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杭州市第三人民医院看牙齿戴牙套多少钱金华做冷光美白牙齿疼吗杭州省医院单颗缺失多颗缺失半口缺失价格 Business.商业。Steelmaking in France.法国的钢铁制造。Cross over Lorraine.聚焦洛林。The closure of a steelmaking plant annoys the new president.钢铁厂的关闭令新总统烦恼。AMONG the first visitors to the Elysee Palace after Francois Hollandes victory in the French presidential election last month were trade-union leaders from ArcelorMittals steel factory at Florange, in Lorraine. The region is the crucible of Frances traditional heavy industry: people have been making iron in Lorraine for more than 300 years. But the blast-furnace fires started to go out last year when recession slashed demand for steel and forced ArcelorMittal, the worlds biggest steelmaker by some distance, to start closing its least efficient plants. By October both Floranges furnaces had been snuffed out, supposedly for a year. Last month the company said they would stay cool for another six months.Francois Hollande上个月赢得法国总统选举后爱丽舍宫的第一批访客中就有来自洛林Florange地区ArcelorMittal钢铁厂的工会领袖。此地是法国传统重工业的熔炉:人们在洛林炼铁已超过300年。但是当去年的衰退严重削弱了钢铁的需求时,高炉的炉火开始熄灭,几乎是世界最大的钢铁厂ArcelorMittal被迫开始关闭它效率不高的工厂。10月份时Florange的高炉已经停产,估计持续一年。上个月公司说他们将再停炉6个月。The unions fear that they will never be fired up again and that steelmaking on a symbolic site will come to an end. After the union leaders visit Mr Hollande asked Arnaud de Montebourg, the minister for productivity, to get an expert to review the prospects for Florange and to request the governments of Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain to ;act together vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal;-whatever that means.工会担心公司再也不会恢复生产,具有象征意义的钢铁制造区将终结。与工会领袖会晤后,Hollande先生要求生产部长Arnaud de Montebourg 找一个专家评估Florange的前景,同时要求比利时,德国,卢森堡和西班牙;共同行动vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal;-不管那意味着什么。Union fears are probably well founded: ArcelorMittal has labelled Florange and its plants at Liege, in Belgium, ;non-core;. The company has aly started the cumbersome, two-year process needed under Belgian labour law to close Liege permanently. Although it describes the Florange shutdown as temporary, it plainly wants to close that plant for good too, although it is loth to say so in public.工会的担心可能成真:ArcelorMittal已经把Florange和它在比利时Liege的工厂标记为;非核心;。公司已经开始周转不灵,按比利时劳动法永久关闭Liege需要2年时间。尽管Florange的关闭被说成是暂时的,但很明显公司也想永久关闭该工厂,只是它不愿公开这么说。With overcapacity in Europe and consolidation worldwide, only modern, coastal steelworks can compete. Older, inland sites, originally built atop iron-ore mines, are now seeing the world pass them by. Pressure to close less efficient plants has increased since Arcelor and Corus, both European firms, were merged into the global Mittal and Tata empires in the past five years and since recession put an end to a steel boom.随着欧洲生产过剩和世界范围内的兼并,只有现代化的,位于海边的钢材有竞争力。较老的,位于内陆的,起初建在铁矿附近的钢厂现在已经落伍了。自从两家欧洲公司Arcelor和Corus在过去5年被global Mittal和Tata帝国合并,自从衰退结束了钢铁业的繁荣,关闭效率低下的工厂的压力增加了。But the Florange site has more than just blast furnaces: they employ only about 500 workers out of a total of 2,700. The rest are in rolling mills that prepare finished steel for the car and construction industries or in research and development. With the blast furnaces shut, steel slabs are shipped inland from the companys coastal furnaces at Dunkirk. But that in turn is less efficient than doing everything at integrated coastal sites, such as Dunkirk, which import ore at one end and roll out finished steel at the other. So the fear is that in the long term even the rolling mills at Florange are doomed.但是Florange不仅仅有高炉:高炉只雇佣了总数2700人中的500人。其余的人轧钢厂工作,轧钢厂生产用于汽车,建筑工业的精炼钢,其中一部分人从事研发工作。高炉被关闭后,钢厚板由公司位于敦刻尔克的海边钢厂运到内陆来。但是那样做与把所有工作都集中于沿海地区相比低效,比如在敦刻尔克,一端输入铁矿石,另一端产出精炼钢。因此令人担心的是长期而言Florange轧钢厂的关闭是不可避免的。Since the first blast furnace closed last summer the workers have been mounting periodic protests in Florange and (occasionally) in Paris. The accession of Mr Hollandes Socialist government has brought them powerful friends, or at least demonstrative ones: Aurelie Filippetti, the minister of culture, turned up outside the mill to toast the protesters with champagne.自从去年夏天第一座高炉关闭以来,工人们定期在Florange和巴黎(偶尔)举行抗议。Hollande先生的社会党政府的上任使他们有了强大的朋友,或至少表明了这一点:文化部长Aurelie Filippetti出现在工厂外用香槟向抗议者敬酒。Meanwhile, ArcelorMittal says it has had no contact with the Elysee Palace. The company, which has its headquarters in London and Luxembourg, employs 300,000 people-20,000 in France, where it is a leading foreign investor. Its foreign ownership may be one reason why it is under fire from the new government, but French firms could also be shot at, once this months parliamentary elections are out of the way. PSA Peugeot-Citr?en, Air France-KLM and Carrefour are on a long list of firms said by unions to be preparing to announce mass redundancies.同时,ArcelorMittal表明他没有接触爱丽舍宫。公司分别在伦敦及卢森堡拥有总部,共雇用了300,000人---20,000人在法国,对法国是个重要的投资者。它的外国投资者身份可能是它被新上台的政府攻击的一个原因,但是一旦这个月的议会选举出现异常,法国公司同样可能被攻击。PSA Peugeot-Citr?en, Air France-KLM和Carrefour公司都在工会传出的准备进行大规模裁员的一长列的公司清单中。 /201209/201431舟山哪家医院补牙最便宜

萧山牙科医院畸形牙杭州磨牙牙套费用是多少 Science科学技术The science of stuttering口吃科学Speech therapy演讲疗法Unravelling the mystery of faltering speech解秘演讲时的口吃Cures worthy of a king国王应该治疗DOWN the ages stuttering has been blamed on many things.多年来,口吃可以归咎于许多事。In the second century Galen pinned it on a dryness of the tongue.二世纪时,盖伦将口吃归咎于舌头干燥。In the 17th, Francis Bacon reckoned a stiff tongue was responsible.17世纪,弗朗西斯.培根认为僵硬的舌头应对口吃负责。In the 19th, surgeons suggested too large a tongue.19世纪,外科医生指出是长舌头造成了口吃。In the 20th, parental neglect and even an unfulfilled urge for oral sex had their moments of fame.到了20世纪时,父母的忽略,甚至是未实现的口交被认为是造成口吃的原因。The suggested remedies were just as diverse.矫正口吃的建议方法也多种多样。Galen thought wrapping the patients tongue in a cloth soaked in lettuce juice might help.盖伦认为将病人的舌头用浸过莴苣汁的布包起来可能有帮助。Bacon recommended wine.培根的推荐是酒。The Victorians wielded scalpels. The psychiatrists, the couch. None of it worked.维多利亚时代的外科医生们挥舞手术刀。精神科医生的建议是沙发。这些方法都不奏效。These days, as delegates to the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, heard, the talk is of brain anatomy and genes.几天来,在华盛顿出席美国科学促进会的代表们都听说了大脑解剖和基因与讲话有关。Luc De Nil, of the University of Toronto, has been poring over stutterers brains using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.多伦多大学的卢克.德.尼尔已经用正电子发射断层扫描和功能性磁共振成像仔细研究了口吃者的大脑。He has found that parts of the brain linked to the production of speech are more active in stutterers than non-stutterers, while those involved in perceiving sounds are less so.他发现大脑的一部分与生成话语的区域相连,口吃者的这个区域要比非口吃者活跃,而感知声音的那些区域则是非口吃者更活跃。The two sorts of brain look different, too.两者的大脑看起来也不同。Stutterers tend, for instance, to have more densely packed grey matter in the areas associated with processing and producing sounds.比如,有关处理和产生声音的区域上覆盖的灰质,口吃者要更密集。Such differences in activity and anatomy, though, must have deeper causes.活动性和解剖上的不同一定存在着更深层的原因。And, in time-honoured fashion, there is a debate about whether those causes are genetic or environmental.而这些原因是基因上的还是环境上的,其争论的历史也相当悠久。Dennis Drayna of Americas National Institutes of Health argued to the meeting that persistent stuttering is at least partly a matter of genes.美国国家卫生研究院的丹尼斯.德雷纳在会上说道,持续的口吃至少一部分原因是基因问题。It runs in families.在家族中遗传。Studies of twins suggest a genetic component larger than those known to be involved in high cholesterol and osteoporosis.对双胞胎的研究表明这个遗传因素要比胆固醇和骨质疏松症的遗传因素高。At least two studies of adopted children suggest that those whose adoptive parents stutter are no more likely to develop the impediment than those taken on by non-stutterers.至少,有两个关于被收养孩子的研究表明,孩子是否会发展成为口吃者,其可能性,收养者是口吃者并不比非口吃者大。To discover which genes might be responsible, Dr Drayna looked at 44 Pakistani families.为了发现哪种基因与引发口吃有关,德雷纳士对44个巴基斯坦家庭进行了调查。Marriage between cousins is common in Pakistan, and such inbreeding leads to a high incidence of genetic disorders.近亲结婚在巴基斯坦很普遍,而这种近亲交配引发遗传性疾病的发病率很高。Dr Draynas analysis suggests that stuttering is linked to mutation of a gene called GNPTAB—a finding confirmed when the same mutation was subsequently discovered in a number of stutterers from Pakistan and India who were unrelated to the original group of families.德雷纳士的分析表明口吃与一种叫做GNPTAB的基因突变有关—随后,在巴基斯坦和印度非近亲结婚的家庭中发现了许多口吃者也有类似的突变时,这个发现得到了实。In January Dr Drayna and his colleagues published a paper in the Journal of Human Genetics tracing the responsible mutation back almost 600 generations, to a common ancestor who would have lived around 14,000 years ago.1月,德雷纳士和他的同事在《人类遗传学杂志》上发表了一篇论文,追踪了约600代人中发生过此种突变的人,他们的祖先是同一个人,生活在约14,000年前。Further study of South Asians has shown that mutations in two other genes, GNPTG and NPA, are found in individuals who stutter, but not in non-stutterers.对南亚人的进一步研究表明,另两大基因也存在突变—GNPTG 和 NPA,在口吃者中发现了这两种基因,而非口吃者中没有。All three affected genes encode enzymes that regulate lysosomes, the cells waste-disposal units.所有这三种受影响的基因通过编码酶调节溶解体,溶解体是细胞废物处理单元。Two of the encode mutations involved are also known to cause a rare disease called mucolipidosis.其中有两种编码突变也会引发粘脂沉积症—一种罕见的疾病。Severe mucolipidosis is fatal within ten years of birth.在出生的十年内,严重的粘脂沉积症是致命的。Even the mild variety has symptoms that include abnormal skeletal development and, sometimes, slight mental retardation.即使是温和一点的,也会引发许多症状,包括骨骼发育异常,有时还会有轻度精神发育迟滞。Fortunately for stutterers, close examination of those with the relevant mutations reveals no symptoms of mucolipidosis.在对相关突变进行仔细检查后,并没有发现任何粘脂沉积症的症状,这对口吃者来说是幸运的。Dr Drayna suspects that both conditions are caused by misfolding of the enzymes in question, but that the details are different.德雷纳士怀疑这两种病状都是由错误折叠酶引起,但细节有所不同。With stutterers, he thinks, a specific group of brain cells involved in speech production is, for an unknown reason, uniquely sensitive to the enzymatic glitch—perhaps producing the patterns seen by Dr De Nil in his brain scanners.他认为,对口吃者来说,参与话语生成的一组特定的脑细胞,不明原因的对酶毛刺有一种独特的敏感—也许将德.尼尔士在脑部扫描中看到的结构生成出来能够解释这个现象。To investigate further, Dr Drayna is now attempting to splice human stutter-causing genes into the DNA of mice.为了进一步调查,德雷纳士正尝试将引发人类口吃的基因拼接到老鼠的DNA中。That, of course, raises the question of what a stuttering mouse sounds like.当然,又有了另一个问题,口吃的老鼠听起来像什么呢。To the human ear, it may not sound like anything.人类的耳朵听来,这个声音可能什么都像。Many murine squeakings are too high-pitched to be perceptible.许多小鼠的尖叫声非常高亢,难以感觉它是否口吃。But ultrasonic detectors should deal with that.也许高声波探测仪可以解决这个问题。With luck, the causes of stuttering should soon be understood better.幸运的话,引发口吃的原因很快就会被更好的理解了。Whether that results in treatments more effective than lettuce juice and wine is another matter.而治疗方法是否比莴苣汁和酒更有效,则要另当别论了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230794浙江省肿瘤医院看补牙镶牙四环素牙怎么样好吗

浙江杭州隐形矫正牙齿多少钱There is no room to screw up on a trip like this, mental or otherwise.这样的旅途中、精神上或其他旅行不会有空间可以搞成这样。Once on Mars, you are likely to be stuck there for a year or more,一旦在火星上,你很可能会被困一年甚至更长时间。waiting for a window of opportunity to ride home.你要等待的就是回家的机会之窗敞开。And unlike a robot, the hopes and fears of the whole planet will be riding with you.而不像一个机器人, 整个星球的希望和恐惧将与你同在。I think a human is gonna do a better job of exploring Mars ultimately than robots ever can.我认为一个人会比机器人在探测火星方面最终做的更好。Robots move really slowly.机器人移动的非常缓慢。Okey, whats bearing up opportunity have done in five years on Mars two astronauts could probably have done in a week.好了,在五年内机器人在火星上所做的两名宇航员在一个星期内就可以完成。As fast and smart as we are,只要我们又快又好,we still need mechanical help to sculp the course for Mars.对于探测火星,我们仍然需要机械的帮助。The next robot rolling on to red dirt will be ably named Curiosity.未来冲向这片红色土地的机器人将被命名为好奇心号。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182167 浙江省超声波洁牙哪家医院好杭州看牙总共费用



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