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2017年10月23日 13:52:25来源:兰州晨报

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  • Babies build knowledge about the language they hear even in the first few months of life, research shows.一项研究显示,婴儿在生命最初的几个月里就建立了关于他们所听到的语言的知识。If you move countries and forget your birth language, you retain this hidden ability, according to a study.一项研究表明,如果你搬到了别的国家,忘记了你的母语,你仍保留着这个隐藏的能力。Dutch-speaking adults adopted from South Korea exceeded expectations at Korean pronunciation when retrained after losing their birth language.从韩国收养的讲荷兰语的成年人,在经过训练后,讲出的韩语远超预期,尽管他们早已忘记了母语。Dr Jiyoun Choi of Hanyang University in Seoul led the research.来自首尔汉阳大学的崔姬妍士领导了该研究。The study is the first to show that the early experience of adopted children in their birth language gives them an advantage decades later even if they think it is forgotten, she said.她表示,这项研究首次表明,被收养的孩子的母语早期经验对于他们后天再学习会有优势,即使他们认为已经被遗忘了。#39;This finding indicates that useful language knowledge is laid down in the very early months of life, which can be retained without further input of the language and revealed via re-learning,#39; she told B News.她在接受B采访时表示:“这个发现表明,在生命的最初几个月,实用的语言知识已经建立起来,可以在没有语言的进一步输入的情况下保留,并通过重新学习唤醒。”#39;Try to talk to your babies as much as possible because they are absorbing and digesting what you are saying.#39;“尽可能多的与你的孩子交谈,因为他们会消化和吸收你所说的话。” /201702/490726
  • Rapid advances in artificial intelligence are feared by many in Europe and the US, with scientists warning of mass unemployment. But in Singapore, where restrictions on foreign workers have left many companies struggling for staff, service sector businesses are increasingly finding automated solutions to their workforce crunch.人工智能领域的快速进步让欧美的许多人感到担忧,科学家们警告称,这可能导致大规模失业。但在新加坡,务行业的企业越来越发现机器人可以解决它们人手紧张的问题——新加坡限制外国工人就业让许多公司很难招到员工。From restaurants to hospitals, robots are being rolled out in a government-backed push to help businesses survive a tight labour market.在政府为帮助企业在供应紧张的劳动力市场存活下去而推出的举措下,从饭店到医院,多种机构均出现了机器人的身影。Louis Tan, chief operating officer of Singapore’s Mount Elizabeth Novena hospital, said: “The government is clamping down on foreign workers — there is difficulty in hiring even skilled workers. Technology has turned out to be one of the solutions.”新加坡伊丽莎白诺维娜医院(Mount Elizabeth Novena)首席运营官Louis Tan表示:“新加坡政府正在限制外国工人——哪怕雇佣熟练工人也很困难。事实明,技术是解决方案之一。”The hospital, a private medical facility run by the Parkway Pantai group, has turned to IBM’s Watson technology as an automated “nurse” to monitor patients’ vital signs in its intensive care unit.这家医院借助IBM的“沃森”(Watson)技术推出了机器人“护士”来监护重症病房中的病人的关键体征。伊丽莎白诺维娜医院是百汇班台集团(Parkway Pantai)运营的私立医疗务机构。The AI technology combines information from indicators such as blood pressure and heart rate, and uses a predictive algorithm to calculate the risk of a patient’s condition getting worse.人工智能技术结合血压、心率等指标信息,并使用预测性算法来计算患者病情恶化的风险。“In the past that required human integration and interpretation,” Mr Tan said. “And now we are using data analytics to help drive this.”Louis Tan表示:“在过去,这需要人类加以整合和解读。现在我们使用数据分析学来帮助解读。”The pilot, which was launched this year, has improved patient safety, Mr Tan added.他补充称,今年推出的试点项目让病人更加安全。He said: “It doesn’t mean nurses are absolved of responsibility. It just means they have another aid. It’s more efficient and safer for the patients.”他说:“这并不意味着护士无事可干了。它仅仅意味着她们又有了一个助手,提高了她们照顾病患的效率和安全性。”At Chilli Padi Nonya café, a restaurant serving a hybrid Malay-Chinese cuisine near the National University of Singapore, dirty dishes are gathered by a robotic waiter that trundles between tables chirping: “Could you help me to clear your table?”在辣椒香娘惹餐厅(Chilli Padi Nonya),穿梭于桌子间的机器人侍者收拾着脏碟子,还能用清脆的声音问道:“你能帮我收拾下桌子吗?”该餐馆位于新加坡国立大学(National University of Singapore)附近,提供马来菜和中国菜。The machine lacks the ability to pick up cups and plates itself. Instead customers place their used crockery in a tray it carries back to the kitchen.这种机器人无法自己拿起杯子和碟子。顾客们将他们用过的餐具放到托盘上,然后由机器人拿回厨房。Kannan Thangaraj, the restaurant’s manager, said: “In Singapore it’s very difficult to get manpower from overseas, so it’s very helpful to get a robot. The customers are coming back because of the robot. They like to see it.”餐厅经理卡纳安#8226;坦加拉贾(Kannan Thangaraj)表示:“在新加坡,从海外招募人手非常困难,因此使用机器人非常有帮助。顾客们因为机器人而成为回头客。他们喜欢看到机器人。”So far, only a handful of restaurants are involved in trial usage of the robots. One deterrent is cost: the company which makes the machines, Singapore-based ech Mechatronics, sells them for S,000 (US,340).迄今为止,只有少数几家餐馆在试用机器人。成本是一个障碍:总部位于新加坡的机器人制造公司ech Mechatronics对机器人的定价在4.7万新元(合3.434万美元)。The government provides a subsidy of nearly 70 per cent of the robot’s cost for the restaurant trial, the company said.该公司表示,新加坡政府为试用机器人的餐馆提供近70%的成本补贴。Also in Singapore, a research and development centre for MasterCard has designed the first payment application for SoftBank Robotics’ humanoid robot Pepper. 同样在新加坡,万事达(MasterCard)的一家研发中心为软银机器人(SoftBank Robotics)的仿人机器人Pepper设计了首个付应用。Outlets of Pizza Hut in Asia will use the robot to take some customer orders and process card payments in a trial expected to take place this year. The goal is to free waiters for more complex interactions with customers.亚洲的必胜客(Pizza Hut)门店将有望在今年试用Pepper接受一些顾客的订单并处理卡付。目标是让侍者解放出来,处理与顾客的更为复杂的互动。In this year’s budget, Singapore’s government announced plans to spend more than S0m over the next three years to back the deployment of robots, with a focus on providing affordable robotics to small and medium-sized enterprises.新加坡在今年的预算中宣布,计划在今后3年斥资逾4.5亿新元持企业配备机器人,重点是向中小企业提供它们负担得起的机器人。But the push to innovate has not been universally welcomed; in one Singapore restaurant piloting a robot dish-collector, the machine was smashed to pieces by a member of staff.但这种创新举措并未普遍受到欢迎;在新加坡一家试用机器人收拾盘子的餐馆里,一位员工将机器人打得粉身碎骨。While there has been a global boom in the use of industrial robots, with 248,000 units sold in 2015 according to research by the International Federation of Robotics, sales of service sector robots have lagged behind.尽管全球范围内已经在大量使用工业机器人——国际机器人联合会(International Federation of Robotics)的调查显示,2015年工业机器人销量为24.8万台——但务业机器人的销量要少得多。Sales of service robots rose to about 24,000 units in 2014 compared with just under 22,000 the year before.2014年,务业机器人的销量升至约2.4万台,而2013年还不到2.2万台。Analysts predict that the worldwide market for service industry robots is poised to take off, as technical advances allow robots to perform more complex tasks and work in more unpredictable environments.分析师预计,随着科技进步使得机器人能够执行更加复杂的任务并在更加不可预测的环境中工作,全球范围内务行业机器人的销量将会飙升。In Japan, where robots are widely used in manufacturing, the government has launched a push to increase their use in services including healthcare and nursing homes.在制造业广泛使用机器人的日本,政府出台措施,推动包括医疗保健和居家护理在内的务行业增加机器人的使用。 /201609/467906
  • Samsung is not the first company to discover that battery life can be a combustible issue. 三星(Samsung)不是第一家发现电池寿命可能是个烫手问题的企业。Fiery power packs have haunted businesses as diverse as Dell and Boeing in recent years. 近年来,电池过热问题困扰过从戴尔(Dell)到波音(Boeing)等各类企业。The latter’s Dreamliner fleet was even grounded in 2013 after the aeroplane’s batteries demonstrated unfortunate incendiary tendencies.2013年,波音的梦想客机(Dreamliner)机型甚至还因电池不幸出现易燃倾向而遭到禁飞。The Korean electronics company now has its very own fully fledged battery flame-out to navigate. 这家韩国电子公司眼下要应对自己的一场由电池导致的全面危机。It has just been forced to halt production of its much-hyped Galaxy Note 7 smartphone after the device was blamed for setting fire to at least one house, a car and a number of alarming incidents where Galaxy Note 7s started smoking on planes when in flight.三星刚刚被迫停止生产其被大肆宣传的Galaxy Note 7智能手机,此前这款手机因造成至少一套房屋和一辆车起火、以及造成一系列在飞行中的飞机上冒烟的令人惊慌的事件而受到指责。It is not the first time Samsung has tried to deal with the problem. 这不是三星第一次试图处理这个问题。The company recalled 2.5m of the devices just five weeks ago after reports of battery fires. 仅5周前,在出现多起电池起火的报告后,三星召回了250万部Galaxy Note 7。But it then claimed to have fixed the problem and encouraged customers to swap their dodgy phones for new ones. 但之后三星声称已经解决了这个问题,并鼓励消费者将问题手机置换为新机。Now that fix appears to have come unstuck, it had no option but to dump the whole line.现在,所谓的解决看来是失败了,三星别无选择,只能放弃整条产品线。That, despite the heavy cost, is the safest option. 尽管这样做的代价非常高昂,这是最安全的选项。Defective products — especially when they are potentially dangerous — can take a disproportionate toll on a company’s reputation. 有缺陷的产品——尤其是当这些缺陷构成潜在危险的时候——可能会对企业声誉带来特别沉重的打击。Demonstrating a firm disinclination to risk your customer’s wellbeing is the way to limit reputational damage, as well as the inevitable consumer lawsuits.展现不愿把客户的福祉置于险地的坚决态度,是减少声誉损失以及不可避免的消费者诉讼的方法。The classic example that is often cited is Johnson amp; Johnson, which faced potential disaster in the early 1980s when a malicious attacker poisoned batches of the consumer analgesic, Tylenol. 人们经常提及的经典案例是强生(Johnson amp; Johnson)。上世纪80年代初,该公司曾面临一场潜在的灾难。当时,一位恶意攻击者在多批次的非处方止痛药泰诺(Tylenol)中下了毒。The company responded by swiftly pulling all Tylenol products from retailers’ shelves across the country. 对此,该公司的回应方式是迅速将全国各地零售商货架上的所有泰诺产品下架。It then repackaged the products, which included the tamper-resistant packaging that is now common. 接着,该公司将这些产品重新包装,采用了如今常见的可防止私自替换内容物的包装。Its quick reaction prevented both the need for federal intervention and a public outcry.该公司快速的反应,既消除了联邦政府干预的必要性,也阻止了舆论的强烈谴责。Having failed to resolve the problem with its cutting-edge lithium ion battery, Samsung is right to cut its losses. 在未能解决其尖端锂离子电池中存在的问题之后,三星采取止损的办法是对的。Unlike past phones which had removable power packs, the Note 7’s integrated design means that repeated modifications would be cumbersome and costly. 与过去电池可拆卸的手机不同,Note 7电池与机身一体的设计意味着,反复修改将不仅拖沓而且成本巨大。Even a fix would not repair the damage to the Note 7 name. 而且,即使修复了问题,也无法修复Note 7品牌受到的损害。The company does not want customers to start asking shop assistants: Which one is the exploding phone?该公司肯定不希望看到客户开始问导购:哪一款手机是那个会爆炸的?Recalls are painful, but are survivable by large companies that are not dependent on a single product line. 召回是十分痛苦的,但是对于不依赖于单一产品线的大企业来说,是可以挺过去的。Both Toyota and Merck have suffered financial losses as a result of massive product recalls. 丰田(Toyota)和默克(Merck)都曾因大规模产品召回而遭遇财务上的损失。Still, long-term trends suggest that both companies’ reputations and stock prices bounced back. 然而,长期趋势显示,两家企业的声誉和股价都反弹回来了。Samsung is at least well insulated from any financial fallout. The company is sitting on a cash pile of some bn.三星至少不用担心召回导致任何重大财务影响——该公司目前仍坐拥大约590亿美元现金。Samsung should remember how it started out in the mobile business, which took off in the 1990s after its chairman Lee Kun-hee demonstrated his zero tolerance approach to faulty handsets. 三星应该记住它在手机业务上是如何发家的。该公司手机业务在上世纪90年代的起飞,是由于此前其董事长李健熙(Lee Kun-hee)显示了对问题手机零容忍的处理方式。He piled up 150,000 defective phones outside a factory and had them publicly incinerated. 他在一家工厂外堆积了15万部有问题的手机,并将它们公开付之一炬。A re-run with the Note 7 would do Mr Lee’s successors little harm.在Note 7上再次使出这一招,从长远来看对三星将没有什么坏处。 /201610/471097
  • Researchers presented a conundrum to new mothers on Monday, saying that women who want to lose the extra weight gained in pregnancy should try to get more sleep.They found that mothers who slept five hours or less a day when their babies were six months old were three times more likely than more rested mothers to have kept on the extra weight at one year."We've known for some time that sleep deprivation is associated with weight gain and obesity in the general population, but this study shows that getting enough sleep -- even just two hours more -- may be as important as a healthy diet and exercise for new mothers to return to their pre-pregnancy weight," said Erica Gunderson of Kaiser Permanente, which runs hospitals and clinics in California.Gunderson and colleagues studied 940 women taking part in a study of prenatal and postnatal health at Harvard Medical School in Boston.The women who slept five hours or less a night when their babies were six months old were more likely to have kept on 11 pounds (5 kg) of weight one year after giving birth, they found.Women who slept seven hours a night or more lost more weight, they reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology.The researchers acknowledged this may pose a dilemma to new mothers, given that infants sleep so fitfully."With the results of this study, new mothers must be wondering, 'How can I get more sleep for both me and my baby?' Our team is working on new studies to answer this important question," said Dr. Matthew Gillman of Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care. 研究人员于本周一称,新妈妈们如果想减掉怀期间增加的体重,应该多睡觉,这可要让新妈妈们犯难了。研究人员发现,在宝宝六个月大时,每天只睡五小时或不足五小时的妈妈在生完孩子一年后不能减掉多余体重的几率是那些睡眠充分的妈妈的三倍。“凯撒永久”医疗保健机构的埃里卡#8226;甘德森说:“我们知道,对于普通人群来说,睡眠不足会导致体重增加和肥胖,而我们的这项研究表明,女性在产后保持充足的睡眠有助于她们恢复前体重,这与健康饮食和锻炼身体同等重要。哪怕每天多睡两个小时,情况就会大不一样。” “凯撒永久”医疗保健机构在加利福尼亚开设有医院和诊所。甘德森及其同事对940名女性进行了研究,这些女性都参加过波士顿哈佛医学院的产前及产后健康研究。他们发现,在宝宝六个月大时,每晚只睡五小时或不足五小时的妈妈在生完孩子一年后更难减掉体重,她们在怀期间增加的11磅(5公斤)多余体重没有减掉。而每晚睡眠时间达七小时或七小时以上的妈妈减掉的体重更多。该研究报告在《美国流行病学》期刊上发表。研究人员承认这可能会让新妈妈们为难,因为婴儿的睡眠是断断续续的。哈佛医学院及哈佛朝圣保健机构的马修#8226;吉尔曼士说:“新妈妈们知道这一研究结果后,一定会问,‘那怎样才能既保孩子的睡眠,又保我的睡眠?’目前,我们的研究小组正在研究这一重要问题。” /200803/29223
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