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2017年12月16日 09:32:36来源:兰州晨报


  • Puck needs to watch out.帕克要当心了。As she searches the sea grass, she will be unaware of any shark approaching.当它到达海草场时,还没发现鲨鱼正在接近。If a tiger shark closes her from behind,her sonar can not detect it.如果一只虎鲨从后面靠近,它的声呐就不起作用了。Distracted,Puck could easily be attacked.慌乱中的帕克就会很容易遭到攻击。Once detected,Puck can easily out swim the shark.一旦发现鲨鱼,帕克很容易就能逃脱。But when her calf arrives, it wouldnt be so easy for her to escape.但此刻它有在身,所以逃起来有点困难。It gets very shallow on here,this is the low tide too.这里非常浅,还伴随着低潮汐。Dugongs, mother and a calf,oh look at this little baby,look at that.一度儒艮母子!看那个小宝宝!快看哪!More than 10,000 dugongs live in Shark Bay.鲨鱼湾生活着10000多只儒艮。Its the largest population in the world.这是世界上最大的数量。Grazing on the grassbeds,they are the most vulnerable to shark attacks.正在草床上吃草的它们是最容易受到鲨鱼攻击的。In the shallows, they have less room to maneuver.在浅水区它们没有太多空间活动。The calf swims on top of its mum,that way is to protect it from tiger sharks which could make a good meal of a dugong calf.小儒艮在妈妈上方游着,这样就可以避免被虎鲨袭击,小儒艮是顿极好的美餐。Much slower swimming than dolphins ,thousands of dugong calves are taken by sharks every summer.它们比海豚游得慢的多,每年夏天有上千只小儒艮被鲨鱼吃掉。Got dolphins and dugongs together here.我们发现这里的海豚与儒艮生活在一起。Hey,Puck.oh..youre wide.嘿,帕克,噢,你真大。Looking for clues as to when Puck might give birth.为了了解帕克何时会分娩,Janet lowers a special microphone into the water.珍妮特把一个特殊的麦克风放入水中。201404/288211
  • Triceratops protects itself with a bony shield called a frill. They can fend off an attacker with a pair of one-meter-long swords.三角龙使用一种装饰性角状结构的盾状骨骼保护自己。它们还可以用一对一米长的犄角对抗攻击者。You’ve got to crush it. The only way to deal with this huge, curved, cantilevered, composite armor is a crushing blow with multiple teeth.你需要击败他。而对付这种巨大弯曲,悬挂式的复合盔甲,唯一的方法就是使用许多牙齿将它咬碎。But defeating a Triceratops takes more than just teeth. It also requires power. Triceratops’ most dangerous weapons are mounted on a skull that can swivel 360 degrees. 但是想要咬碎三角龙的盔甲,仅仅依靠牙齿是不够的。力量也十分重要。三角龙最危险的武器就是可以360度旋转的头骨。Triceratops would want to keep that horns and the frill pointed right at T-Rex. 三角龙想要用犄角和装饰性角状结构对抗雷克斯霸王龙。For a T-Rex, the key to defeating a Triceratops is his huge jaws, driven by two sets of powerful muscles. The first runs from the top of the skull down to the bottom of the jaw. These muscles give this carnivore’s bite its spear. The second set are muscles which make up almost 50% of the muscles in the head, and wrap around the lower jaw, tying it to the roof of the mouth. They give T-Rex’s bite its 3 tons of force, twice the biting power of a great white shark. And not only that. Just like a python, T-Rex can dislocate its jaw. 对于雷克斯霸王龙来说,击败三角龙的关键就是它巨大的颚,这是由两条有力的肌肉控制的。第一条从头骨上延伸到颚的底部。这些肌肉使雷克斯霸王龙的咬击像矛一样有力。第二条肌肉的大约50%都在头部,并缠绕在下颚,连接上颚骨。这使雷克斯霸王龙的撕咬力可达3吨,这是大白鲨的两倍。不仅如此,像巨蟒一样,雷克斯霸王龙还能够使腮关节脱臼。Cranial kinesis is basically the ability to swallow things larger than your own head. That’s because the skull expands as it opens up—snakes swallowing whole chicken eggs. A snake head that’s, you know, much smaller than the egg, and it will swallow that whole egg. There’s not a lawyer in this world that’s too fat that this T-Rex couldn’t swallow him whole. 吞下比头部大的物体基本上靠的就是颅运动的能力。这是因为当嘴巴张开时,头骨就会扩张,就像蛇能吞下整个鸡蛋一样。大家知道,蛇的脑袋比鸡蛋小很多,但是它还是能吞下整个鸡蛋。虽然律师通常很胖,但是胖到雷克斯霸王龙不能整个吞下的律师还没有出生呢。Tyrannosaurus Rex is a carnivorous monster that uses sheer force to overpower well-defended prey.雷克斯霸王龙是一种食肉型巨兽,它使用它撕咬的力量来捕杀防御力强的猎物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/276011
  • Science and technology科学技术Ancient animal behaviour远古动物行为Jurassic lark侏罗纪雨燕How the pterosaur caught its supper翼龙是如何逮到晚餐的PALAEOETHOLOGY, working out how long-extinct animals behaved, is a subject whose practitioners can never, definitively, be proved right.古行为学,作为一门研究那些早已灭绝的动物的行为的学科,其研究者永远不可能明自己的理论是确凿无误的,But that does not stop them trying.但这一点从来没有阻止过他们对真相的探索。The latest effort, to be presented later this month to the International Symposium on Pterosaurs in Rio de Janeiro, is an attempt by Michael Habib of the University of Southern California, in Los Angeles, and Mark Witton at the University of Portsmouth, in Britain, to work out how one of the most peculiar of the flying reptiles of the Jurassic earned its living.本月晚些时候,将于里约热内卢举行的国际翼龙目研讨会将展示该领域最新一项研究成果,南加州大学的Michael Habib和普利茅斯大学的Mark Witton进行了该项研究,目的在于弄清楚侏罗纪最神奇的飞行类爬行动物之一是如何捕捉食物的。Anurognathus and its relatives have been known for 90 years.蛙嘴龙及其近亲为人类了解已有90年。They were the size of swifts and until now it had been thought that, like swifts, they chased around the sky after insects—a technique known as hawking.它们体型如雨燕般大小,直到今天,人们一直认为它们像雨燕一样在天空中到处疾飞追逐昆虫—即一种被称为飞行捕食的摄食策略。Dr Habib and Dr Witton believe this is wrong.两位士Habib 和Witton认为这种理论是错误的,They suspect instead that Anurognathus sat in wait for its prey, and then sallied forth to intercept it like a surface-to-air missile.他们猜想蛙嘴龙反而是静待猎物,然后像地空导弹一样突然腾空截击。They came to this conclusion by comparing Anurognathus with 36 birds and 20 bats from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.在将蛙嘴龙与取自斯密森学会物馆的36种鸟和20种蝙蝠进行对比后,Habib和Witton做出这一推论。Using a mix of computerised tomography and mundane measurements with callipers, they assessed the lengths, widths, thicknesses, densities and bending potential of the bones of the modern animals and compared them with those gleaned from Anurognathus fossils.他们综合了计算机断层摄影术和使用卡钳的普通测量方法,分析评估了现代动物骨骼的长度,宽度,厚度,密度及弯曲度可能性,并将它们和从蛙嘴龙化石中搜集到的数据进行对比。Anurognathuss mouth, they found, was similar to the mouths of nightjars, which also sally after prey.他们发现,蛙嘴龙的嘴与夜鹰相似,后者也是突袭猎物的。Moreover, the pterosaurs legs and wings were stronger than those of any comparable bird or bat, reinforcing the idea that they could leap rapidly into the air.另外,翼龙的腿和翅膀要比任何可以相提并论的鸟类和蝙蝠都要强壮,这一点强化了它们可以迅疾腾空的观点。Their conclusion was that Anurognathus did indeed feed by sallying—and probably more effectively than any living creature.两位士Habib和Witton的结论是,蛙嘴龙的确是突然腾空袭击猎物的—而且它们的狩猎有可能比任何生物都要更高效。 /201310/260797
  • But shes not deterred from approaching. 但她没有打消念头离开。What she is about to do seems almost suicidal.她要做的看上去简直是自杀性行为。Shes feeding on tiny blood-sucking parasites, which is why the grouper allows this. 她在寻找吸血寄生虫,石斑鱼允许这样的行为。Nevertheless, the wrasse has to regularly vibrate her fins against the inside of his mouth just to remind him not to swallow. 然而濑鱼不得不频繁的摆动鱼鳍,拍打石斑鱼的嘴,提醒她不要吞咽。A single wrasse can eat incredible 1,200 parasites a day, and shes not fussy where she finds them.仅一条濑鱼一天就能吃下1200条寄生虫,她在哪里都可以找到食物。Without this decontamination, the grouper would quickly become infested. 如果没有这种净化,石斑鱼全身将遍布寄生虫。This service is so valuable that the grouper is a regular client, visiting several times a day.这种务太重要,石斑鱼是常客。一天光顾好几次。201409/327382
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