attracted Amazons interest. Gaming became the most popular genre on Justin.tv, and Twitch was created to appeal to players. Viewers watch people play competitively, give advice on how to improve, or simply discuss anything that takes their fancy. The best streamers earn a comfortable living from advertising revenue and donations from fans.流媒体和视频游戏的结合,是这一点引起了亚马逊的兴趣。游戏成了Justin.tv网站上最受欢迎的版块,创建Twitch就是为了吸引玩家。观众们观看这些玩家激烈的竞赛,获得如何提升游戏技巧的建议,或者只是谈论他们感兴趣的事。顶尖的视频网站玩家因有广告收入和粉丝的捐赠而可获得舒适的生活。In July Twitch attracted 55m viewers, who collectively watched 15 billion minutes of . That was enough to make it the biggest consumer of bandwidth inAmericaafter Netflix, Google and Apple. The typical Twitch viewer spends almost two hours a day on the site, far more than on sites like Netflix or YouTube. That delights advertisers, as does Twitchs audience: mostly young men with plenty of disposable income.在7月,Twitch吸引了5500万访问者,而这些访问者累计共观看了150亿分钟的视频。这足以使其成为美国继网飞、谷歌、苹果之后最大的带宽消费者。典型的Twitch订阅者每天会在此网站上花费近2小时,远远超过他们在Netflix或YouTube上花费的时间。这使得广告商们很是高兴,同样高兴的还有Twitch的订阅者—他们大都是有着大量可配收入的年轻人。Amazons boss, Jeff Bezos, presumably thinks Twitchs breakneck growth will continue. He is paying nearly four times what he forked out for the Washington Post in 2013. But he will need to t carefully. Twitchs users like the sites free-and-easy feel.Some worry that absorption into the Amazonian mother ship may not be compatible with a laid-back atmosphere. But if Amazon starts making changes, there is little to stop streamers and viewers defecting to rival sites such as Hitbox.亚马逊的总裁Jeff Bezos大概认为Twitch的高速增长将会持续。他收购Twitch的花费是2013年收购华盛顿邮报花费的近4倍。但是他需要谨慎行事。Twitch的用户喜爱的是该网站自由与轻松的感觉。有些人担心, Twitch与亚马逊母舰兼并的过程可能不会太轻松。但是如果亚马逊开始对Twitch的做出改变,就没有什么能阻止Twitch的视频发布者和订阅者转向Hitbox等竞争对手网站。 /201409/324973。
  • Domestic work in the South美国南方的家务The Help, updated升级的“帮佣”Maids are no longer servants帮佣不再是仆人UNDER segregation, black women were so rigidly excluded from good jobs that 60% of those who were employed in 1940 worked as maids. With so few other choices, their wages were lousy and their white bosses could treat them abysmally. In Kathryn Stocketts novel “The Help”, set in the early 1960s, a black maid is fired for using an indoor toilet rather than braving a tornado to use the outhouse; her revenge, involving a chocolate pie, is not for the squeamish.在种族隔离的时代,黑人妇女被严格地排除在好工作之外。在1940年,那些得到工作机会的有60%从事女佣的工作。由于几乎没有其他的选择,他们的工资极低此外她们还可能遭受白人雇主的极坏对待。在凯瑟琳·斯多克特的小说《帮助》中,她讲述了一个发生于上世纪60年代早期的故事。一个黑人女佣由于在龙卷风肆虐的时候使用了室内卫生间而不是世外卫生间而被解雇。她用一个巧克力派进行报复,这并不是由于她太过于生气。Times have changed. In 1935, six out of ten urban white families above the poverty line in the South had a full-time domestic servant, compared with under 20% in the North. Now hardly anyone does. People who want help with the housework typically hire cleaners for a few hours a week, not as live-in flunkeys with whom they pretend to have a warm relationship. A cleaner arrives, blitzes the house with a Hoover and various chemicals and drives to the next job. Employers are less likely to be paternalistic and more likely to be absent, since women now hold half the jobs in America.如今时代变了。1935年,美国南方60%生活在贫困线以上的城市白人家庭雇佣一个全职女佣,北方的这一数据不足20%,如今几乎没有家庭这么做。人们若想请人帮助做家务往往会雇佣清洁工(或女佣)每周过来做几个小时,而不是住家的那种穿着制的女仆,雇主还得假装与女佣之间保持热情友好的关系。现在,一个保洁员匆匆赶来,以闪电战的速度用胡佛吸尘器和各种化学清洁器打扫完一家然后快速赶到下一家。雇主也不似以前那样那么大家长制并且更可能是不在家的,因为现在美国,女性顶起了职场的半边天。Thanks to labour-saving devices, maids are much more productive than in the old days. This is one reason why they earn far more, though they are still close to the bottom of the income scale. A typical Southern maid makes about 9.11 an hour, which is less than those in richer parts of the country. The metro area where the highest proportion of workers are maids is Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, a popular resort.幸亏有节省劳动力的电器设施,保洁人员现在的工作效率比以往高得多。这也是如今她们赚得更多的原因之一,尽管现在她们依然处于收入阶层最底层。南方的保洁工人每小时赚9.11美元,这略微比那些富裕地区的工资略低。在超级大都市工资最高的保洁工人是在南卡罗来纳州美特尔海滩这个备受欢迎的旅游胜地工作的人们。The demography of domestic service has changed, too. Mamie Garrett, whose family has run mortuaries in Greenville, South Carolina since 1952, remembers when other black women had few options besides becoming “a domestic”, but has herself employed help at home for decades. Some 44% of cleaners in America are Hispanic. Dalsi Lopez, a Guatemalan who tidies posh apartments in Atlanta, says many Latinas become cleaners because poor English bars them from other jobs. Nationwide, 27% of maids are illegal immigrants, estimates the Pew Research Centre, a think-tank.国内务的人口统计学业发生了变化。玛米·加勒特住在南卡罗来纳州,她家自1952年就在格林威尔经营停尸间称她依然记得当其他的黑人妇女除了当一个“家庭女佣”之外几乎别无选择时,她可以在自家的店里工作,一做就是几十年。美国保洁工人中44%的人是西班牙裔。Dalsi Lopez是一个危地马拉人在亚特兰大整理豪华的公寓。他称许多拉丁美洲人成为保洁工人是因为贫乏的英语水平成为他们寻找其他工作的障碍。皮尤研究中心这个智囊团估计在全国范围27%的女佣是非法移民。According to the American Cleaning Institute, an industry group, just 12% of Americans had a regular cleaner in 2008. Some budget-conscious families use websites such as Yelp and Angies List to hire temporary help only when they need it. Those with a little more money may opt for a concierge service such as Girl Friday of Alabama. Girl Fridays clients, 85% of whom are white, pay the agency to pamper them. For 17-30 an hour, it will send someone to cook a delicious dinner for visiting in-laws, buy a present for Uncle Hank or book the family holiday. Its founder, Jasmine Allen, has six employees who do most of the dirty work and a smart new office in a tech hub in Birmingham.根据美国清洁协会这个行业组织的资料,2008年仅有12%的美国家庭雇佣一个长期的保洁工人。一些有预算意识的家庭若需要保洁务,会通过诸如Yelp and Angies List这样的网站雇佣临时的保洁工人。星期五女孩这样的务网站的客户85%是白人,他们付费给中介为他们找临时保洁员。每小时只需付17至30美元就能叫来一个人帮他们做一顿美味的正餐或者帮助拜访一位姻亲或者为某位亲戚买个礼物,抑或帮他们预订一个家庭假期。该中介的创始人艾伦在伯明翰的科技港有一间大气的新办公室雇有六个吃苦耐劳不怕脏不怕累的员工。Shelly Haines, a former teacher and pet baby-sitter in Miami, runs a firm called “Savvy Shelly” that caters to especially demanding customers. One called her late on a Sunday to ask her to send eggnog from a particular farm shop to Houston by overnight mail as a gift for a visiting brother. Another has her ensuring everything on board his boat is shipshape. Sometimes customers even want her to act “as some kind of therapist”, she sighs. The help cant answer every cry for help.Shelly Haines居住在迈阿密,以前是老师,也做过儿童保姆,现在经营了一家公司名叫“通灵雪莉”专为高要求的客户提供定制务。某周天的傍晚有一位客户打电话给她请她将一坛蛋酒从一个特定的农场连夜邮寄至休斯顿,这将是他们送给访问的兄弟的回礼。另外一位客户要求她确保他装船的所有东西是井然有序整整齐齐的。她叹气道,有些客户甚至让她扮演某种临床专家。帮工不是万能的,他们不可能像超人那样无所不能。 /201409/324971。
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