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来源:飞度管家养生对话    发布时间:2017年10月23日 03:17:05    编辑:admin         

The way paper tears is related directly to how it is made. Most paper is made from wood fibers. Logs are chopped into wood chips, mixed with water and chemicals, and run through a process that separates the wood fibers. The soupy mush that results is called pulp. The pulp is pressed onto a mesh conveyor belt that squeezes the water out. As the pulp moves along the belt, the wood fibers line up in the direction of the belt’s travel. This alignment of the fibers on the belt gives the paper a grain. This grain is what causes the paper to tear straighter one way than the other. When paper is ripped with the grain, the tear goes with the direction of the fibers, and is fairly straight. When you tear the paper across the grain,the tear tends to wander as it works against the direction of the fibers. 【生词注释】tear n. 撕chop v.砍,劈mush n.软糊状的东西pulp n. 纸浆alignment n.排列grain n. 成粒状 撕纸的方式直接同纸张的制作紧密联系。大多数纸都是由木纤维制成的。木头被砍成木片,同水和化学物质一起搅拌,经过一种流程将木纤维分开。产生的浆糊状的物质叫做“纸浆”。 纸浆再在网状的传送带上挤压,将水挤出来。随着纸张在传送带上移动,木纤维会向着传送带的方向排列。纤维在传送带上的排列会使纸张成粒状。这种粒状会使纸张在撕裂时在一个方向比另一个方向撕得直。当纸张顺着粒状撕时,撕的方向和木纤维的方向相同,撕得就会很直。当你从粒状中间撕纸时,因为撕的方向和木纤维方向相反,撕得就会弯曲些。201111/159876。

New Zealand's second-biggest city, Christchurch, is facing an enormous clean-up after being struck by the country's worst earthquake in 80 years. The magnitude 7 quake devastated parts of Christchurch early Saturday.新西兰第二大城市克赖斯特彻奇在经历了一场大地震后正面临清理工作的巨大挑战。星期六凌晨发生的7.1级的地震是新西兰80年来第二大地震,给克赖斯特彻奇市的很多地方造成严重破坏。Christchurch awoke Sunday to another grim day as shell-shocked residents assess the damage inflicted by one of the country's most powerful earthquakes.大震后的克赖斯特彻奇满目疮痍。惊魂未定的居民们星期天开始面对这场罕见大地震所造成的破坏。Mayor Bob Parker is urging residents to stay indoors.市长派克敦促人们尽量不要外出。This is not a good time to go out, as curious as you may be, and have a look around if it means driving out onto the streets because we need to keep them free for emergency services," Parker advised. "Use common sense; emergency services are flat out at the moment. The assessment is underway. Take sensible precautions, but don't go out sightseeing. Check on your neighbors. Do the things that communities do so well at times like this."他说:“大家可能很想知道外面的情况,想开车出去看看,但是现在不是时候,因为我们要为救护车等应急务车辆保持道路的畅通。”他呼吁人们保持头脑清醒,救护车、警车等应急车辆都已经大量出动,并表示灾情评估工作已经展开。这位市长在提醒人们不要出于好奇而外出的同时,也敦促大家邻里之间相互看看是否平安无事,在震后的艰难时刻充分发挥社区的作用。Authorities say it is a miracle no one was killed after disaster struck Saturday before dawn, when most people were still asleep. A small number of serious injuries have been reported.有关当局说,这次黎明前发生大地震中仅有一人丧生可谓是一个奇迹。当时大部分人仍在酣睡之中。此外,据报受重伤的人也不多。201009/113109。

A total of 87 new Republican House members will be sworn in Wednesday. Many of them are young Tea Party activists, supporters of a very limited role for government and low taxes, and they say they want to change the way things are done in Washington. 星期三将有87名新任共和党国会议员宣誓就职。其中很多人都是年轻的茶党活动人士,他们持大量限制政府职能,降低税率。他们还说希望能够改变华盛顿做事的方式。Incoming Republican Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania told the CBS News program "Face the Nation" he experienced culture shock when he arrived.来自宾夕法尼亚州的共和党议员迈克.凯利在美国哥伦比亚广播公司“面向全国”节目中说,他抵达华盛顿之后感受到了文化冲击。"My early time here in this city, it is so different than where I come from, because I live in a real world where people actually have to use their own money to pay for things," said Kelly. "So, this idea that you can keep doing this or doing that ... and I love this fact that 'We are going to pay for it.' 'We' are not paying for anything, not 'we' in Washington. The people, the American taxpayer pays for everything. And that is what bothers me, there is such a disconnect between this town and the rest of the world."他说:“我来到这座城市不久,这跟我的家乡差别巨大。因为我生活的是一个真实的世界,那里人们付帐是要花自己的钱的。所以,这种你可以不断做这做那的想法......以及‘我们会付帐’的现实我很喜欢。但是,‘我们’不会为所有东西付帐,这个‘我们’不是在华盛顿的‘我们’,是人民。美国纳税人要为一切付帐。这是让我担心的地方,华盛顿和世界其他地方是如此脱节。”Democratic lawmaker Debbie Wasserman Schultz of Florida told CBS the election campaign is over and Republicans need to stop talking about the "real world" and embrace the hard work of actually governing."What remains to be seen is whether members like Mike Kelly are going to be able to turn their essentially campaign rhetoric into some kind of reality," said Wasserman.On Wednesday outgoing House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history, is expected to hand the gavel over to John Boehner, a veteran Republican lawmaker from Ohio. She strongly defended the accomplishments of the outgoing Democrat-controlled Congress, saying she has no regrets.星期三,即将离任的众议院第一位女议长佩洛西预计将把议长的锤子交给资深的俄亥俄州共和党议员约翰.贝纳。佩洛西为即将下台的民主党控制的国会强烈辩护,表示她没有任何遗憾。201101/122592。

'Vuvuzela' voted word of the World Cup"Vuvuzela" has been voted the word of the World Cup by global linguists who said Monday the tournament will be best remembered for the name of South Africa's deafening trumpet."Long after individual matches and goals are forgotten, this will be remembered as the Vuvuzela World Cup," said Jurga Zilinskiene, managing director of London-based firm Today Translations."Vuvuzela" was chosen by 75 percent of more than 320 linguists from over 60 countries, who were asked to choose the word with the biggest impact on the tournament."Thanks to the World Cup, vuvuzela has the entered the shared language of the world and joined the ranks of words that need no translation," said Zilinskiene.The tuneless plastic horn blown by fans was a top World Cup newsmaker and has been snapped up abroad. Experts have warned it can damage hearing.The much-debated official Jabulani ball, mascot Zakumi and the Bafana Bafana national South African team each won four percent of the votes.Vocabulary:snap up: 抢购mascot: an animal, a toy, etc. that people believe will bring them good luck, or that represents an organization, etc. (吉祥物)背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/108982。

Americans are voting in midterm elections that could determine the fate of President Barack Obama's legislative agenda for the next two years. Republicans are expected to make significant gains in the U.S. Congress.美国选民正在参加中期选举投票。这次选举可能决定奥巴马总统未来两年立法议程的成败。共和党人预期会在国会取得重大胜利。At stake in nationwide balloting are all 435 seats in the House of Representatives, more than one-third of the Senate, and more than half of America's governorships.这次全国选举将决定众议院所有435个席位的归属,同时还将选出超过三分之一的参议院议席和全美一半以上的州长职位。President Obama had a simple election-eve message for voters: "You have got a chance to change your community and your country. All you have to do is vote."奥巴马总统在选举前夕向选民们发出了一条简单的呼吁:"你们现在有机会改变你们的社区和国家。你们所要做的就是去投票。”After electoral cycles that saw Democrats win control of Congress in 2006 and the White House in 2008, Republicans are widely expected to reverse the tide this year.民主党人2006年赢得国会控制权并在2008年成功入主白宫后,人们普遍预期共和党人今年将扭转局面。Public-opinion polls show Republicans favored among likely voters, many of whom say they are angry and frustrated over the sluggish U.S. economy, high unemployment, and America's soaring national debt.民意调查显示,共和党人在可能投票的选民中受到欢迎。很多选民表示,他们对一蹶不振的美国经济、高失业率以及美国不断飙升的国债感到愤怒和失望。Although Republicans could seize both houses of Congress, it is the House of Representatives where they are thought to have the best chance of taking control.尽管共和党人有机会在参众两院都获得胜利,但他们被认为最有机会掌握众议院的控制权。A party switch in the House would end the four-year tenure of Democratic Speaker Nancy Pelosi. Her likely replacement would be House Republican Leader John Boehner, who has pledged to reverse what he sees as the free-spending ways of the Obama administration.众议院政党力量对比的变化将结束民主党议长佩洛西四年的任期。最有可能取代她的人是众议院共和党领袖纳。纳承诺将扭转他认为奥巴马政府开无度的做法。201011/117202。

Same-sex weddings are expected to create thousands of new jobs and pump millions of dollars into California's economy. “Every time I think about it I cried, it means I get to marry the woman I love, you are gonna able to have a marriage license, you can gonna be able to be a wedding couple. There’s some legitimacy now.”In the storm moment in California, for Tracy and Tiffany who are about to walk down the aisle together. Oh, look at this, and through Robin and Diana, who fought for decades for the right of same-sex couples to marry.“It’s not just about each other, it’s said it’s open this entire possibility for every gay kid that’s growing up today, that they can grow up, and they can have marriage, and they can have families, and they can have acceptance. I mean it’s, it’s just incredibly important to us.”A monumental occasion for the couples and an unexpected boom for California’s economy.“I would say the total spending that will be generally by same-sex weddings is well over a billion dollars in the next three years.”A billions dollars and 2,100 new jobs over the next three years, according to a study by the Williams Institute at the UCLA School of Law. Wedding planner Marcia Vidal says it couldn’t have come at a better time.“Are you seeing economic hard times, are things rather soft for people in your industry right now?”“Actually it is, we are definitely seeing a slowdown, and what else we’re seeing, a forecast of weddings’ being postponed even now to 2010 and 11.”Tiffany and Tracy are learning weddings are big business.“You discovered that, yes you know, you wanna have it at a place, and you wanna have someone officiating for you, oh, and we have to have a kid, and oh, by the way, don’t we want flowers?”Their budget about 40,000 dollars. “We are doing 40,000 just ourselves. And you count probably, 80 guests come in from out of the state, staying for at least 3 nights in hotels, car rentals, eating out, tourist attractions.”“We don’t want to be like two brides or two grooms”, Baker Tom Rosa says his business has aly tripled, thanks to customers like Diana and Robin. “I think price for most gays and lesbians will not be an object, because it’s something they never expected, never expected in all their life, and so the Californian ‘Gold Rushes’ are on.”“I now pronounce you spouses for life”, Diana and Robin became the first same-sex couple to officially tie the knot in southern California. And now, among the first to say, it helped the state along the way. 200812/58596。

Americans waste more energy in the food they throw away, than Switzerland or Sweden consume in a year.Researchers at the University of Texas, Austin say that points to a painless way to save energy: stop wasting food. 美国德克萨斯大学奥斯丁汀分校的研究人员发现了一个不费劲的节能途径,这就是停止浪费食品。According to a new study in the Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, food waste and the energy required to produce it, represent an unrecognized opportunity to conserve energy and reduce climate changing emissions.环境和技术杂志新发表的一篇报告说,食品浪费以及生产浪费掉的食品所消耗的能源是人们尚未意识到的节省能源、减少温室效应气体的途径。Scientists at the Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy set out to answer three questions about the relationship between food and energy use: how much energy is in food, how much food is wasted and how much energy is in the wasted food. 德州大学国际能源和环境政策中心的科学家们最初是探寻三个有关食品和能源消耗方面的问题。该中心的副主任迈克尔.韦伯说:“我们必须弄清楚食品里面到底包含多少能源,有多少食品被浪费掉,被浪费掉的食品包含多少能源。”Wasting energyMichael Webber, the center's associate director and co-author of the study, says between eight and 16 percent of U.S. energy consumption is tied up in food production, transportation, preservation and disposal. "And then we throw away at least a quarter of that food. Some people say even 50 percent." 韦伯是新发表的研究报告的作者之一。他说,研究报告提出一些令人意外的。“我们这个国家有百分之八到百分之十六的能源消耗用于食品系统,食品生产、运输、储存和处理。我们拿出美国百分之十的能源用于食品,然后,我们又扔掉这些食品中至少四分之一。有些人说,我们扔掉了百分之五十。”What Americans spend on food has declined in relative terms for decades. And, because food is so abundant and cheap, Americans are not as concerned about tossing it out. 几十年来,美国人用于食品的消费相对来说下跌了。由于食品如此丰富,如此便宜,美国人也就不太在乎,随便丢弃。So, Webber and his colleagues calculated how much energy was needed to produce the trashed food. "We found that there's at least two percent of the nation's energy consumption is embedded in food we throw away. And that ends up being a pretty big number because of how much energy we consume overall as a nation."韦伯和他的同事计算了生产被丢弃的食品所需要的能源。他说:“我们发现,美国能源消耗量当中至少百分之二是用于被扔掉的食品中。这是一个相当大的数字,因为美国的能源消耗量非常大。”201010/116109。

President Barack Obama on Tuesday visited the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico.美国总统奥巴马星期二抵达美国属地波多黎各,受到当地民众欢迎。“Buenas tardes!”With a greeting of “Good afternoon” in Spanish, President Obama began his five-hour visit to Puerto Rico and offered support for next year’s vote on the island’s future.奥巴马总统用西班牙语问候了一句:“下午好!”,以此开始了对波多黎各的五个小时的访问。Puerto Ricans will have the choice of becoming an independent nation, becoming America’s 51st state or remaining a U.S. territory.奥巴马总统对波多黎各明年举行的决定前途的公投表示持。波多黎各将面临抉择:要么成为独立国家,要么留在美国,成为美国第51个州。“And when the people of Puerto Rico make a clear decision, my administration will stand by you," said President Obama.奥巴马总统说:“波多黎各人民作出明确决定,本届行政当局就持你们。”The president’s visit to Puerto Rico fulfills a promise he made in his 2008 campaign.奥巴马总统2008年竞选时就作出承诺要来波多黎各,这次到访是来履行其诺言的。Puerto Ricans cannot vote in U.S. general elections, but more Puerto Ricans live on the U.S. mainland than on the island. Many are in Florida and North Carolina, states the president will need to win in next year’s election.波多黎各人民不能在美国大选中投票,但大多数波多黎各人是生活在美国本土,而不是居住在这个南美岛国。有许多人居住在佛罗里达还有南卡罗来纳州。而奥巴马总统若想连任,就必须赢得这些州的选举。201106/140765。

Argentina legalizes gay marriageArgentina has become the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex marriage.The move grants homosexual couples all the legal rights, responsibilities and protections that marriage gives heterosexual couples.President Cristina Fernandez is a strong supporter and the new law is expected to bring a wave of marriages.The approval came despite a concerted campaign by the Roman Catholic Church and evangelical groups, which drew 60,000 people to march on Congress and urged parents in churches and schools to work against passage.Nine homosexual couples have aly married in Argentina after persuading judges that Argentina's constitutional mandate of equality supports their marriage rights, but some of these marriages were later declared invalid.The debate stretched on for nearly 16 hours."Marriage between a man and a woman has existed for centuries, and is essential for the perpetuation of the species," insisted Senator Juan Perez Alsina, who is usually a loyal supporter of the president but gave a passionate speech against legalizing same-sex marriage.However, Senator Norma Morandini, another member of the president's party, compared the discrimination closeted gays face to the oppression imposed by Argentina's dictators decades ago. "What defines us is our humanity, and what runs against humanity is intolerance."Same-sex civil unions have been legalized in Uruguay, Buenos Aires and some states in Mexico and Brazil. But Argentina now becomes the first country in Latin America to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide. Homosexual couples who marry will now get many more rights than civil unions, including adopting children and inheriting wealth.Vocabulary:evangelical: pertaining to or in keeping with the gospel and its teachings(基督教福音派的)kickstart: to help a process or project start more quickly(促使……开始,使尽快启动)背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/109253。

Homosexual couples in New York are being married for the first time after Governor Andrew Cuomo signed a law permitting same sex marriage in the state last month. But such marriages, though now legal in New York, remain controversial. 美国纽约州的同性伴侣现在可以正式结婚了。纽约州州长安德鲁·库莫上个月签署了允许同性婚姻的法律。尽管这样的婚姻在纽约市现在已经合法化了,但它依然存在争议。So many couples wanted to be married on Sunday, the first day of legal homosexual marriage in New York City, that local officials announced a lottery to determine eligibility. 太多同性恋伴侣想要在星期天结婚,这是纽约市同性婚姻合法化的第一天,当地官员公布了谁可以在这一天登记结婚的抽签结果。New York City Council Speaker Christine Quinn, herself openly gay, witnessed the first two ceremonies. She says the same sex marriage law supports equality. “A law that says every family is as good as every other family; that every family is based on love, and is exactly the way God wants it to be," she said. 公开承认自己是同性恋的纽约市议会议长奎恩见了头两对同性伴侣的结婚仪式。她说,同性婚姻法持平等权利。奎恩说:“这部法律说,每个家庭都和别的家庭一样那么美好,每个家庭都以爱为基础,这也正是上帝的教导。”Margie Phelps minced no words to denounce same sex marriage as a crime against God. She and other Christians from the Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka, Kansas came half way across the country to say marriage is defined by Holy Scripture. “The pattern is one man and one woman for life to have children who you raise in the nurture and admonition of the Lord to bless the earth by procreation," she said. 玛吉菲尔普斯毫不犹豫的抨击同性婚姻,说这是违反上帝的罪行。她和堪萨斯州托皮卡市一个浸信会教堂的其他基督徒一起跨越了半个美国来到纽约市,就是为了表示婚姻是由圣经所界定的。她说:“婚姻的模式是一个男人和一个女人终生结合以生育子女,人们以上帝的培育和教导来养育子女,上帝用人类的繁衍祝福大地。”David Schwartz, an Orthodox Jew, believes every human being has free choice and the power to rule over their desires. He considers homosexual desire to be wrong. “There’s one God in heaven and earth, and He has decreed for all mankind that they should limit their affections to relationships between a man and a woman in the context of marriage," he said.Gella Soloman, also a Jew, rejects that definition of marriage, as well as the notion that marriage is reserved for the procreation of children. 201107/145962。