樟树去痘坑多少钱飞度排名问医生

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月20日 05:45:52
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Before the Whitney Museum of American Art moved to its new location in Lower Manhattan, it hosted a discussion about what it means for a museum to be a safe and welcoming space.惠特尼美国艺术物馆(Whitney Museum of American Art)搬到曼哈顿下城之前,进行了一场关于如何让物馆变得更加安全可亲的讨论。Providing restrooms for everyone on the gender spectrum was near the top of the list.为各种性别的人提供卫生间排在榜单前列。“We invited artists of all gender identifications in,” said Danielle Linzer, the director of access and community programs, “and we heard loud and clear that it was something they really needed access to. Rather than being euphemistic, we decided to be direct.”物馆的使用权和社区项目主管丹妮尔·林策(Danielle Linzer)说:“我们邀请具有各种性别身份的艺术家前来。我们清楚地听到他们的呼声,这真的是他们需要的设施。我们打算采用直接而非委婉的说法。”The signs at the new building say “All Gender Restroom,” and Ms. Linzer has observed women wondering aloud, “You mean I can go in the men’s room?”新馆址的标识是“全性别卫生间”(All Gender Restroom)。林策注意到有些女人们问道:“你的意思是我能进男厕所?”The Whitney isn’t alone in being challenged to rethink one of the most basic uses of public space. With the issues of serving openly in the military and same-sex marriage now largely resolved, the fight for all-gender restrooms has emerged as the latest civil rights issue in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (L.G.B.T.) community — particularly the “T” part.不止惠特尼物馆这一个机构需要重新思考这个最基本的公共空间。在允许同性恋公开身份参军以及同性婚姻的话题反复出现后,争取全性别卫生间成为女同、男同、双性恋和跨性别者(LGBT)——尤其是最后一个群体——最新的人权活动事项。Schools and universities (including Johns Hopkins and Michigan State), museums (like the American Folk Art Museum in New York City and the Utah Museum of Fine Arts in Salt Lake City), restaurants both trendy and modest (such as the Pass amp; Provisions in Houston and the Midtown Cafe in Santa Cruz, Calif.) and even the White House (in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building) are recasting the traditional men’s/women’s room, resulting in a dizzying range of (often creative) signage and vocabulary.很多学校和大学(包括约翰·霍普金斯大学[Johns Hopkins]和密歇根州立大学[Michigan State])、物馆(比如纽约市的美国民间艺术物馆[American Folk Art Museum]和盐湖城的犹他州美术物馆[Utah Museum of Fine Arts])、时髦和保守的餐馆(比如休斯敦的Pass amp; Provisions和加利福尼亚州圣克鲁斯市的中城咖啡馆[Midtown Cafe])以及白宫(艾森豪威尔行政办公楼[Eisenhower Executive Office Building])正在重塑传统的区分男女的卫生间,出现了各种令人眼花缭乱的(往往也是很有创意的)标识和称呼。Part of the reason is legal. Seattle, Berkeley, Santa Fe, Austin and Philadelphia are among the cities that have passed laws requiring single-user all-gender restrooms. Philadelphia has an online Gotta Go Guide showing the location of such facilities, and there’s an app, Refuge Restrooms, that does the same nationwide.这其中有法律方面的原因。西雅图、伯克利、圣菲、奥斯汀和费城等城市立法要求设立每次仅供一人使用的全性别卫生间。费城在Gotta Go Guide网站上发布了这些设施的地点,另外还有一个应用程序Refuge Restrooms展示全国范围内这些设施的地点。Philadelphia businesses will have 90 days to become compliant, said Helen L. Fitzpatrick, director of the mayor’s office of L.G.B.T. affairs. “But the goal is that nobody should ever receive a fine,” she said. “I will be going out and using the law as a teachable moment.”费城市长办公室的LGBT事务主管海伦·L·菲茨帕特里克(Helen L. Fitzpatrick)说,费城的各个行业将有90天时间来实施法律规定,“不过,我们的目标是没有一个单位收到罚单。我会出去巡查,将这项法律用作一个教育的时机”。Introducing a new lexicon is part of the process. In September, Ms. Fitzpatrick visited a bar with an offensive sign about Caitlyn Jenner in the window. After she spoke to the owners, a new sign went up: “Cis-gender white men learned something new today!!”这个过程包括想出一个合适的说法。今年9月,费城的一家酒吧在窗户上贴出拿凯特琳·詹纳(Caitlyn Jenner)开玩笑的无礼标语。菲茨帕特里克赶到那个酒吧,跟老板们谈了以后,他们竖起了一个新标语:“顺性别的白人今天学到了新知识!!”The legal sanction hasn’t gone unchallenged, even after a landmark case in Maine last year, when Nicole Maines, a transgender high school student, successfully sued the school district that had denied her access to the restroom of the gender with which she identified. (Her story is chronicled in a new book, “Becoming Nicole.”)这项法律制裁并不是没有遭到质疑,即便是在去年缅因州的那个里程碑事件发生之后。当时,变性高中生妮科尔·梅因斯(Nicole Maines)起诉学校禁止她使用她认为自己应该去的卫生间,并赢得了诉讼(新书《成为妮科尔》[Becoming Nicole]记录了她的故事)。In September, the school board in Elko County, Nev., voted to keep transgender students out of restrooms corresponding to their gender identity. In Wisconsin, two state legislators want to require school boards to designate restrooms as exclusive to one gender, and gender is defined as the “physical condition of being male or female.” (In neighboring Minnesota, the Democratic-led State Senate defeated a similar bill.)今年9月,内华达州埃尔科县的教育委员会投票决定,继续禁止变性学生进入他们认为自己应该去的卫生间。在威斯康星州,两位州立法委员想要求校委会规定卫生间仅供某一种性别的人使用,性别标准根据“身体性征”界定(在旁边的明尼苏达州,以民主党为主的州参议院否决了类似的提案)。And on Tuesday in Houston, voters rejected a measure known as the bathroom ordinance, which would prohibit discrimination based on gender identity.周二(11月3日),在休斯敦,投票者否决了一项被称为卫生间法令的措施,这项法令意在禁止基于性别身份的歧视。But some change is taking place because organizations believe it simply makes sense. Samuel Bass is the principal of Miraloma Elementary School in San Francisco, where restrooms for the younger grades are now all-gender, and the remaining facilities will be converted.但是,有些机构正在进行变革,因为他们觉得那样更合情理。塞缪尔·巴斯(Samuel Bass)是旧金山米拉洛马小学(Miraloma Elementary School)的校长,现在该校低年级的卫生间都是全性别的,其他的设施也将进行改造。“For too long in K through 12, we have asked every single student to conform to one or the other binary,” he said. “We had several students on the gender spectrum, and decided it was the right thing to do. It doesn’t affect other students. Children don’t know gender norms until we as adults teach them. With any change, parents have questions. When they realize that it’s just like it is at home, it’s not a big deal.”他说:“有太长时间,从幼儿园到高中,我们让每位学生必须在男和女之间选择一种性别,并遵守它的行为规范。但是我们发现有几个学生不属于任何一种,所以我们认为需要做些改变。这不会影响其他学生。如果不是我们大人这样教孩子们,他们并不会知道那些所谓的性别规范。只要有改变,家长们就会产生质疑。但是当他们明白这就像在家里一样时,就会觉得也没什么大不了的。”Many transgender people report planning their days around where and when they can go, enduring bladder infections if they hold it in, risking harassment or violence if they don’t. The Stonewall Center, an L.G.B.T. resource group at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, recently completed the first national study of college students who identify as something other than male or female. Guess what almost everyone named as the biggest issue?很多变性者称,他们按照自己能在何时何地上厕所来安排一天的生活,如果强忍,就可能感染膀胱炎;如果不忍,就可能遭遇骚扰或暴力。前不久,马萨诸塞大学阿默斯特分校的LGBT资源组织石墙中心(The Stonewall Center)完成了第一份关于非传统男女性别大学生的全国调查报告。你猜猜几乎所有人都认为的最大问题是什么?Even when the intention is inclusivity, the reality is complicated. Under the New York City Human Rights Law, people must be allowed to use the single-sex restroom consistent with their gender identity.即使目标是包容,现实也很复杂。按照纽约市人权法,人们应该被允许使用自己认同的性别身份的单性别卫生间。But strict plumbing codes or landmark status mean that businesses can’t just change the signage and then be in compliance. Multiple codes regulate the requirements, depending on the type of building, the year it was built and occupancy. In some cases, the code stipulates that a venue is allowed to have all-gender facilities rather than being required to do so, reflecting a shift from economic to societal considerations.但是严格的管道施工规定或建筑物的地标身份意味着各个行业不是仅仅更改标识就能遵守法律规定,而是需要考虑多项法规的要求,包括建筑物的类型、修建年份和使用情况。在某些情况下,法律规定一个场所可以设立全性别卫生间,而不是必须这样做,反映出从经济到社会因素考虑的转变。Broadway theaters are still grappling with the issue, but the Theater at Ace Hotel in downtown Los Angeles had all-gender restrooms for the red carpet premiere of the Emmy-winning television series “Transparent.” (The digital series about a father transitioning to being a woman introduced a guerrilla campaign in the lead-up to the awards in which the production company covered up gender-specific signs on the doors of single-stall restrooms in restaurants, replacing them with signage that said “Be Transparent.”)百老汇的剧院仍在纠结这个问题,不过洛杉矶市中心的埃斯酒店剧院(Theater at Ace Hotel)为艾美奖获奖电视剧《透明家庭》(Transparent)的红毯首映礼准备了全性别卫生间(这部在流媒体上播放的电视剧讲述了一位正变性成女人的父亲的故事。在艾美奖颁奖之前,为了宣传该剧,制作公司打起了游击营销战,把餐馆单独隔间厕所门上的具体性别标识遮了起来,换成写着“透明”字样的标识)。Public restrooms didn’t become commonplace in this country until the late 19th century. A cholera epidemic during the Civil War made people realize that it was inappropriate to throw the contents of a chamber pot out the window, and generated a deep commitment to public hygiene.直到19世纪末,公共卫生间才在美国成为常见事物。美国内战期间的霍乱瘟疫让人们意识到,把夜壶里的脏东西倒到窗外不合适,并对公共卫生作出坚定承诺。Ever since their introduction, restrooms have been a curious ground zero for civil rights, whether for African-Americans or people with disabilities.从诞生之初,卫生间就出人意料地成为民权运动的一个重要战场,不管是对非裔美国人还是对残障人士来说。Discrimination against transgender people has brought the issue into sharp new focus. But the idea of shared restrooms is not new, as fans of “Ally McBeal” will remember (even though the facilities at the Cage and Fish law firm often seemed to be commandeered for frolicking with Jon Bon Jovi or Robert Downey Jr.).对变性人士的歧视让这个问题成为新的关注焦点。不过,共享卫生间的想法其实并不新鲜,电视剧《甜心俏佳人》(Ally McBeal)的粉丝们应该都还记得(尽管凯奇菲什律师事务所[Cage and Fish]的男女通用卫生间似乎大多被用来与乔恩·邦乔维[Jon Bon Jovi]或小罗伯特·唐尼[Robert Downey Jr.]调情)。That fictional multi-stall restroom gets more complicated in real life, especially if it’s the only option; some places are taking the less controversial route of single-user facilities, and some are covering their bets by continuing to provide traditional male or female restrooms, too.该剧中虚构的多隔间卫生间在现实生活中变得更加复杂,尤其是如果只有这一种卫生间的话。有些地方提供不太有争议的供单人使用的卫生间;另一些地方则不敢冒险,继续同时提供传统的男女分开的卫生间。As with gender self-identification, even the language is tricky: gender-neutral, all-gender, gender-inclusive, gender-open, unisex … all are in the mix. Barnard College uses the term “Gender Inclusive” on restroom doors that also show icons of toilets and dripping faucets. (Barnard’s efforts to educate the campus included a flier that proclaimed, “We want everyone to be able to pee in peace.”)至于性别自我认同,甚至连术语都五花八门且微妙:中性、全性别、性别包容、性别开放、男女通用……巴纳德学院(Barnard College)卫生间的门上写的是“性别包容”,另外还有马桶和滴水水龙头的图标(巴纳德在校园里发传单进行教育宣传,上面写道:“我们希望每个人都能平静地如厕”)。The University of Nevada, Las Vegas chose a colorful commode and the words “Gender Neutral” and “Unisex,” although these terms meet with less than enthusiasm in the transgender community.内华达大学分校(The University of Nevada, Las Vegas)采用色坐便器图标以及“中性”和“男女通用”等标语,不过这些说法在变性者群体中遭到冷遇。“To me, saying gender-neutral is like saying colorblind,” said Genny Beemyn, director of the Stonewall Center. “We see gender. To deny it is to deny people’s reality. We’re trying to increase recognition of the diversity of gender rather than to erase it.”石墙中心的主管真妮·比明(Genny Beemyn)说,“在我看来,说中性就像是说我们是色盲。我们能看到性别差异。否认它就是否认现实。我们是想让人们更多地意识到性别的多样性,而不是抹杀它。”The term “all gender” seems to be in favor. That’s what it says on restrooms at the New School in New York City, along with pictographs of the plumbing inside. “I never thought I’d be talking so much about urinals,” said Gail Drakes, director of social justice initiatives.“全性别”这个术语似乎更受欢迎。纽约市新学院大学(New School)的卫生间就是采用这种说法,还配上了内部管道的图标。该校社会公平项目的主管盖尔·德雷克(Gail Drakes)说:“我从未想到我会就男用小便池展开这么多讨论。”In a state not generally regarded as a bastion of progressive thinking, there are all-gender restrooms at the University of Utah. Illinois State University also decided on that signage, with a somewhat prolix addendum: “Anyone may use this restroom regardless of gender, gender identity or expression.” “We’re not changing the purpose of the facility,” said M. Shane McCreery, director of equal opportunity, ethics and access at the school, “just acknowledging that we recognize everyone and want them to be included.”人们通常不认为犹他州是进步思想的堡垒,但犹他大学却提供全性别卫生间。伊利诺伊州立大学(Illinois State University)也采用这种说法,还加了一句冗长的解释:“无论性别、性别身份或表达,任何人都可以使用这个洗手间。”该校公平机会、道德和使用权主管M·沙恩·麦克里里(M. Shane McCreery)说:“我们不是要改变这些设施的用途,只是想承认,我们认可并包容所有人。”It’s unsurprising that college students are pushing the agenda of all-gender access. The tectonic plates of corporate America shift more slowly. The policy at Target is that “family” restrooms suffice for now. Starbucks issued a boilerplate assertion that “a coffeehouse should be a welcoming, inviting and familiar place.” (Translation: Some locations have all-gender restrooms, and there may be more.)大学生们在推动修建更多全性别洗手间,这并不奇怪。美国的公司改变起来就更慢。塔吉特百货公司(Target)的政策是“家庭”卫生间足以满足目前的需要。星巴克(Starbucks)发布了一句套话:“咖啡馆应该是一个让人觉得热情亲切的地方(意思就是:有些地方有全性别卫生间,可能还会有更多)”。But Nike World Headquarters in Oregon is using a simple black-and-white image of a toilet, created by a 28-year-old self-described social justice advocate named Sam Killermann. He was motivated by the prevalence of a “Victor/Victoria” stick figure wearing a divided skirt/pants that is widely loathed by those who identify as gender nonconforming and stress that they don’t feel like half of anything.不过,俄勒冈州的耐克全球总部(Nike World Headquarters)采用的是简单的黑白马桶图标,它是28岁的山姆·基勒曼(Sam Killermann)创作的。他自称社会公平持者,他的创作动机是,很多非传统性别人士憎恶常见的穿着一半裙子和一半裤子的“雌雄莫辨”简笔人物画,因为他们不认为自己是任何东西的一半。“People were terrified of this idea,” Mr. Killermann said, “and the conversation kept coming back to: What do we put on the door? I kind of snapped, not in a bad way, and did a blog post making fun of the half-woman/half-man sign, hoping it would illustrate how absurd it was and the very real issue of people being safe.”基勒曼说:“人们讨厌这种表达,那么问题又回到了原点:我们该在卫生间门上贴什么?我有点恼火,不过我的发泄方式还不算太坏,我在客上发了一个帖子,取笑半男半女的标识,希望它能表明这是多么荒谬,让人们明白真正的问题是人们需要安全感。”A Brooklyn company called SmartSign, which used that hermaphrodite-ish graphic, contacted Mr. Killermann, offering to buy the rights to his toilet sign (and, by the way, he’s perfectly O.K. with being known as the toilet sign guy). He said the company could have it free. “They took that sentiment,” he said, “and one-upped me, and started giving it away.”布鲁克林的一家名叫SmartSign的公司本来用的也是类似雌雄同体的标识,它与基勒曼联系,提出购买他的厕所标识(顺便说一句,他完全不介意被称为厕所标识男孩)。他说,这家公司可以免费使用它。他说:“他们也理解人们的那种情绪,他们比我做得更好,开始四处分发。”So far, the company has donated the toilet sign to churches, hospitals, libraries, public school districts, food co-ops, one circus and 128 colleges.到目前为止,该公司把这种厕所标识捐赠给了教堂、医院、图书馆、公立学校、食品合作社、一个马戏团和128所大学。In many parts of the world, W.C. (water closet) is aly a well-established all-gender sign, but there are new variations from as far away as Kenya, where the door to each restroom at the Angama Mara Safari Lodge shows boy and girl Maasai warriors.在世界上的很多地方,WC(water closet)已经成为公认的全性别标识,但是在遥远的肯尼亚出现了一些新变体,比如安加马·马拉狩猎酒店(Angama Mara Safari Lodge)的所有卫生间门上挂的是马赛男战士和女战士图像。The White Dog Cafe in Philadelphia had an original solution: two restrooms designated for Democrats and Republicans, another two for Pointers and Setters. (A little joke about anatomy — get it?) “Customers loved the idea,” the former owner Judy Wicks said, “although it was confusing to foreigners. Tourists from Japan, where the culture is so polite, would stand there trying to figure out where to go.”费城的白咖啡馆(White Dog Cafe)想出了一个独创的解决方法:它把两个卫生间分别指定给民主党和共和党,另外两个指定给指示犬和塞特犬(这是一个关于解剖学的笑话,你看懂了吗?)这家咖啡馆的前老板朱迪·威克斯(Judy Wicks)说:“顾客们很喜欢这种标识,虽然外国人会感到迷惑。你知道日本人很讲礼貌,所以日本游客会站在那里,努力弄清该上哪个厕所。”(Alas, the new owners removed those signs. The four restrooms now have decals of dogs with no mention of gender.)(可惜呀,新老板们去掉了那些标识。现在的四个卫生间都贴着的图像,没提性别)。There is no mistaking who can go where at the Founding Farmers restaurant in Washington, D.C.; its restroom doors Men, Women and the Rest of Us.在华盛顿特区的Founding Farmers餐馆,你绝不会上错厕所,它的卫生间门上写着“男人、女人和我们剩下这些人”。“Men are generally pigs in restrooms, and women are nice and sensible,” the owner Dan Simons said. “That’s where I started. I have two restrooms right next to each other, so I labeled one ‘Women’ and the other ‘Everyone.’ Then I received a letter saying that the restrooms were discriminatory because women had their own.这家餐馆的老板丹·西蒙斯(Dan Simons)说:“男人通常会把卫生间搞得一团糟,而女人就很好,很懂理。这启发了我。我们这儿有两个紧挨着的卫生间,我在一间门上写着‘女用’,另一间门上写着‘所有人都能用’。后来我收到一封信,说这样做带有歧视性,因为女人有自己的卫生间。”“I realized that for some people this is a stressful topic,” he added, “and I thought: ‘Why don’t I make it clear? We need a label that says no label.’ ”他补充说:“我发现,对有些人来说,这是个沉重的话题。所以我就想:‘我为什么不说清楚呢?我需要一个标识来表明这里没有任何标识’。” /201511/410437

Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.制是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可以看到穿着明亮橘色制的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制无处不在。The uniform#39;s place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country#39;s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.制在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制的风格都不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔甲。制常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers#39; ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.制也通常用来显示权威者的地位和阶级。在中国,西安兵马俑的穿着常见于秦朝。通过他们的穿着,可以明显地分辨出军官的军衔,例如,将军都是穿着两层长袍,长裤子,一双长方靴和带着一顶帽子。But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.然而在历史上,制也曾是时尚物品。中山装在20世纪50年代非常受欢迎,甚至女性的装也是类似的风格。中山装是由孙中山发明的,由于毛泽东非常喜欢在公共场合穿,因此中山装又称“毛装”。自此中山装成为了一种民族饰。In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.军事上,装一般都是遵循西式的风格,长裤、夹克以及帽子。原本没什么型的中山装也经历了现代化,款式上有了改变,更流线型的外观、更合体的剪裁凸显出男性的身材美。尽管在重要场合,中山装仍是中国领导人的首要选择,但是在社会日常生活中很少见。Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制,尤其是务业。“In Europe, you don#39;t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,; she says. ;A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”“与中国相比,欧洲穿制的人不那么常见。从事务业的人仍然穿制,因为这可以投射出你所期望的务和专业”,她还说,“制是客户如何看待你的一个标准,但员工的感觉也很重要,合身的制穿在身上能够展现自信和美丽”。Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms#39;appearance in the future: ;Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,; she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. ;They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.;Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。But China#39;s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.但是在中国,不仅仅是务业钟情于制,虽然对此没有单一的解释,但是这可能反应了一种内在的集体文化,自我认同往往体现在集体关系中。在工作场所或者学校,如果能够成为集体中的一部分,那么他们就有很强的自我认同感。On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. ;I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,; he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I#39;m part of a team. I like all of it.;在北京的街头,人们对穿制的感受参差不齐。在银座购物中心外面,我们采访了邢,一个来自山西的保安,他穿着一套藏青色的保安(如上图所示)。“当我穿上制时,我感觉自己像一个战士,”他说,同时站了一个军姿,“这让我感觉我是这个团队的一员,我非常喜欢这一切。”But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他有两套工作(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。;I don#39;t like the color. If I could change my uniform I#39;d change the color because the orange doesn#39;t look very attractive. The uniform isn#39;t comfortable. It#39;s checked regularly though so we can#39;t change it in any way,; says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.他说,“我不喜欢这个颜色。如果我能改变我的工作,我会改变这个颜色,因为橙色不大好看。而且这个工作也不舒,因为会定期检查,所以我们没法改变它”,他还说,清洁工都是穿自己的鞋子,但是雇主会提供洗衣粉。In fact, cleaners#39; uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. ;My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,; he says.事实上,工作区域不同,北京清洁工的制也是不同的。刘(上图右)今年51岁,是天安门广场的一个清洁工,穿着一件宝蓝色制,前胸是一抹醒目的黄色,他骑着一辆小型电动车,后面是一个捡垃圾的铲斗。他说,“我的制很舒,我觉得蓝色很好看。”His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao#39;s bright orange. The latter#39;s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment#39;s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.他的蓝色制与赵的橙色制形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制的风格很大程度上取决于务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲装,比如马球衫和运动。Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant#39;s theme of nostalgia.张(上图左),是簋街粗粮人家餐厅的务员,穿着一套印花套装,一双简单的黑布鞋,梳着麻花辫。除了有点像睡衣这点不足外,这套制看起来很有吸引力,这非常符合餐厅怀旧的风格。;I like my uniform because it#39;s unique and looks nice,” she says. ;It#39;s very comfortable.;“我非常喜欢我的制,因为它看起来很独特,很不错”,她说,“而且它很舒”。As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.像许多国家一样,中国人也是从很小的年纪开始穿制的。附(下图),北京第55中学的学生,今年12岁了,身着学校强制性统一的蓝白红相间的校。学生穿运动风格的校已经20多年了。;Foreigners at my school don#39;t have to wear the uniform. I#39;d rather not have to wear it either because I don#39;t think it looks very good. I think other countries#39; school uniforms look much better.;“外国学生在我们学校不用穿校。我也不想穿,因为我觉得我们的校不好看,我觉得其他国家的校要好看得多。”She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students#39; appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: ;They are the ugliest in the world.;他告诉我们,学校共发了三套校(都是运动风格的),一共480元。像许多校一样,运动风格的设计是为了防止学生之间攀比,也是为了消除学生选择穿什么衣的忧虑。校满足这些要求,但是代价是什么呢?一位在线者直言不讳地评价:“这些校是全世界最丑的。”This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.这个特别的是在美国第一夫人米歇尔2014年访问北京一所高中时发表的,她的行程照片被刊登在社交媒体上。者指出运动很实用,耐磨,但是很多人同时表示其他设计也能达到这一要求。For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer#39;s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.学生和成年人一样,穿制可以增加他们的信心。一些人表示穿时髦的校可以帮助学生表现得更好(至少他们会感到更开心)。2013年4月,河南省郑州市实验学校决定让学生自己设计校,这一决定受到家长和公众的一致好评,学生也从中得到了乐趣。;Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,; the school#39;s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.“这个年龄段的学生有他们自己的审美观”,该校的教务处主任冯艳告诉央视。Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms#39; historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.这一实验并不是指当代中国对制有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制在社会中仍将保持它的地位。 /201511/409788

While the Eastern Jin existed in the south, northern China fell into disunifi-cation of warfare. The Yellow River valley became the battlefield for warlords from the five Hu nationalities—the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Jie, the Diand the Qiang. Each Hu (minority) state established its own government to front the Eastern Jin and there were a bunch of countries came into existence and vanished. These governments are known as “the Sixteen States”.当东晋在江南建国的同时,中国的北方则陷人分裂混战,黄河流域成为匈奴、鲜卑、羯、氐、弟等五个主要游牧民族争杀的战场,并分别建立了自己的国家,相互争霸,不断有国家成立和灭亡,这些国家被称为北方的十六国。In 304, the Xiongnu noble Liu Yuan set up the Han state which, in 316, vanquished the Western Jin. In 439, the Tuoba tribe of the Xianbei nationality united the north. For over a hundred years, frequent wars took place among different nationalities, resulting in the establishment of 15 states. They were the Former Zhao (Xiongnu), the Later Zhao (Jie), the Former Yan (Xianbei), the Former Liang (Han), the Former Qin (Di), the Later Qin (Qiang), the Later Yan (Xianbei), the Western Qin (Xianbei ),the Later Liang ( Di), the Southern Liang (Xianbei), the Western Liang (Han), the Northern Liang (Lushuihu), the Southern Yan (Xianbei), the Northern Yan (Han), and the Xia (Xiongnu). These fifteen states together with the Han state of Cheng established by the Di nationality in the southwest are historically called the Sixteen States.从公元304年匈奴贵族刘渊建立汉国,316年灭掉西晋,到439年鲜卑拓拔部统一北方,这130多年里,北方各民族相互争战,先后建立了前赵(匈奴)、后赵(羯)、前燕 (鲜卑)、前凉(汉)、前秦(氐)、后秦(羌)、后燕(鲜卑)、西秦(鲜卑)、后凉(氐)、南 凉(鲜卑)、西凉(汉)、北凉(卢水胡)、南燕(鲜卑)、北燕(汉)、夏(匈奴)等15个政 权,连同西南氐族建立的成汉,共十六国,和东晋汉族政权长期对峙,史称五胡十六国。Besides, there were five regimes:the Wei founded by Ran Min of the Han nationality; the Wei founded by the Zhai family in Dingling; the Chouchi founded by the Yang family in Wudu, a leader of the Di nationality; the Western Yan founded by the Murong family of the Xianbei nationality, and the Dai by the Tuoba family of the Xianbei nationality. There were altogether 21 states in this period.除十六国之外,还有汉人冉闵建立的魏、丁灵翟氏建立的魏、武都氐帅杨氏建立的仇池国、鲜卑慕容氏建立的西燕、鲜卑拓跋氏建立的代五个政权,总计先后建立了21个政权。Among them, the Later Zhao,the Former Yan and the Former Qin successively occupied most of the northern territories;especially, the Former Qin almost united the whole northern part of China.上述政权中,后赵、前燕、前秦都曾占据过北方的大部分疆域。4世纪下半期,氐族贵族建立的前秦,基本上统一了北方。After the Feishui Compaign,the Former Qin was shattered, thus over a century, warfare never stopped in the north.淝水之战后,前秦统治瓦解,北方再度陷人四分五裂和军阀混战状态。The wholescale migration to the hinterland brought many minorities into full contacts with the Huaxia (Chinese) culture. They acquired the same tastes and conventions with Han nationality and were assimilated and accommodated in Han culture.由于少数民族人主中原,更多地接触到华夏文化,使之与汉民族逐渐发展为同一生活习惯的民族,进而被汉族融合。Since then, China was a nation embracing various ethnic groups that imbued with similar customs due to the fact that the minorities live along with the majority Han side by side in the northern part of central plain.自魏、晋、南北朝之后,中原北方大体已形成以汉族为主,其他少数民族混居的人口构成形式,使中国正式成为具有相似生活习惯的多民族国家。The rulers of Eastern Jin were contented with their sovereign in the south and did not take serious of recovering of the Central Plain.由于东晋统治者安于江南,不以恢复中原为意,门阀大族致力于南方的庄园经营。Those landlord gentries and noble families concentrated their minds on economic developments in the south. Therefore It was possible for the nobles in the south to know the prestigious families and refugees migrated from the north in the war which enhanced the social development in the south.北方大族及大量汉族人口迁徙江南,使得江南的名士与渡江的中原人士有了更多的交流机会,促进了社会文化的发展。Since Wei there was a prosperous development of literature,especially in the Eastern Jin Dynasty.自曹魏以来,中国的文学发展一直处于大步前进的时期,其中以东晋年间的文人最为著名。For example, Xie Lingyun, a landscape poem writer and Tao Yuanming , a pastoral poet grew out of the old style of poem writing and wrote the poems full of imagination and the flavor of rustic life. These new ideas and reforms laid foundation for later flourishing of poems and prose in Sui-Tang dynasties.东晋出现了山水诗人谢灵运、 田园诗人陶渊明等人,他们对旧体诗作出改革,为将来隋、唐的诗文盛世创造了前提条件。In social development, the handicraft industry was advanced in a wide margin compared to that of the Western Jin owing to the melting and communications of the north and the south.在社会生产上,北方的手工业技术与南方的技术相互融合,使东晋的手工业水平比西晋有了大幅度的提高。With the industrious working of the immigrated farmers from the north and the native farmers in the south, enormous wilds were cultivated and empoldered, which made the Yangtze River valley the center of e-conomy following the Yellow River valley in Chinese history.南下的北方农民和土著农民辛勤劳动,开辟南方广大的山泽荒野,促进了江南的开发,使中国经济重心开始由黄河流域向长江流域转移。 /201512/415745

  

  After the disappearance of five booksellers and other signs of Beijing’s increased meddling, Hong Kong residents are fretting about another threat from the mainland: tree thieves.五名书商失踪事件及其他一些迹象表明,北京方面加强了对香港的干预。如今,香港居民又开始担心另外一个来自内地的威胁——盗树贼。Police and environmental campaigners say Chinese gangs are hacking away at the precious incense trees that gave Hong Kong its name and can be worth nearly their weight in gold.香港警方及环保活动人士称,有内地团伙砍伐使香港得名的沉香树。这种珍贵树种价值非凡,可谓一寸沉香一寸金。The number of reported incidents of theft has jumped from 15 in 2009 to 134 in 2014. Rocketing Chinese demand for the wood, used to make incense and traditional medicines, has been driven by rising wealth and dwindling domestic supply2009年报告的盗砍沉香木事件有15起,2014年升至134起。内地不断增长的财富和本土供应的减少,推动了对沉香木需求的飙升。沉香木被用于制作香料和用作中药材。Tree thefts are just the latest item in a long list of Hong Kong residents’ gripes with China, from the influx of tourists ;to Beijing’s hand in the booksellers’ disappearance. With many of the oldest, most valuable trees in Hong Kong’s country parks aly felled, the thieves have extended their hunt into private gardens.香港居民对内地有诸多不满,从大量内地游客涌入香港,到北京方面插手书商失踪事件,不一而足,盗伐沉香木现象只是最新的一件。鉴于香港郊区最古老、最珍贵的沉香树被砍伐殆尽,盗树贼把目标扩大到了私人花园。Alison Whittle was woken by her dog’s fierce barking one night in December to discover six intruders in her garden in the small village of Big Wave Bay. The fashion consultant’s screams deterred them for a few minutes but as she called the police, they lopped one of the main branches off her incense tree.去年12月的一个夜晚,居住在大浪湾一个小社区的时尚顾问艾莉森惠特尔(Alison Whittle)被自家的狂吠吵醒,然后发现有6个人闯入了她的花园。她的尖叫声暂时阻止了这些闯入者的行动,但是在她打电话报警的时候,这些人砍掉了她家沉香树的一根比较大的树枝。“That’s when I got really scared because I thought that they really wanted whatever they had come for,” said Ms Whittle, who was unaware of the value of the wood.惠特尔称:“我当时真的吓坏了,因为我感觉他们势在必得。”她当时不太知道沉香树的价值。Several other people in her village have reported similar raids, said Ms Whittle, who has increased the security at her home after the police warned the gang might return for the rest of the tree.惠特尔称,她所在社区还有几个人也向警方报告了类似遭遇。在警方警告称该团伙可能会再次返回盗走沉香树剩下的部分后,惠特尔加强了她家的安保。Hong Kong means “fragrant harbour”, a name inspired by the incense trees, which it used to produce and export in great numbers.香港的意思是“散发香气的港湾”,名字就是源于沉香树。过去,香港曾大量加工和出口沉香。The trees are really valuable only if infected with fungus that causes the creation of a resin that produces the sought-after agarwood and its unique, rich fragrance.沉香树在感染真菌后,会生成树脂,最后结成沉香木并散发独特、浓烈的香味。这时的沉香树才有价值。CY Jim, an authority on trees at the University of Hong Kong who advises the government, said the highest quality agarwood could fetch ,000 a kilogramme in China, and the oil distilled from the resin ,000 a kilogramme.香港大学的树木研究专家詹志勇(CY Jim)称,上等沉香木在内地可卖到一公斤一万美元,从树脂中提取的沉香油价格可达一公斤3万美元。Hong Kong’s police have promised to crack down harder on thieves, who face up to 10 years in jail if convicted.香港警方承诺会加大打击盗树贼。盗树贼一旦定罪,最高将面临10年有期徒刑。But Mr Jim said the police must increase patrols substantially. “It’s an open secret that the number of thieves caught and successfully prosecuted is just the tip of the iceberg,” he said.但是,詹志勇称,警方必须大力加强巡逻。“被抓住并被成功起诉的盗树贼数量只是冰山一角,这是公开的秘密,”他称。Ultimately, as with so many other challenges facing the city, he believes the real difficulty is the difference in mindset between Hong Kong and the mainland.归根结底,与香港面临的众多其他挑战一样,他认为真正的困难是香港和内地观念的差异。“The people of Hong Kong have a mentality of conservation rather than exploiting primary products,” said Mr Jim. “These people coming from other side of the border don’t share our values.”“香港人有环境保护的观念,不会想着开采初级产品,”詹志勇称,“而来自边境另一边的这些人与我们的价值观不同。” /201602/427018。

  Denmark is once again distinguishing itself in the race against food waste—this time, with a supermarket hawking items once destined for the trash bin.在防止食物浪费方面,丹麦再一次走在了各国前列——这次,它的一家超市开始销售原本该扔进垃圾箱的东西。Those items might include treats for a holiday that happened last week, a ripped box of cornflakes, plain white rice mislabeled as basmati, or anything nearing its expiration date. In other words, perfectly edible items that are nonetheless considered unfit for sale by the retailers and manufacturers who donate them.比如,上周刚过的一个节日剩下了一些点心,外包装破损了的玉米片,标签错贴成印度香米的普通大米,以及任何临期食品。换句话说,其他商店和生厂商将自己认为不适合对外销售的东西捐给它出售,而这些东西完全可以放心食用。WeFood is not the first grocer in Europe to sell surplus food. But unlike so-called ;social supermarkets;—stores which serve almost exclusively low-income people—WeFood#39;s offerings are very intentionally aimed at the general public.“我们食铺”并不是欧洲第一家出售这种食品的超市。但与只针对低收入人群的所谓“福利超市”不同,“我们食铺”面向广大的普通消费者。The store#39;s goods are priced 30 to 50 percent lower than those in regular supermarkets, according to WeFood. The store has aly been a huge success. People have lined up before the store#39;s opening every morning since its launch on Monday.“我们食铺”称,其店里的商品价格比普通超市便宜三至五成。自2月22日开业以来,该超市顾客盈门。每天上午还没开门,店门前就已经排起了长队。But is this food safe to eat? Well, the ;sell by; date you see on many products actually refers to its freshness - not whether or not it#39;s going to do you any harm. In many cases, food that#39;s beyond this date won#39;t be as fresh as it once was but is still perfectly edible. Of course you should still be careful to avoid eating food that#39;s gone off, but you might find you don#39;t have to throw away as much as you think you do.这里销售的食品真的可以放心食用吗?事实上,许多食品包装上标注的“最好在某月某日前食用”,指的是它最新鲜的状态能维持多久,而不是说,过了那个日期,它就对人体有害了。许多情况下,过了这个日期,食品虽然没那么新鲜了,但仍然可以放心食用。当然,你还是要注意,千万别吃变质的东西,只是有些不该扔的最好不要扔。Denmark throws away about 700,000 tons of food every year, according to several estimates. In fact, food waste is a major problem for the whole world.据相关估算,丹麦每年大概扔掉约70万吨食物。事实上,食物浪费是个世界性大问题。Some 795 million people are undernourished globally, according to the World Food Program. Yet about a third of all food produced in the world—some 1.3 billion tons—is wasted each year, according to the ed Nations. The cost of global food wastage is about trillion a year.世界粮食计划署的统计显示,全球约有7.95亿人仍然处于吃不饱的状态。联合国的数据显示,世界上每年产出的食物中,约有三分之一(即13亿吨)被浪费掉了,相当于每年在这方面浪费一万亿美元。All of the store#39;s proceeds will go to DanChurchAid#39;s work in developing nations like South Sudan and Bangladesh.“我们食铺”的所有销售收入都将捐给“丹麦教会援助社”,用于资助南苏丹和孟加拉国等发展中国家。 /201603/428938

  Burning of Books and Burying of Scholars焚书坑儒1. Book burning1、焚书According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after the First Emperor of Qin annexed the State of Qi and unified China in 221 , his Chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the freedom of speech, unifying all thoughts and political opinions.根据《史记》的记载,秦始皇吞并齐国并一统中国之后,他的丞相李斯建议压制演讲的自由,统一思想和政见。This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.这个建议被指责知识分子阿谀奉承和进行文字诽谤的论点明了它的合理性。Beginning in 213 B.C, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought----except those from his own, the school of philosophy known as Legalism----were subject to burning.公元前213年开始,争鸣的所有典籍,除了他所尊崇的法家学说以外,全部被焚烧。Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned;李斯建议帝国档案馆里的所有史料,除去秦朝历史学家所撰写的,都应该被烧毁;that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed into the local authorities for burning;包括《诗经》、《书经》和那些由诸子所写的著作都应被收至中央进行焚烧;that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed;that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families;任何人谈论这两本书都应被处死,任何人用过去的例子来讽刺当朝的政治都应被处死,他们的家人也应被行刑;that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty;朝廷中有任何人知情不报同样该被治罪;and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall.那些没有按圣旨在30天内焚烧名单上书籍的人应被发配到北疆和犯人们一起修建长城。The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on medicine, agriculture and divination.在焚书期间唯一得以流传的书籍是有关医药、农业和占卜的。2. Burial of the scholars2、坑儒After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, the First Emperor of Qin ordered more than 460 of them in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei Hong in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure.自从在寻找长生不老方法的过程中被两个炼金术士欺骗,秦始皇在放逐他们的第二年就在都城活埋了超过460个儒家学者,不过2世纪时卫宏又为这个数据增加了700个人。The Crown Prince Fusu counseled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability.太子扶苏劝谏说,对于一个刚刚统一的国家,外敌还未平定,对尊崇孔子学说的那些人采取这样严酷的刑法会造成不稳定。However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.但是,他不仅无法改变秦始皇的想法,甚至还被发配至边疆充军。The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription.秦朝如此快速的覆灭就源于这些对于人权的剥夺。Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state.儒学思想在之后的汉代复兴并成为了中国封建社会的官方学说。However, many of the other schools of thought disappeared.然而,其他的思想学派却消失了。 /201509/397328

  Figuring out whether the man or woman you#39;re with is the ever-elusive #39;one#39; is no mean feat.想要了解自己的另一半并非易事。But, if a new checklist is to be believed, it#39;s rather simple to work out.但如果有份检查表作参考则会相对容易些。According to a study, couples who talk about bodily functions, have access to each other#39;s passwords and shower together are the most committed.一项研究表明,最忠贞的伴侣具有以下几个特征:告知对方自己的身体状况、知晓对方的密码,并且一起沐浴。Planning a holiday, driving each others#39; cars and having a key to your partner#39;s flat are other signs that a relationship has got serious.此外,假期计划二人出游、开对方的车、有对方公寓的钥匙也可以反映出双方对待这段关系的认真态度。Researchers quizzed couples on the different stages of their relationship to determine the top signs that indicate a couple are past the #39;seeing each other#39; phase and taking things into more serious territory.研究者通过对伴侣关系发展的各个阶段进行调查,总结出一些典型特征。若满足这些特征,则表明双方已过了“约会”阶段,开始认真对待这段关系。Posting a #39;loved-up#39; photo on Facebook, changing your status to #39;in a relationship#39; and being introduced to wider friendships circles also show couples are the #39;real deal.#39;在Facebook上发布秀恩爱的照片、将感情状况设置为“恋爱中”、把对方介绍给自己朋友,这些都能表明这段关系不是玩玩而已。Meeting potential in-laws, staying overnight and divulging salary details also prove that couples are the #39;real deal.#39;见对方父母、双方一起过夜、互相告知收入状况,这些也都能明双方对这段关系是真心的。The study also highlighted that couples deem a relationship more serious when they get more comfortable with each other - which means seeing each other without make up, showering together, lounging around the house in pyjamas and even discussing intimate health issues and bodily functions.这项研究还强调,若双方能相处得更自在,也能说明彼此认真对待。这里的“自在”是指,素颜相对、一起洗澡、穿着睡衣在家乱晃,甚至互相讨论健康隐私和身体状况。Other relationship milestones include meeting the parents, becoming the #39;plus one#39; on all invites, seeing each other through an illness and comfortably phoning each other at work.其他特征也能表明双方关系正在更上新台阶,比如见对方父母、带对方一起赴邀、生病时互相照顾,还有工作时互相打电话聊天。Buying a dog or cat together, choosing their partner#39;s favourite foods in the weekly food shop and sharing their friends secrets are also sure signs that you#39;re with the one, according to the research by Monarch.双方一起养或猫、在每周的食物采购时挑选对方喜爱的食物、一起分享朋友的秘密,这些也都能表明双方是在真心相处。以上结论均来自Monarch的研究结果。 /201601/422052Temporary face tattoos are turning freckles into a fashion statement.临时脸部贴纸使雀斑变成一种时尚宣言。A new beauty product designed to sprinkle semi-permanent freckles across anyone#39;s face has the Internet buzzing.一种能在人脸上留下半永久性雀斑的美容新产品在网上引发热议。Called ;Freck Yourself,; the cosmetic kit is essentially a set of sticky stencils accompanied by a rollerball of skin-pigmenting formula.这套化妆工具名为;自制雀斑;,实际上是一组雀斑模板贴纸和一个装有皮肤染色剂的滚珠笔。Users place a stencil where they want freckles to appear, roll the formula over it and you have freckles.使用者将贴纸贴在想要雀斑出现的部位,再用滚珠笔涂抹一番,;雀斑;就出现了。Some women have been raving about it on Twitter and Instagram.一些女性在推特和Instagram上对这款产品赞不绝口。However, women who were born with freckles are very confused about this trend.不过那些生来就有雀斑的女性对这样的时尚趋势表示很不解。 /201511/412397

  

  Some speeches are so memorable we can e them at will. But few of them are commencement speeches. How many of us can recall the commencement speech at our college graduation?一些令人难忘的演讲我们都能如数家珍,但其中只有少数是毕业演讲。多少人还能回想起那些年自己在毕业典礼上听过的演讲呢?What if a commencement speech was not something to be endured, but to be treasured? And what if, instead of the same tired sentiments to ;go forward and seize the day,; the 20-minute address dispensed a glimpse of humanity#39;s higher self? Thankfully, some of those exist. But it#39;s not all rainbows and butterflies. Many memorable speeches have a touch of the macabre that foreshadow the underbelly of adulthood. After ing dozens of transcripts and viewing hours of footage, we#39;ve distilled 10 famous commencement speeches to their essence. Some speeches are memorable because of their time in history or because millions watched it online. Some were later published as books. At least one became a hit song. Here they are, in chronological order.假如一场演讲不会让人昏昏欲睡而是被人津津乐道,假如没有无病呻吟,而是与时俱进,把20分钟演讲的关注点放在“如何提升自我”上面,这样的毕业演讲是不是会让你毕生难忘呢?还好,这样的演讲还是存在的,而且它们也不全是镜花水月。许多令人难忘的演讲一针见血地指出了成人世界的软肋。在翻阅了成打的手抄文本、观看了大量的影像带后,我们精心挑选了10个著名的演讲并提取了他们演讲中的精华。一些演讲因其所处的历史时期亦或是过高的点击量而令人难忘,一些后来还被收录在相关书籍中。每一个演讲在当时都掀起了思想的浪潮。下面就为你一一呈现!10.President John F. Kennedy at American University, 196310.1963年,约翰·F·肯尼迪总统于美利坚大学;Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this small planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children#39;s futures. And we are all mortal.;“我们都居住在这个小小的星球上,这是你我之间最基本的连接纽带。我们呼吸着同样的空气,我们都珍视子女们的未来,我们最终都会离开这个世界”。This commencement address had a higher purpose. Just months after the Cuban missile crisis with the Soviet Union, when nuclear war was still a real threat, President John. F. Kennedy used the occasion to deliver a peace-laced talk to the entire world. The speech, which took a month to craft, was written in secret because he feared Pentagon officials would oppose its conciliatory tone. Kennedy asked Americans to consider their attitudes: ;Too many of us think is impossible. Too many think it is unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable ... We need not accept that view ... Among the many traits the peoples of our two countries have in common, none is stronger than our mutual abhorrence of war.; Kennedy then announced that he, Nikita Khrushchev and Britain#39;s Harold Macmillan would be entering talks about a comprehensive test ban treaty and that the U.S. wouldn#39;t conduct further nuclear tests as long as no other country did either.这篇毕业演讲因其所处的时代背景而影响深远。就在几个月前,美国虽然结束了与苏联的“古巴导弹危机”,然而核战争还是一个真实存在的威胁。肯尼迪总统选择在这样的场合用演讲向全世界传递了一个和平的信号。肯尼迪为这篇演讲苦心构思了一个月,因担心自己安抚性的语调会遭到国防部的反对,他决定秘密地完成这篇演讲。肯尼迪恳请美国人反思自己的态度:“我们中的许多人认为‘和平’是不可能的、是不现实的。然而,这是一种危险的失败主义观念。这种观念得出的结论是,战争不可避免…我们并非一定要接受这种观点…在我们两国人民的诸多共性中,最显著的莫过于我们对战争的共同憎恶。”之后肯尼迪宣布,他将同苏联最高领导人赫鲁晓夫、英国首相哈罗德·麦克米兰进行关于“全面禁止核试验条约”的商讨与谈话。他将承诺:只要他国不先进行进一步核试验,美国也决不会做核试验第一国。演讲后不过几天,华盛顿和克里姆林宫架设了一次专线。在演讲结束后的两个月,也就是1963年8月5日,三国领导人共同签署了《受限制核试验公约》。这是在全面裁军后的又一重大利好。9.Hillary Rodham at Wellesley, 19699.1969年,希拉里·罗德姆于威尔斯利学院;Every protest, every dissent, whether it#39;s an individual academic paper, Founder#39;s parking lot demonstration, is unabashedly an attempt to forge an identity in this particular age.;“每一次抗议,每一次反对,哪怕是一篇学术论文,甚至是一个停车场的说明,都是为这个特殊的时代烙上印迹的大胆尝试”。It was her first big speech, but there would be many more to follow. At her graduation from Wellesley College in 1969, Hillary Rodham became the first student in the college#39;s history to deliver a commencement address. She was president of student government at the time. Before beginning her prepared remarks, though, she criticized the event#39;s previous speaker, Sen. Edward Brooke. In his speech, he had urged graduates to reject ;coercive protest,; which was a polite euphemism for near-riotous student demonstrations. It was an idea at which Rodham pointedly aimed when she took the podium. He was, it seemed to Rodham, too complacent. So she set aside her prepared speech and embarked on an elegantly efficient, impromptu response. ;What does it mean to hear that 13.3 percent of the people in this country are below the poverty line? That#39;s a percentage. We#39;re not interested in social reconstruction; it#39;s human reconstruction,; she said. Rodham got a standing ovation that lasted several minutes. And she was only getting started. As Hillary Clinton, she went on to scale great heights as first lady of the ed States, a senator, secretary of state and a 2016 presidential candidate.这是希拉里·罗德姆生平第一次在大场面上演讲,但还是有很多值得说道的地方。1969年希拉里·罗德姆从威尔斯利学院毕业,她成为了学院历史上第一位发表毕业演讲的学生,同时她也是当时的学生会主席。然而在开始准备多时的演讲前,她先慷慨激昂地驳斥了上一位演讲者——名叫爱德华·布鲁克的参议员。他在演讲中怂恿学生们抵制“强制性抗议”(对学生暴乱游行的委婉表达),这也是她演讲的中心思想。在罗德姆看来,布鲁克太狂妄,于是她把准备好的演讲稿暂时放在一旁,开始一通优雅但犀利的即兴回击。她犀利地指出:“当听到13.3%的人民生活在国家贫困线以下时意味着什么?它说明我们对社会重建不够重视,说明我们对人类复兴无动于衷,这不仅仅是一个百分比,更是抽我们脸的皮鞭!”演讲结束后,罗德姆得到了全场起立鼓掌数分钟的肯定。然而这才只是她崭露头角的开始,当她变成希拉里·克林顿后,这位女强人在政坛上更加混得风声水起,成为了美国第一夫人、参议员,还曾担任美国国务卿,现在是2016年的总统候选人。8.Kurt Vonnegut#39;s Fictional Speech at MIT, 19978.1997年,库尔特·冯内古特于麻省理工学院;Wear sunscreen ... The long-term benefits of sunscreen have been proved by scientists, whereas the rest of my advice has no basis more reliable than my own meandering experience.;“防晒霜……科学家已经明了长期涂防晒霜是有好处的,然而接下来我要给你们的意见却没有什么科学论,只是基于我个人的经验。”So begins one of the most popular commencement addresses in recent history, which also included such gems as ;Keep your old love letters. Throw away your old bank statements. Get to know your parents. Travel;. Famed American novelist Kurt Vonnegut sure had a way with words, didn#39;t he? Within days, the sage-but-simple advice he supposedly offered to Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduates in June 1997 was racing across international borders via forwarded e-mails. Except Vonnegut didn#39;t write the commencement address. Or share it from the podium during MIT#39;s graduation ceremony. In fact, MIT#39;s 1997 graduation speaker was actually Kofi Annan, then-secretary-general of the ed Nations, who encouraged graduates to pursue multilateral diplomacy rather than save old love letters. Turns out the commencement address wasn#39;t an address at all, but a column penned by Mary Schmich that was published in the Chicago Tribune. ;It was witty,; Vonnegut later said, ;but it wasn#39;t my wittiness.; Of course, this didn#39;t stop the prose from becoming nearly as famous as its mistaken author. Within a year, ;Wear Sunscreen; had even been adapted into a hit single in Australia that rose to No. 1 in the U.K and No. 45 in the U.S. on the Billboard Hot 100. Schmich made a book out of it, too.这段演讲竟成为近来历史上最受欢迎的毕业演讲之一,而且这段演讲还包含了许多金玉良言,如“保留你的旧情书,扔掉你的过期账单,多了解你的父母,多去旅行”等。那么著名的美国小说家库尔特. 冯内古特真的有说过这样的话吗?1997年6月,麻省理工学院毕业典礼上的这些简单却很有道理的话在接下来的那段日子里被世界各地的人们以电子邮件的方式广为转发。不过冯内古特并没有写过这段演讲,并且他也没有站在麻省理工学院的毕业典礼的颁奖台上分享他的这段话。事实上,这段话的演讲人是联合国前秘书长科菲.安南,他想通过这段演讲,鼓励毕业生去寻求一种多边的外交方式而不是鼓励他们保留自己的旧情书。最后实,这段毕业演讲并不是一段真正的演讲,只是发表在《芝加哥论坛报》上、由玛丽.修米西撰写的一篇专栏而已。冯内古特随后回应道:“这篇专栏报道内涵丰富,但却不是我的创作。”不过就算是这样,也挡不住这篇演讲和库尔特.冯内古特一样出名,广为人知。在这篇专栏发表后的一年内,“涂防晒霜”这一热词被写进澳大利亚的一首单曲中,并在英国和美国的“广播台100首最热单曲”排行榜中分列第一及第四十五名。修米西也为此出了一本书。7.Maria Shriver at College of the Holy Cross, 19987.1998年,玛利亚.施莱佛于圣十字学院;Don#39;t expect anyone else to support you financially.;“不要期盼任何人给你经济上的持。”When Maria Shriver, N news anchor and third-generation Kennedy, addressed 1998 graduates at College of the Holy Cross, her remarks received national attention. Shriver mentioned that she#39;d gotten a lot of advice on what she should say but decided to share her ;top-ten list of things I wish someone had told me when I was sitting, like you, at my graduation.; (Among them: ;Pinpoint your passion.; ;No job is beneath you.; And, ;Superwoman is dead;. Shriver backed up her advice with personal stories from her career and parenting adventures, and took a humorous approach to life#39;s toughest moments. The well-received speech formed the basis of ;Ten Things I Wish I#39;d Known—Before I Went Out into the Real World,; a book that became an instant hit in the graduation gift category. In 2012, Shriver followed up with a second powerful commencement speech, ;The Power of the Pause.; Delivered at the University of Southern California on the occasion of her daughter#39;s graduation, Shriver asked the new grads to pause before making judgments or decisions.N的新闻主播、肯尼迪家族的第三代成员——玛利亚.施莱佛,当她1998年在圣十字学院发表这篇毕业演讲时,当时她说的那些话引起了全国广泛的关注。施莱佛提到,在演讲前,她得到了很多“关于到底在毕业典礼上说什么”的建议。不过最终她还是决定分享一些她自己的想法:如果她是在座的毕业生,那么她希望别人告诉她的十件事情是什么?(这十件事情包括“找到你的”,“不要让工作束缚你”以及“女超人已经死了”等)在演讲中,施莱佛回顾了她个人的工作经历以及育儿的一些小故事,提出了自己的一些意见,并且以一种豁达的态度去对待生活中最艰辛的时刻。在这篇好评如潮的演讲稿的基础上,她又撰写了《在我进入到真正的社会前我希望知道的十件事》一书,后来这本书成为了轰动一时的毕业送别礼物。在2012年的时候,施莱佛又发表了她的第二篇十分轰动的毕业演讲——“停顿的力量”。她在南加利福尼亚大学的一次毕业典礼(凑巧是女儿毕业的那一届)上发表了这段讲话。在演讲中,施莱佛建议应届生在做判断及决定前,一定要记得思考。6.Steve Jobs at Stanford, 20056.2005年,史蒂夫·乔布斯在斯坦福大学;Your time is limited, so don#39;t waste it living someone else#39;s life.;“生命有限,所以要活出自我风采。”Even if you#39;re not a Mac, you should listen to Steve Jobs#39; understated commencement address at Stanford University in 2005. Jobs, who quipped that the address was the closest he#39;d ever come to a college graduation, shared three stories that connected the dots of his life -- and could possibly serve as a roadmap for others. He outlined his decision to drop out of college, how it had loosed a hunger for learning and eventually inspired the launch of Apple computers. Next, Jobs chronicled being fired from the company he#39;d built and how the painful and embarrassing split had led to greater things, including NeXT (which Apple later purchased because of its proprietary technology). But it was Jobs#39; recollection of being diagnosed with cancer that really stood out. For one day, he lived with the prognosis that he had three to six months before a rare form of pancreatic cancer would take his life. Then a biopsy revealed he had a rarer form still, one that could be surgically removed. (Sadly, the cancer would return and Jobs died in 2011). ;Don#39;t be trapped by dogma -- which is living with the results of other people#39;s thinking,; Jobs advised. ;Don#39;t let the noise of others#39; opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow aly know what you truly want to become;.即使你不是Mac粉,你也应该听听乔布斯2005年在斯坦福大学毕业典礼上所做的朴实无华的演讲。乔布斯打趣道,这次演讲是他离大学毕业最近的时刻,并分享了三个转变他人生轨迹的故事——这些都可以作为别人的成功指南。他概括了自己辍学的决心,辍学如何激发出学习欲望,及最终灵感涌现、推出苹果电脑的故事。在接下来的演讲中,乔布斯讲述了他被自己一手创建的苹果公司抛弃,如何在内心痛苦和尴尬分歧境遇下,建设诸如NeXT公司的成功故事(NeXT公司后来凭借专利技术,被苹果公司收购)。但演讲的精华,是乔布斯述说自己被诊断出患有癌症的部分。有一天,乔布斯被告知自己的生命只剩3到6个月,因为他被诊断出患有罕见而致命的胰腺癌。接下来的胰岛穿刺活检组织病理结果显示,他的癌虽更罕见,但可以通过手术切除。(不幸的是,癌症会复发。乔布斯于2011年逝世。)乔布斯建议,“不要受教条束缚,因为那意味着你的生活就像拾人牙慧。不要因其他人喧嚣的观点而忽略自己内心的声音。最重要的是,拿出勇气,听从内心所想、直觉所示,因为它们能在某种程度上反映出你的真实想法。”审校:围巾 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201603/429589。

  A restaurant run by prisoners at a tough jail has been voted one of Britain#39;s top 10 fine dining venues.英国一所防范严密的监狱里的囚犯经营的餐厅被票选为英国十佳就餐场所之一。The Clink Restaurant, staffed by inmates from Cardiff and Prescoed prisons, beat establishments run by celebrity chefs including Gordon Ramsay and Jamie Oliver to take 10th place.The Clink餐厅的务人员是来自加的夫(Cardiff)和普莱斯各(Prescoed)的监狱的囚犯。这家监狱餐厅打败了包括戈登#8226;拉姆齐(Gordon Ramsay)和杰米·奥利弗(Jamie Oliver)等名厨经营的餐厅,夺得了榜单的第十名。Included in the top 10 was michelin-starred Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons in Great Milton, Oxfordshire, which came third.其他上榜餐厅还有位于牛津郡(Oxfordshire)大弥尔顿(Great Milton)的四季农庄餐厅(Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons),这家米其林星级餐厅在榜单上位列第三。Reviews on website TripAdvisor were used to decide who should win the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards.猫途鹰(TripAdvisor)网站上的用户被用于决定谁能赢得2015年旅行者首选餐厅奖(the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards)。Customers said the ;friendly and informative staff; put other waiters to shame.顾客说,The Clink餐厅“友好且善于提供有用信息的员工”让别处的侍应相形见绌。The 96-seat restaurant, serving breakfast and lunch, opened to the public in 2012. Thirty inmates are each paid #163;14 for a 40-hour week.这家餐厅有96个座位,提供早餐和午餐,于2012年对公众开放。30位囚犯每周工作40小时,每人可获得14英镑的报酬。The Clink has been credited with helping to slash reoffending rates. Latest figures show it has reduced the rate of the released prisoners who worked there to 12.5 per cent.The Clink餐厅被认为有助于降低再犯率。最新数据显示,该餐厅把曾在此工作的囚犯获释后的再犯率降低至12.5%。TripAdvisor spokesman James Kay said: ;Given how competitive the UK restaurant industry is, the fact that The Clink Restaurant is the only winning Welsh restaurant demonstrates the incredibly high standard of food and service that the team consistently delivers to customers.;猫途鹰的发言人詹姆斯·凯伊(James Kay)称:“The Clink餐厅是威尔士唯一一家上榜的餐厅。考虑到英国餐饮业竞争的激烈程度,这无疑显示了这家餐厅的员工们坚持带给顾客的高水准饮食及务。”It was also named top spot in Cardiff out of 946 restaurants in the city.这家餐厅也被提名为全卡的夫市946家餐厅之中的就餐首选地。Opened in 2012, The Clink Cardiff is now one of four restaurants run by prisoners across the UK through The Clink Charity.卡的夫的The Clink餐厅于2012年开张,是慈善机构The Clink Charity在英国国内开的由囚犯提供务的四家餐厅之一。The charity also has restaurants at HMPs Brixton, High Down and Styal and aims to reduce reoffending through projects that train and give practical skills to prisoners to aid their rehabilitation.该慈善机构也在布里克斯顿(Brixton)监狱(HMP,即Her Majesty#39;s Prison)、高唐(High Down)监狱和斯蒂亚尔(Styal )监狱开了餐厅,旨在通过这些项目,培训囚犯并授予他们实用技能,帮助他们改过自新,以降低再犯罪率。Chris Moore, chief executive of The Clink Charity, said: ;The whole team is delighted to have made it into the top 10 restaurants in the UK by TripAdvisor users, and to be ranked so highly against almost 1,000 restaurants in the city of Cardiff is a huge achievement for us.;The Clink Charity的首席执行官克里斯·尔(Chris Moore)表示:“餐厅的所有员工都为餐厅被猫途鹰网友评选入围英国十佳餐厅榜单而高兴。打败了卡的夫市近1000家餐厅,并 得到这么高的评价,对我们来说是一项巨大成就。” /201510/405524

  

  5.The Lost Child5.迷路的小女孩A young woman was walking down her street on a normal spring day when she saw a small child sitting beside the road and crying. She stopped to ask the little girl if she was okay, and the girl told her that she was lost. Sniffling, the girl then asked her if she could help her find her way home. Overwhelmed with pity for the little girl, the young woman ily agreed. Luckily, the little girl knew her address and had a general idea of where her home was. Before long the two had made it to her house. The front door was locked, and since the girl was too small to reach the doorbell, she asked the young woman to press it for her.一个再普通不过的春天,一个年轻的女人走在街上,看到一个小孩坐在街边哭泣。于是,她停下来询问这个小女孩怎么了,小女孩告诉说她迷路了。小女孩一边抽泣着,一边问她是否可以帮助她找到回家的路。这个年轻的女人十分怜惜小女孩,就欣然答应了。幸运的是,小女孩知道地址,对她的家也有一个大致的印象。很快,她们找到了家。前门锁着,小女孩够不着门铃,就叫年轻的女人帮忙按铃。The woman pressed the doorbell without a second thought, and immediately felt a powerful shock course through her body. It knocked her out cold, and she woke up several hours later completely naked and surrounded by used condoms. The house she was in was empty, her rapists were long gone, and the child was nowhere to be seen.这个年轻的女人毫不犹豫地按了门铃,但是瞬间她感到一股强大的电流流过全身,把她电晕了。当她几小时后醒过来时,却发现自己全裸,周围是用过的避套。她所在的房间什么都没有,强奸犯早已逃之夭夭,那个小女孩也无处可寻。4.The Hitchhiking Old Woman4.搭便车的老妇人This story tells of a young woman who was walking out of a shopping mall late at night to go back to her car. As she neared the car, she was startled to see an old lady standing right next to her passenger-side window. An instant later, she noticed that the passenger-side window had been completely shattered. The old lady explained that she had seen her broken window and had been watching it for her to make sure nobody tried to steal something.传说,深夜里,一个年轻的女人走出商场,回到她的车上。当她走近车子时,她惊讶地发现,一个老妇人站在她客座的窗边。同时,她注意到,客座窗子被完全打碎了。老妇人解释道,她看到有人打碎了窗子,所以一直盯着,确保没人偷东西。The young woman was very appreciative of the old lady#39;s help and, since the old lady had missed her bus, she agreed to drive her back home. However, as they stood there talking, she noticed that the old woman seemed to have very hairy, manlike arms. Thinking quickly, she jumped in front of a slow-moving car, forcing it to a stop. The ;old lady; quickly bolted. When the police searched her car they found that the kind old lady had stowed a knife and a coil of rope on the backseat.年轻的女人对老妇人的帮助非常感激。因为老妇人错过了公交车,她就欣然同意送老妇人回家。然而,正当他们站着谈话时,年轻的女人注意到,老妇人似乎有一双多毛,像男人的手臂。当机立断,她跳到一辆缓慢前行的车子前,迫使其停下来。这个所谓的;老妇人;瞬间就逃跑了。当警擦搜查该车时,他们发现这所谓的老妇人在后座上放的一把刀和一卷绳子。3.The Fat Vampires3.脂肪吸血鬼Stories of fat vampires are not new. These creatures were called pishtacos and are a classic Peruvian legend. They are known to stalk the night on deserted roads and use their magic to rob travelers of their fat. Recently, the legend has resurfaced due to actual arrests of gang members in Peru who are purported to have been bonking unruly travelers on the head, then taking them to a safe house and rendering them into fat to sell on the black market. Some estimates say that as many as 60 people fell prey to these gangsters before they were caught.脂肪吸血鬼的故事由来已久。这些生物称作;pishtacos;,是秘鲁的经典传奇。据说,他们深夜在荒凉的道路上追踪猎物,并用他们的魔法抢劫旅行者的脂肪。最近,因为逮捕了秘鲁团伙成员,该传说又开始流行起来。他们跟踪不守规矩的旅客,然后带他们到安全的房间,把他们的脂肪收集起来,到黑市上售卖。据估计,在该团伙被抓住之前,有多达60人成为他们的牺牲品。Of course, some question the official story, partly because most of the attributed murders have not been proven, but mostly because they have trouble believing that there#39;s any kind of market for human fat. It was also considered strange that these men had no interest in selling any of the other, more valuable body parts. Perhaps the answer lies in the legend itself. The pishtacos would not have any interest in other organs, and selling the rendered human fat would be a good cover for their true operation—feeding on the fat of the living so they can sustain their undead immortal existence.当然,有人质疑这样的故事,部分是因为很多涉案凶杀者未被实,更主要的原因是,他们难以相信有买卖人类脂肪的市场。更令人匪夷所思的是,该团伙竟对售卖珍贵的人体器官不感兴趣。或许,就在于传说本身。大概;pishtacos;对其他器官不感兴趣,而售卖人体脂肪可以完美地掩盖其真实行为——使用人体脂肪可以维持他们不死之躯的存在。2.Don#39;t Open The Door2.不要开门A woman was up late at night, just minding her own business and browsing the Internet in her living room, when she heard the sound of a baby crying outside her doorstep. She got up and went to investigate the noise, but could see nothing through the keyhole. Understandably, she found it odd that a baby would be crying outside her suburban home, especially so late at night. Not sure what to do, she decided to just call the police. She told them that she was considering opening the door to check on the baby because she had heard the crying near her window and was afraid that the baby might crawl into the street.有一个妇女深夜未眠,担心着她的生意,当她在卧室浏览着网页时,听到门外有婴儿哭泣的声音。她便起身去看个究竟,但是从猫眼中什么也没有看见。她觉得很奇怪,按常理,一个婴儿怎么会深夜里在她郊外的住所外哭泣。她不知如何是好,便决定报警。她告诉警察,她考虑开门看看这个婴儿,因为她听到小孩的哭声靠近窗户,担心婴儿会爬到路中。Practically shouting, the dispatcher told her that under absolutely no circumstances should she open the door, and that they aly had police on their way to her house. When they got there, the police found no baby or any evidence that a child had been nearby at all. The policemen informed the worried homeowner that they had received multiple calls like this lately, and that they believed it to be the work of people who were trying to trick women into opening their homes using a recording of a crying child.几乎是大喊着,调度员告诉她,任何情况下都不要开门,他们已派警察赶往她的住所。当他们到达时,警察没有发现婴儿或任何可以显示有婴儿在附近的据。警察告诉惊魂未定的房主,最近他们收到很多类似的报警电话,他们认为,有人通过使用婴儿录音来诱骗妇女开门。1.The Scream Nobody Heard1.没有人听见的叫喊At some college campuses, it#39;s apparently a tradition for students who live in dorms to all let loose with a scream at a designated time. According to the stories, it helps the students release stress, especially during finals week. On finals week at UCLA, the tradition was for everybody to scream at midnight to let out all that pent-up frustration. So, just as expected, everyone did their screaming ritual and the campus rang with the caffeine-fueled howls of a horde of exhausted youths.在某些大学校园里,住校的学生有一个传统,那就是在特定的时间可以尖叫。据说,这样可以帮助学生减压,尤其是在期末阶段。在加州大学洛杉矶分校的最后一个星期,这个传统允许每个学生在午夜通过尖叫来释放压抑、沮丧。所以,这样的传统活动如期而至,每个人都按照惯例尖叫着,校园里回荡着一群群疲惫年轻人阵阵的怒吼。The ritual complete, the campus quieted down and everyone eventually went to bed, only to discover the next morning that one of the screams had been real. A young woman had been raped at precisely midnight, her assault timed to coincide with the noisiest moment of the year. Nobody heard it, because what#39;s one scream among hundreds? Legend has it that since then, the screaming tradition has been banned from the UCLA campus, and anyone who breaks the rule is punished with expulsion.仪式结束后,校园安静下来,每个人最后都睡觉了。可是第二天早上,他们发现其中的一个尖叫声是真的。一个年轻的妇女恰好在午夜被强奸,也就是她被侵害的时间与一年一度最吵闹的时刻重合了。没有人听到,因为从上百个叫喊声中不能分辨出来。自此以后,这样的叫喊仪式就被该大学明令禁止了,任何违反此规定的学生都会被开除。翻译:夏久梅 来源:前十网 /201509/399159

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