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Most people will pick out a phantom-like picture of Albert Einstein. But if you see a Hollywood pin-up, you may need a trip to the opticians。大多数人看到的是阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦的一张诡异照片。如果你看到的是好莱坞女明星,也许你就得去一趟眼镜店了。At normal viewing distance, healthy eyes should be able to pick up the fine lines on Einstein#39;s face, causing the brain to disregard Marilyn Monroe#39;s image altogether。在正常的观察距离下,健康的眼睛能够捕捉到爱因斯坦脸上的线条,这让大脑可以完全忽略玛丽莲·梦露的图像。This classic optical illusion was created several years ago by neuroscientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology。这一视错觉经典图像是麻省理工学院神经系统科学家们几年前制作的。In a recent , Asap Science highlighted the process behind the trick, which can also be seen in a still image by anyone if they move closer and then farther away from the screen。在最近的视频中,YouTube科普大神Asap Science揭露了这个视错觉背后的操作过程,只要观察者调整自己与屏幕的距离,那么每个人都能从一幅静态图片中观察到图片的变化。‘Depending on how well you#39;re able to focus or pick up contrast, your eye will only pick out details,’ the explains.视频中这样解释道:“这都取决于你的聚焦能力和识别对比度的能力,你的眼睛只会关注细节。”‘Up close, we#39;re generally able to pick up fine details like Einstein#39;s moustache and wrinkles。“近距离观察时,我们大都能够观察到图片上的细节,比如爱因斯坦脸上的小胡子和皱纹。‘But as the distance increases, or if your vision is poor and creates a more blurred image in the first place, your ability to pick up details fades away。“但当观察距离被拉长,或是视力问题让你看到的图像变得模糊时,你观察事物细节的能力就会逐渐消失。‘Instead you only see general features, like the shape of mouth, nose and hair, and are left seeing Marilyn Monroe. ‘“这时,我们只能看到大致的容貌特征,比如嘴型、鼻子和发型,因此,我们最终会看到是玛丽莲·梦露的画像。”The MIT team, led by Dr Aude Oliva, has spent over a decade creating hybrid optical illusions that show how images can be hidden with textures, words and other objects。由奥德·奥利瓦士领衔的麻省理工团队经过十年的努力,最终制作出了这些混合视错觉图像,向我们展示了图像是怎样被纹理、文字和其他图案隐藏起来的。#39;Marilyn Einstein#39; was created by superimposing a blurry picture of Marilyn Monroe over a picture of Albert Einstein drawn in fine lines。这张“玛丽莲·爱因斯坦”混合图像由梦露的模糊照片叠加在爱因斯坦的细线素描上组成。Features with a high spatial frequency are only visible when viewing them close up, and those with low spatial frequencies are only visible at a distance。高空间频率的容貌特征只有在近距离的情况下才能看出,而那些低空间频率的图像特征只能在远距离的情况下可见。Combining pictures of the two produces a single image which changes when the viewer moves closer or farther away from the screen。当我们把这两种图像叠加在一起时,观察者可以通过调整自己与屏幕的距离,而看到不同的图像。Dr Oliva#39;s group say these images not only reveal vision problems, but can also highlight how the brain processes information。奥利瓦士的团队称,这类图片不仅能暴露视力问题,还显示了我们的大脑是如何处理信息的。In one study, participants were shown hybrid images for just of 30 milliseconds, and only recognised the low spatial resolution, or blurry, component of the image。在一项研究中,当参与者只有30毫秒观察混合图像时,他们只能看到低空间分辨率的,或是模糊的局部图像内容。 /201504/369065Technology companies and advertisers are putting pressure on carmakers to pass on data collected by connected cars, BMW has warned, highlighting the concerns the automotive industry faces as it ts a fine line between performance and privacy.宝马(BMW)警告说,高科技企业和广告商正在向汽车制造商施加压力,要让他们交出通过互联汽车收集的数据。这种局面凸显出汽车业正面临有关保护隐私的担忧,它们不得不在用户体验和隐私权之间仔细权衡。Ian Robertson, the German manufacturer’s board member for sales and marketing, said that every car rolling off its production lines had a wireless network that could yield information about location, speed, acceleration and even the occupants of the car.宝马公司主管营销的董事会成员伊恩#8226;罗伯逊(Ian Robertson)表示,每辆走下该公司产品线的汽车都装有无线网络,可以生成关于该车位置、速度、加速度、甚至车上乘客的信息。“There’s plenty of people out there saying: ‘give us all the data you’ve got and we can tell you what we can do with it’,” he told the Financial Times on the sidelines of the Detroit motor show, adding that this included “Silicon Valley” companies, as well as advertising groups. “And we’re saying: ‘No thank you’.”在底特律车展会场外,他告诉英国《金融时报》:“很多人都在跟我们说:‘把你们获取的数据都交给我们,我们能告诉你我们能用它做什么。’”他补充说,这么说的企业不仅包括广告公司,还包括那些“硅谷”公司。“对此,我们的回答是:‘不用了,谢谢。’”About two-thirds of today’s new cars have sensors and communications systems that send and receive data, offering potential for carmakers to find out more about how drivers use their vehicles. But the systems could also provide insurers and advertisers with personal information about customers.如今,大约三分之二的新车拥有能发送和接收数据的传感器和通信系统,从而令汽车制造商有可能更多地了解司机的用车方式。不过,这样的系统同样能够向保险公司和广告商提供客户的个人信息。BMW said it had a firewall in place to protect crucial data about the internal running of the car. But any transmission of data raises concerns about who might access that information — and what they might do with it.宝马表示,该公司设置了防火墙,以保护那些有关汽车内部运转的关键数据。不过,只要存在数据传输,就会有人担心谁可能访问这些信息,他们会对这些信息做什么。Adam Jonas, analyst at Morgan Stanley, said it was a “major issue” for carmakers, which “ unanimously want to create a barrier on this information”. He said: “They don’t want to be the first one to let [their] guard down on information privacy or to become the first company to have a car hacked with bad consequences and image.”根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)分析师亚当#8226;乔纳斯(Adam Jonas)表示,这对汽车制造商来说是个“大问题”,他们“无一例外地想在这些信息上设置壁垒”。他说:“他们不想成为第一个降低隐私保护标准的公司,也不想成为第一家因为其汽车被黑客攻破而导致不良后果和流出非法照片的公司。”Ford was forced into an embarrassing retraction at last year’s Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas after Jim Farley, then head of marketing at the US carmaker, said: “We know everyone who breaks the law. We know exactly when you do it because we have a GPS sensor in your car.” He added: “By the way, we don’t supply that data to anyone.”在去年的消费电子展(Consumer Electronics Show)上,福特(Ford)曾因其营销主管的一句话而不得不十分尴尬地予以澄清。当时,时任该公司营销主管的吉姆#8226;法利(Jim Farley)说:“我们知道每个违反交通法规的人。我们会在你违法的那一刻知道此事,因为我们在你的车里装了GPS接收装置。”他补充说:“顺便说一下,我们不会把数据交给任何人。”Mr Farley later clarified that the company did not track anyone without their permission.后来,法利曾澄清说,福特不会未经许可跟踪任何人的状况。The scale of the data collected by modern vehicles goes beyond how fast or far cars have driven. In an illustration of the potential data that could be surrendered by carmakers, Mr Robertson said that BMW cars knew whether a child was on board, based on weight sensors in the seats linked to the airbag system.当代汽车收集的数据已不限于汽车的速度和开出的距离。为了向人们展示汽车制造商可能泄露的数据,罗伯逊表示,在宝马汽车的座椅上,安装着一个连接至安全气囊系统的的重力感应器,这个感应器令该车能知道车上是否坐着儿童。“Several companies have said: ‘We’d like to know that data because then we will know whether it’s an adult or a child sitting in the car’,” said Mr Robertson.罗伯逊表示:“有几家企业曾表示:‘我们很想获得这些数据,因为那样我们就能知道坐车的是成人还是儿童了。’”He said that advertisers also wanted to know how long the engine has been running so that they could tell “from the navigation system, they’re about to pass a McDonald’s, the car’s been running for three hours and the child’s probably hungry”.他还说广告商还想知道引擎已运转的时间,从而令他们“能够从导航系统了解到,这辆车正要经过一家麦当劳(McDonald#39;s),而车已跑了三个小时,车上的孩子可能饿了。” /201501/354717

Do you remember the 1980s? It was a decade of big hair, neon-bright clothing and consumerism. A new television network called Music Television, or MTV, launched early in the decade and gave rise to the popularity of music s. By the end of the 1980s, global politics would change forever as the Berlin Wall fell. During the decade, inventors created some cool devices.还记得上世纪80年代吗?那是一个崇尚大卷发,亮闪闪酷炫饰以及享乐至上的时代。新的电视网络——音乐电视,或是MTV(音乐电视频道)的出现,带动起一股音乐录像带的潮流。到了80年代末,随着柏林墙的倒塌,全球的政治局面发生了根本性的变革。也就是在那10年间,发明者们创造出了一些酷炫的设备。This list could easily hold frivolous and quirky inventions -- there was no shortage of odd products in the 1980s. For example, there was the DeLorean DMC-12 sports car. The vehicle was a strange one -- journalists who took it on road tests reported that it handled poorly, didn#39;t accelerate as quickly as other sports cars and wasn#39;t particularly fast. The car had a distinctive look with its stainless steel panels and gull-wing doors, but it seemed doomed to obscurity. But then a little film called ;Back to the Future; came out and propelled the DeLorean to new fame. It joined the ranks of other beloved time machines like the Doctor#39;s TARDIS and Bill and Ted#39;s phone booth.接下来要介绍的这一榜单简单列举了一些琐屑无聊又稀奇古怪的发明,其实80年代根本就不缺乏这样光怪陆离的产品。例如德劳瑞恩跑车(Delorean DMC12). 这是一部很奇怪的车,那些测试这部车的记者们声称道这部车的操作系统很槽糕,加速起来并不像其他的跑车那样跑的很快,甚至跑起来是真的很不快。虽说这辆车的不锈钢的金属板以及鸥翼的门让它看起来是那么的与众不同,不过它依然像是注定不会为众人所知。然而之后一部《回到未来》的电影上映,又使得这部德劳瑞恩跑车名声大噪。它和《Doctor Who》(英国科幻电视剧)中的TARDIS时间飞船、《阿比阿弟的冒险》中可以穿越时空的电话亭一同晋升为大众心爱机器。Now that we#39;ve cleansed the pallet with a goofy entry, let#39;s get down to serious business.我们已经清理掉了那些傻傻呆呆的发明创造,现在就让我们一本正经地切入主题吧!10.Disposable Cameras10.一次性照相机Like contact lenses, cameras became a disposable commodity in the 1980s. Fujifilm invented the modern disposable camera in 1986 with the Utsurun-Desu, and other major photography companies like Kodak, Canon and Nikon quickly started manufacturing similar products. Buying a camera was no longer a hefty investment: Disposable cameras were cheap and extremely easy to use, perfect for shooting a specific occasion with one roll of film. A built-in flash eventually became the norm for disposable cameras, and some even used a pair of lenses to create a manual zoom.Disposable cameras didn#39;t take over the photography market, but they absolutely cornered the tourism industry. Cheap throwaway cameras were perfect for traveling, easy to use and similarly easy to outfit with plastic cases for underwater shooting.The rise of digital photography spelled an end to the glory days of disposable cameras. With images saved to memory, rather than permanently captured on film, digital cameras introduced infinite re-usability into the camera world. Still, disposable cameras have their place -- they#39;re great party favors, easy for kids to use, and won#39;t set you back hundreds of dollars after an accidental dip in the ocean.同隐形眼镜一样,相机也成为了20世纪80年代流行的一次性日用品。1986年,富士公司首次推出第一台一次性照相机——Utsurun-Desu,随后,其他许多大型摄影公司,像柯达、佳能或者是尼康等也相继推出了类似的产品。至此,买一台相机便不再是一项沉重的投资了。一次性照相机性价比很高,一卷胶卷就可以拍出相当完美的具体影像。内置的闪光灯成为了一次性照相机的标配,甚至有的相机还使用一组透镜,形成手动可变焦距镜头。虽然一次性照相机并没有考虑摄影市场,但他们却以绝对性的优势垄断了整个旅游行业。廉价的一次性相机对于旅行来说绝对是完美的配备,就连操作也十分便捷,简单的套一个塑料袋就可以进行水下摄影。数码相机的兴起终结了一次性照相机的黄金时代。图片可以记忆存储,而不是必须通过胶片才可以永恒保存,数码相机把可无限制重复使用的性能引入了相机领域。尽管如此,一次性照相机仍然保有他们的一席之地——它们也有依然热衷于它们的追随者,例如,对于孩子来说,还是一次性照相机使用起来更加方便,即便是不小心掉落海里,你也不会紧张那随海水飘去的好几百美元。9.Nicotine Patch9.尼古丁贴剂Cigarettes are addictive and unhealthy. Who knew? Well, at one point in time, no one did. Smoking was considered glamorous and was accepted everywhere. Movie stars of the 1940s and 1950s smoked cigarettes in every scene. Even in the 1980s, smoking was still very common. But by then, some researchers were trying to figure out why cigarettes were addictive and looking for a way to break the habit.The most successful of those researchers was probably Dr. Murray E. Jarvik, who studied the effects of nicotine in the #39;60s and #39;70s and determined it was the addictive ingredient in tobacco. Jarvik and one of his students knew that tobacco harvesters often suffered from ;green tobacco illness,; a form of nicotine poisoning that resulted from skin contact with tobacco leaves, and began testing the dermal application of nicotine in 1984. And just like that, the nicotine patch was born.Well, almost. Jarvik#39;s discovery led to a 1985 patent request from the University of California, but prescription nicotine patches didn#39;t actually hit store shelves until 1992. A few years later, nicotine patches were available over the counter without a prescription, and ever since then, they#39;ve been helping smokers stamp out their cigarette habits.烟草是容易让人上瘾,并且又不太健康的东西,不过真的有人知道吗?事实上,一度没有人知道这一事实。吸烟曾被认为是一项充满魅力的行为,且广受大众的接受与喜爱。20世纪40年代到50年代,电影明星们好像无时无刻都在抽烟。即使是到了80年代,吸烟仍然是一件司空见惯的事情。但是自那之后,一些研究者就想要试图弄清楚吸烟使人上瘾的根源所在,并开始着手寻找一些戒烟的方法。在那些研究者当中,最成功的恐怕要数贾维克士(Dr Jarvik)了。他于60年代到70年代间一直从事于研究尼古丁对人的影响,并认为烟草中有使人上瘾的物质。贾维克同他的一个学生了解到,烟草收割者时常会受到烟草花叶病的干扰,而烟草花叶病的感染就是由于烟草叶与皮肤之间发生接触而形成的一种尼古丁毒素所致。1984年,贾维克他们开始测试人体皮肤上的尼古丁表皮施用。就这样,尼古丁贴剂诞生了。很好的是,1985年,贾维克的发明获得了美国加利福尼亚大学的专利,但直到1992年,处方药尼古丁贴剂才在各大药店处方柜销售。几年以后,尼古丁贴剂便可在非处方柜购买。自那之后,尼古丁贴剂便成为辅助吸烟者戒除烟瘾的工具之一。8.Prozac8.百忧解Prescription drugs always come with a long, concerning list of side effects, and Prozac is no exception. That doesn#39;t change the fact that Prozac, aka Fluoxetine, has helped millions of people deal with clinical depression since it first became available as a prescription medication in 1987. Fluoxetine#39;s potential as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor was actually discovered in the 1970s, but the FDA didn#39;t give the drug the go-ahead for an entire decade.Fluoxetine was discovered and patented by Eli Lilly and Company in the 1970s; after the FDA approved the drug in 1987, they began marketing it under the name Prozac. The drug became a successful and popular treatment for depression and obsessive compulsive disorder, allowing the brand name ;Prozac; to become synonymous with antidepressants in the 1990s.Despite being so well-known, Prozac isn#39;t the most-prescribed antidepressant in medicine: In the U.S., Sertraline and Citalopram are in higher demand than Fluoxetine. Even those suffering from depression who aren#39;t prescribed Prozac may have benefited from the drug: The patent wore off in 2001, allowing generic Prozac alternatives to hit the market.处方药副作用的列表总是很长,百忧解也不例外。自1987年百忧解第一次成为处方药开始,它就已经帮助几百万人缓解了临床忧郁症——这一事实无可否认。二十世纪七十年代,人们发现氟西汀可以作为一种选择性血清再摄取抑制剂。但是,整整十年,美国食品药品都没有批准施用此药物。二十世纪七十年代,美国礼来公司(Eli Lilly)发现氟西汀,并获得了它的专利。1987年,美国食品药品批准施用这个药物之后,他们便开始以“百忧解”的名称销售此药物。该药物成为治疗抑郁症和强迫症的良方,并迅速风靡。二十世纪九十年代之后,百忧解便成为抗抑郁药物的代名词。尽管百忧解这么有名,但在医学上,它并不是最好的抗抑郁处方药。在美国,舍曲林和西酞普兰的市场需求比百忧解还要高。只要那些患有抑郁症的人不遵医嘱吃处方药,百忧解就可以从这些病人当中受益,但2001年起,百忧解的专利失效,这让泛型百忧解的替代品有机会冲击药品市场。审稿:省略珺 校对:CMX 来源:前十网 /201507/384463

The National Security Agency programme that collects information on the phone calls of tens of millions of Americans suffered its most significant legal setback when it was ruled illegal by a federal appeals court on Thursday.周四,美国国家安全局(NSA)通过数以千万计美国人的电话收集信息的计划遭遇最大法律挫折,原因是当日一家联邦上诉法庭裁定该计划非法。The three-judge panel ruled that the programme exposed by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden was not permitted by the Patriot Act, the sweeping counterterror bill passed by Congress in the wake of the 9/11 attacks.这一由三名法官组成的小组裁定,《爱国者法案》(Patriot Act)并不许可这一由NSA前合同工爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)曝光的计划。《爱国者法案》是9#8226;11恐怖袭击之后,美国国会通过的一项全面反恐议案。The ruling comes at a politically sensitive moment for the NSA as Congress is beginning to debate whether to renew the section of the Patriot Act, which had been used to justify the bulk collection programme.对于NSA来说,这一裁决的出台正值一个政治敏感时期,因为国会正要开始就是否更新《爱国者法案》的一个章节开展辩论,而该章节一直被用来为大规模信息收集计划提供法律依据。Although intelligence officials have said the data are critical for counter-terrorism missions, there is a strong push in Congress to either abolish the programme or place substantial limits on it.虽然情报机构的官员曾表示这些数据对反恐任务至关重要,但是美国国会依然在强势推动对此类计划的改革,他们要求要么废除该计划,要么对其加以大量限制。The judges from the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit did not address the issue of whether the data collection programme violated the constitution and its prohibition against “unreasonable seizures and searches”.来自美国联邦上诉法院第二巡回审判庭的法官并未提到,这一数据收集计划是否违反了宪法及宪法对“无理搜查和扣押”的禁止。However, in a 97-page ruling, they said that the section of the Patriot Act, which allows law enforcement to collect business records that are considered relevant to counterterror investigations, could not be used to allow such broad sweeps of call data.不过,在长达97页的判决书中,法官们表示《爱国者法案》的一章不能用来作为批准这类全面电话数据收集计划的法律依据。该章节允许执法机构收集被视为与反恐调查密切相关的商业记录。“The statutes to which the government points have never been interpreted to authorise anything approaching the bth of the sweeping surveillance at issue here,” wrote Judge Gerard Lynch wrote for the panel. “The sheer volume of information sought is staggering.”替该法官小组执笔的杰勒德#8226;林奇法官(Judge Gerard Lynch)写道:“在此处涉及的问题上,全面监控计划涵盖的范围太大,政府所援引法规的任何司法解释从未批准如此大范围的监控。所搜集信息的规模之大是惊人的。”The ruling added: “Such expansive development of government repositories of formerly private records would be an unprecedented contraction of the privacy expectations of all Americans.”该裁决书补充说:“政府对原本的私人记录的内容做如此大幅度的扩张存储,会史无前例地压缩所有美国人对个人隐私的预期。” /201505/374179

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