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江苏无锡治疗肛门损伤多少钱无锡做电子肛肠镜疼吗无锡医博肛肠医院治疗肛门疣病价格 When driving these days, do you look at the prices every time you pass a gas station? Do you notice yourself paying more attention to the prices of everything you buy? You are not alone. Consumers everywhere are more price aware. People who've been indifferent to price increases for years are suddenly amazed at what things now cost. How can marketers cope not just with inflation but with consumer sticker shock?1.Understand Your Customers. There are at least four ways in which customers can respond to higher gas prices: downgrade from premium to regular; take fewer trips by car, consolidate errands, switch to public transportation; take the same number of trips but reduce the miles driven per trip by, for example, vacationing closer to home; drive more economically and less aggressively to improve miles per gallon; and buy a specific dollar amount of gas rather than filling up every time, even though this may mean more visits to the pump. Some consumers may even trade in (at a loss) the SUV for a hybrid, an example of how price inflation on one product can cause demand shifts in a second, related, category.2.Invest in Market Research. You must discard your existing customer segmentation assumptions and segment consumers around product usage behavior and price sensitivity. You must get out into the marketplace yourself and talk to consumers directly to understand their pain points and how they are changing attitudes and behaviors in response to price inflation. You must then quantify these shifts and develop product and pricing strategies that balance the need to maintain both profitability and market share.3.Redefine Value. Customers buying soft drinks can think about price in three ways: the absolute cost per can or bottle, the cost per ounce, and, less common in this category, the monthly consumption cost. Customers short on cash will focus much more on the absolute price. They'll go for the 99 cent soft drink rather than the .29 container with 50 percent more volume. To motivate cash-poor consumers, marketers must reverse engineer products and packaging to hit key retail price points. This may mean downsizing package sizes, something the candy industry always does in response to inflation.4.Use Promotions. If you've always passed through raw material price increases to the end consumer, you don't necessarily need to change that policy. However, lagging competitors in passing on price increases can have the same effect as a temporary price promotion. More customers than usual will be looking out for price promotions, but don't give away the store to those who don't need the discount, and cut prices not across the board but only on items selected as your inflation-busters. For cash poor consumers, these promotions should hit the key price points on small pack sizes. For cash rich consumers, encourage multi-unit purchases ahead of the inevitable next price increase.5.Unbundle. Customers who previously welcomed the convenience of buying product, options, and services rolled into one may now ask for a detailed price breakdown. Make it easy for your more price-sensitive customers to better cherry-pick the options and services that they truly need by giving them an unbundled of options.6.Monitor Trade Terms. Beware of powerful distributors paying you more slowly than they turn the inventory they buy from you. In an inflationary environment, they're making money on the float by stretching their payables. Manage your inventory on a last-in, first-out basis to insure that increases in your realized selling prices do not trail the increases in your input costs.7.Increase Relevance. You need to persuade customers to cut back their expenditures on other products, not on yours. In tough times, consumers more than ever need and deserve the occasional treat. So, if you are Haagen Dazs, tell the consumer to substitute private label peas for the name brand but to not forego the comfort of curling up on the sofa with a tub of her favorite ice cream. Strong brands can hold consumer loyalty while increasing retail price points. Weaker brands risk private label and generic substitution. 最近这些天开车经过加油站的时候,你有没有注意油价?你有没有留意自己买任何东西,都比以前更在意价格?不是你一个人这样的.每个消费 者现在都比以前更关注商品的价格.就连之前几年对价格上涨没有感觉的人们也突然对买东西的出数额感到吃惊了.那么,市场上的企业用什么办法才能不仅应对 通货膨胀问题而且也能照顾到消费者的感受呢?1、要理解顾客.汽油价格上涨,消费者至少 有以下四种反应:不再使用优质油转而购买普通油;减少开车出行,把事情统一起来做,选择公共交通工具;或者仍旧开车出行但是缩短每次出行的里程,比如说, 在离家近一些的地方渡假,同时更注重车子的燃油经济性,这样每加仑汽油就能跑更多的里程;消费者还可以一次性购买一定数量的汽油,而不是一次又一次地去油 站加油,尽管这样做要使用油泵.甚至会有消费者宁愿赔钱去把SUV型车换成混合动力型车,这同时也是一个可以说明一种商品价格的上涨如何引起对其他相关商 品需求变化的例子.2、做市场调查.企业这个时候必须抛开已有的消费者细分的假定并根据 消费者的产品使用行为和对价格的敏感程度对其重新细分,企业必须亲自深入市场,直接和消费者对话,了解消费者的切身利益,以及他们在通货膨胀的时候,购买 商品的行为和态度有什么变化.接下来,企业必须对消费者的这些变化进行量化分析并且制定产品和价格策略来平衡商品需求,以维持盈利和市场份额.3、重新定义"价值".购 买软饮料的消费者会从三个方面来考虑价格:首先,一罐或者一瓶饮料的绝对价格,其次是每盎司饮料的价格,还有就是比较少见的,每个月购买饮料的总价格.现 金短缺的消费者会更在意绝对价格,他们会购买定价0.99美元的软饮料却不会购买定价1.29美元同时量也增加了一半的饮料.因此,为了刺激现金短缺的消 费者,企业就必须逆向设计开发产品和包装来配合商品的零售价格,这样的措施一般都是缩小包装规格,糖果行业常常会这么做去应对价格上涨.4、利用促销.如 果企业总是将原材料成本的增加转嫁给最终消费者,那么就没有必要去改变政策.然而,把成本的增加转嫁给消费者的速度放慢就会起到和临时价格促销一样的效 果.消费者大部分都想要打折商品,都在密切地关注着价格促销活动.企业不需要通过董事局决议降价,而只需要降低消费者购买的具体商品的价格就可.对于现金 短缺的消费者来说,这些促销活动会使小规格包装的商品价格正好在他们可以接受的水平上,而对于不存在现金短缺的消费者来说,则可以在下一次不可避免的价格 上涨来临之前,鼓励他们购买多种包装规格的产品.5、分别计价.涨价之前,消费者为了方便希望有多种选择,会把产品和相关的务一起购买,涨价之后,消费者则可能会需要了解它们各自的价格.所以,为了让那些对价格特别敏感的消费者更好地在他们真正需要的多种选择和务之中做出最佳决策,企业就要提供各种购买选择的单独定价单.6、修正交易条款.如果实力强大的分销商偿付货款的周期比他们购买产品的周期长的情况出现,企业要警惕!在通货膨胀的环境下,分销商通过延迟应付账款的时间而获利.企业可以采取后进先出法来管理存货,以保销售额的增加不低于存货成本的增加.7、强调商品的实用性. 企业要劝说消费者减少在其他商品而不是本企业商品的开.在经济环境严峻时期,消费者比以前更需要同时也应该得到特殊的待遇.所以,像哈根达斯,就可以告 诉消费者用名牌豌豆代替私人品牌的豌豆,但同时也告诉消费者不要放弃吃着自己最喜欢的冰淇淋蜷在沙发上的惬意舒适.影响力强的品牌提高零售价格会保住消费 者的忠诚度,而知名度不高的品牌则会有被代替的风险. /200807/44204无锡那家医院治痔疮

无锡人民医院割痔疮好吗Absence does not always make the heart grow fonder. On Thursday shares in ZTE, the Chinese telecom equipment maker, resumed trading after a one-month suspension. The market sold them down by one-tenth. 小别未必带来好感。周四,中国电信设备制造商中兴通讯(ZTE)在停牌一个月后恢复交易。股价下挫十分之一。 They may have further to fall. In early March, the company said it was under investigation by the US for violating controls on exports to Iran. US companies were barred from selling products to ZTE (although they were subsequently permitted to do so under licences that run until June). On Thursday, at the reopen, ZTE said the outcome of the investigation was “highly uncertain”. 中兴股价还可能进一步下跌。3月初,该公司表示正在接受美国商务部调查,原因是涉嫌违反美国对伊朗的出口管制。美国公司不得向中兴销售产品(尽管随后他们又被允许按照许可销售至今年6月)。中兴在周四恢复交易时表示,调查结果仍有“重大不确定性”。 The incident is a reminder of Chinese companies’ reliance on US technology. Nomura estimates that ZTE sources up to 15 per cent of its inputs by value from the US. Given the risks that have come to light, this will have to change. But China’s efforts to acquire US technology outright has had mixed results. State-backed Tsinghua Unigroup’s bid to buy Micron failed, although chip designer Integrated Silicon Solutions was sold to a Chinese buyer. ZTE peer Huawei, which announced stellar numbers last week, has taken an alternative tack: last year, it spent 15 per cent of revenues on research and development, up one percentage point from 2014. That is in line with tech leaders such as Broadcom, and a few percentage points above ZTE. 这起事件提醒世人,中国公司依赖美国科技。野村券(Nomura)估计,按价值计算,中兴从美国采购高达15%的投入。鉴于这次显露的风险,这一局面必须改变。但中资直接买断美国科技的努力迄今有成有败。政府背景的清华紫光(Tsinghua Unigroup)竞购美光(Micron)失败,但芯片设计企业芯成半导体有限公司(Integrated Silicon Solution, ISSI)被卖给了中国买家。中兴的同行、上周发布了可喜业绩的华为(Huawei),则选择了另一种策略:去年,华为将总营收的15%投入研发,比2014年高出一个百分点。这一水平与通(Broadcom)等科技行业龙头企业一致,比中兴则高出几个百分点。 ZTE must spend to grow. Delayed 2015 results, also released on Thursday, showed revenues up less than a quarter, lagging behind both forecasts and Huawei, four times larger but growing at 37 per cent. The uptick in ZTE sales was skewed towards domestic infrastructure spending, expected to slow next year. Although there were impressive gains in the US handset market, growth in Europe, the Americas and Oceania (which are lumped together) was a measly tenth. 中兴必须加大出以推动增长。推迟至周四发布的2015年业绩报告显示,营收增长低于四分之一,逊于预期和华为;华为的规模四倍于中兴,却实现了37%的营收增长。中兴的销售增长主要来自国内基础设施建设开,预计明年将放缓。虽然在美国手机市场取得令人印象深刻的进展,但欧洲、美洲和大洋洲(合并报告)的增长只有区区十分之一。 One way ZTE can try to improve these metrics is to lift its brand, currently focused on low-end phones. Its strategy of investing in high-profile US basketball sponsorships has helped it gain share in the handset market, but with prices as low as it must sell a lot to make much difference. Moving upmarket will demand a step-change in Ramp;D, likely to hit short-term profits. 中兴可以尝试改善这些指标的方法之一是提升其品牌,目前重点是在低端手机市场。该公司赞助美国重大篮球赛事的投资帮助其赢得了手机市场份额,但以低至30美元的价格,它得卖出很多手机才能实质性提升业绩。向高端市场进军就需要在研发上有大动作,这可能会影响短期利润。 Whether or not the US ultimately forgives ZTE’s transgressions, the company’s profitability is about to become more notable by its absence. 不管美国官方最终是否原谅中兴违反管制的行为,该公司缺乏盈利能力的问题值得关注。 /201604/436606无锡医博肛肠医院肛门疼痛肛周脓肿脱肛肠炎便秘治疗好吗 A second robot from Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco) sent into Fukushima#39;s unit 2 reactor collapsed in less than a month#39;s time due to high radiation levels.由于辐射程度过高,东京电力公司向福岛2号反应堆派出的机器人在不足一个月的时间内再次宣告报废。Less than two weeks ago, a robot that ventured into the reactor malfunctioned as the camera on it had been fried by record high levels of radiation just two hours after it started scrapping in the area.不到两周前,一台机器人冒险进入反应堆,因该地区辐射浓度过高,机器人开始失灵,两小时后其装载的摄像头起火,随后该台机器人宣告报废。The extremely high radiation levels inside the reactor have now left the second robot, Scorpio, malfunctioning so much so that Tepco decided to cut off its tether and leave it inside.如今第二台机器人“天蝎座”因相同原因再次报废,东京电力公司遂切断与其联系,将“天蝎座”留在反应堆内。Fukushima#39;s nuclear site which witnessed a major nuclear accident caused by the devastating 2011 earthquake and tsunami is largely contained but the unit 2 reactor is among the areas where radiation levels are at unimaginable levels.2011年发生的地震和海啸导致福岛核电站爆发重大核事故,如今其大部分区域已经得到了控制,但是2号反应堆的辐射浓度高得超出想象。In early February, the radiation levels inside the reactor reached an astonishing 530 sieverts per hour, a level high enough to kill a human within seconds.2月初,反应堆内的辐射浓度达到了每小时530希沃特,足以让人在几秒内丧命。The latest robot victim of the radiation was manufactured by Toshiba and was on a mission to investigate the pedestal underneath the reactor, where melted nuclear fuel is suspected to have fallen.最近报废的机器人是由东芝公司制造的,正在执行调查反应堆基座的任务,溶化的核燃料疑似落至基座区域。Engineers now suspect as the robot was approaching the core of the explosion almost 10 feet away from its target its tank-like ts got stuck.工程师怀疑机器人在接近爆炸中心时其坦克式的踏板陷入停滞,而爆炸中心距其调查目标有10英尺远。Although Tepco has not confirmed whether it was the debris or the radiation that stopped the robot, it is currently under investigation.东京电力公司尚未确认导致机器人失灵的究竟是残骸还是辐射,事故原因正处在调查之中。Tepco has an enormous task of removing the molten radioactive fuel from three of the four reactors but this is the seventh robot to be affected by the radiation and the first to go as close as it went to the core of the explosion.东京电力公司仍面临着艰巨的任务,必须将共计四座反应堆中三座的脱落核燃料移除,然而这台机器人已经是第七台受到辐射影响的机器人,同时也是距爆炸核心最近的机器人。;Even though the robot could not reach the pedestal area, which we had initially planned to investigate, valuable information was obtained which will help us determine the methods to eventually remove fuel debris,; Tepco said.东京电力公司对此表示:“尽管机器人无法到达计划调查的基座区域,但是仍然获得了宝贵的信息,这有助于我们决定最终采取何种方式移除燃料残骸”。 /201703/495681常州二院治疗直肠前突价格

无锡看肛肠哪里好 Robots are not just taking people’s jobs away, they are beginning to hand them out, too. 机器人并不只抢走人类的工作,它们也开始向人类发放工作岗位了。Go to any recruitment industry event and you will find the air is thick with terms like machine learning, big data and predictive analytics.参加招聘行业的任何一场活动,你都会发现空气中弥漫着像机器学习、大数据和预测分析这样的字眼。The argument for using these tools in recruitment is simple. 在招聘中使用这些工具的理由很简单。Robo-recruiters can sift through thousands of job candidates far more efficiently than humans. 机器人招聘者可以快速筛选数以千计的应聘者,效率远高于人类。They can also do it more fairly. 它们还能做到更加公平。Since they do not harbour conscious or unconscious human biases, they will recruit a more diverse and meritocratic workforce.因为它们不会像人类那样带着有意或无意的偏见,它们会招聘到一批更多元化和择优录用的员工。This is a seductive idea but it is also dangerous. 这是个很诱人的想法,但也是危险的。Algorithms are not inherently neutral just because they see the world in zeros and ones.算法的中立并非是其固有,而是因为它们看到的世界只是0和1。For a start, any machine learning algorithm is only as good as the training data from which it learns. 首先,任何机器学习的算法,并不会比它所学习的训练数据更好。Take the PhD thesis of academic researcher Colin Lee, released to the press this year. He analysed data on the success or failure of 441,769 job applications and built a model that could predict with 70 to 80 per cent accuracy which candidates would be invited to interview. 以学术研究者科林#8226;李(Colin Lee)今年向媒体发布的士论文为例,他分析了44.1769万份成功和不成功的求职申请,建立了一个准确度达70%至80%的模型,可预测哪些应聘者会被邀请参加面试。The press release plugged this algorithm as a potential tool to screen a large number of CVs while avoiding human error and unconscious bias.该新闻稿称,这一算法潜在可用作工具,用于在筛选大量简历的过程中避免人为错误和无意识偏见。But a model like this would absorb any human biases at work in the original recruitment decisions. 但这样的模型会吸收最初招聘决定中的人为职场偏见。For example, the research found that age was the biggest predictor of being invited to interview, with the youngest and the oldest applicants least likely to be successful. 例如,上述研究发现,年龄因素可以在最大程度上预测该应聘者是否会被邀请面试,最年轻和最年长的应聘者最不可能成功。You might think it fair enough that inexperienced youngsters do badly, but the routine rejection of older candidates seems like something to investigate rather than codify and perpetuate.你可能觉得这挺公平,因为没有经验的年轻人干不好,但拒绝年长应聘者的常见做法似乎值得调查,而不是被编入程序和得以延续。Mr Lee acknowledges these problems and suggests it would be better to strip the CVs of attributes such as gender, age and ethnicity before using them. 科林承认这些问题的存在,并建议最好从简历中剔除一些属性(例如:性别、年龄和种族)再加以使用。Even then, algorithms can wind up discriminating. 即使那样,算法仍有可能带有歧视。In a paper published this year, academics Solon Barocas and Andrew Selbst use the example of an employer who wants to select those candidates most likely to stay for the long term. 在今年发表的一篇论文中,索伦#8226;巴洛卡斯(Solon Barocas)和安德鲁#8226;谢尔斯特(Andrew Selbst)这两位学者使用了一个案例,即雇主希望挑选最有可能长期留在工作岗位上的雇员。If the historical data show women tend to stay in jobs for a significantly shorter time than men (possibly because they leave when they have children), the algorithm will probably discriminate against them on the basis of attributes that are a reliable proxy for gender.如果历史数据显示,女性雇员在工作岗位上停留的时间大大少于男性雇员(可能因为当她们有了孩子便会离职),算法就有可能利用那些性别指向明确的属性,得出对女性不利的结果。Or how about the distance a candidate lives from the office? That might well be a good predictor of attendance or longevity at the company; but it could also inadvertently discriminate against some groups, since neighbourhoods can have different ethnic or age profiles.应聘者住址与办公室之间的距离如何?这也可能是预测该雇员出勤率和在公司务年限的不错的预测因素;但它可能也会在无意间歧视某些群体,因为不同的住宅社区有不同的种族和年龄特征。These scenarios raise the tricky question of whether it is wrong to discriminate even when it is rational and unintended. This is murky legal territory. 这些现象提出了一个棘手问题:在理性和非有意的情况下,歧视是否错误?这是一个模糊的法律领域。In the US, the doctrine of disparate impact outlaws ostensibly neutral employment practices that disproportionately harm protected classes, even if the employer does not intend to discriminate. 在美国,根据差别影响(disparate impact)原则,貌似中立的雇佣实践若超出比例地伤害了受保护阶层,即为不合法,即便雇主并非有意歧视。But employers can successfully defend themselves if they can prove there is a strong business case for what they are doing. 但雇主若能明该做法有很强的商业理由,就能为自己成功辩护。If the intention of the algorithm is simply to recruit the best people for the job, that may be a good enough defence.如果使用算法的意图仅仅是为相关职位招募最佳人选,那可能是个足够好的辩护理由。Still, it is clear that employers who want a more diverse workforce cannot assume that all they need to do is turn over recruitment to a computer. 话虽如此,那些希望拥有更多元化的员工队伍的雇主,显然不能想当然地认为只需把招聘交给电脑去做。If that is what they want, they will need to use data more imaginatively.假如这正是他们想要的,那他们也得把数据运用得更富想象力一些。Instead of taking their own company culture as a given and looking for the candidates statistically most likely to prosper within it, for example, they could seek out data about where (and in which circumstances) a more diverse set of workers thrive.比如说,与其将他们自己的公司文化设为既定条件,进而寻找统计学上最有可能在该文化中成功的人选,不如找到相关数据显示,一更为多元化的员工队伍在哪些情况下会成功。Machine learning will not propel your workforce into the future if the only thing it learns from is your past.如果机器学习唯一学到的只是你的过去,那么它将无法推动你的员工队伍走向未来。 /201609/467639无锡肛肠息肉手术无锡治疗肛周脓肿需要多少钱



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