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2018年03月23日 22:31:50 | 作者:中国门户 | 来源:新华社
“Singles Day”–held annually on Nov 11–is a popular day for college students to declare their love to someone they’ve had a crush on. But this year, colleges seem to be buzzing with romance a bit earlier than usual.每年的11月11日被称为“光棍节”,大学生们流行在这一天向爱慕的对象表白。不过今年的“光棍节”韵事来得比往年早些。An article entitled “The Protocol for Love Confessions on Singles Day” (《光棍节表白条例》) was posted online last week. The protocol is targeted at several universities, and it includes 10 items that either give advice or prohibit certain behaviors to prevent “Singles Day” activities from getting out of hand.上周一篇名为《光棍节表白条例》的文章出现在网上。该条例冠以几所大学的名义,列出了10条“光棍节”表白活动的建议和严禁事项。As convincing as the article was, the post was soon found to be a hoax.这篇颇有说力的条例事后被明为一场恶作剧。Those universities have issued official declarations denying their involvement. But the fact that the article was thousands of times in one day says how popular the occasion is.“躺”的大学已经发布官方声明,否认发布了该条信息。不过这篇文章在一天之内就获得了数千次的点击量,说明表白是个热门话题。“The prevalence of campus love confessions is a sign that our culture is becoming more open and tolerant, and that, in turn, provides a platform where students can freely act out their ideas,” commented the Chongqing Economic Times.《重庆商报》道:“校园表白的盛行表明我们的文化更加开放和宽容了,也为学生提供了将心动变为行动的平台。”That said, proclamations of love should be done with certain ground rules in mind.即便如此,表白也应该遵守一定的基本准则。“The protocol actually makes sense in a way,” said Zhao Caixia, 21, at Yichun University, Jiangxi. “As much as I admire the courage of students who confess their love, it’s important that the activity doesn’t disturb other people’s lives.”江西宜春学院21岁的大学生赵霞说:“某种程度上讲,表白条例确实有一定的道理。”“我很佩那些有勇气表白的人,不过重要的一点是,表白不要影响到他人。”The fake protocol overlooks the fact that declarations of love don’t have to be public at all. Creating a big scene is not the only method to show your affection.假表白条例忽视了一个事实——那就是,表白并不一定要公开。大张旗鼓地表白并不是表达爱意的唯一方式。A freshman at Anhui University, who prefers to be known by his pseudonym “Desolate Rain”, took a low-key approach, and it worked just as well.安徽大学一名化名为“荒凉的雨”的大一新生就用低调的方法表白成功。He started by becoming friends with the girl and taking care of her in a subtle but thoughtful way. After they knew each other well enough and developed a healthy friendship, he picked the right moment to let her know his feelings.他和女友从朋友做起,细心、体贴地照顾她。当他们互相了解并发展出健康的友谊后,他选择恰当的时机向女孩表明了自己的心迹。“Personally, I think this approach is more sincere and avoids giving the impression of being hasty,” he said. “Being friends with each other first gives relationships a solid foundation. Otherwise it can easily collapse even if the confession goes well.”“我个人认为这种方式更真诚,避免给人轻率的印象,”他说。“成为朋友是发展恋情的坚实基础。否则,就算表白成功,感情也容易破裂。” /201511/409095Blondes may be #39;bombshells#39; who have more fun, but they#39;re also tarnished with a reputation for being dumb.金发女郎也许是享受更多乐趣的性感尤物,然而她们也背负上了脑袋不灵光的名声。Having a #39;blonde moment#39; has even become a phrase used when someone makes a mistake.有个短语叫“金发时刻”,用来指某人犯错误的时候。Now, a study has found this stereotype is not only inaccurate, the opposite could actually be true.最近,一项研究发现,这种成见非但不正确,而且真相可能正相反。Researchers found women who said their natural hair colour was blonde had an average IQ score within 3 points of brunettes and those with red or black hair.研究人员发现,自称天然发色为金色的女子与发色为棕色、红色或黑色的女性相比,智商要高出3个百分点。Data for the study came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) - a national survey of people who were between 14 and 21 years old when they were first interviewed in 1979.研究数据来自于“国家青年纵向调查1979(NLSY79)。此项调查针对14至21岁的青年,这些青年第一次接受调查是在1979年。In 1980, participants in the NLSY79 took the Armed Forces Qualification Test, or AFQT, which is used by the Pentagon to determine the intelligence of all recruits.1980年,NLSY79对调查对象采用了军人资格测验法。此项测验也被国防部用来测试新人的智力情况。The overall AFQT score is based on word knowledge, paragraph comprehension, math knowledge and arithmetic reasoning.AFQT测验结果是基于对词汇知识、段落理解、数学知识和算术推理的评估。In 1985, all participants were asked, #39;What is your natural hair colour?#39;1985年,所有的被调查者都被问到自己的天然发色。To eliminate any bias in the IQ tests caused by ethnic and racial differences, Jay Zagorsky from Ohio State University dropped all African Americans and Hispanics from the analysis, reducing the sample size to 10,878 white, females.为了消除人种差异给IQ测试带来的影响,来自俄亥俄州立大学的杰伊·扎葛斯基剔除了所有非洲裔和西班牙裔美国人的样本,只留下了10878个纯种白人女性的样本。The findings showed that blonde-haired white women had an average IQ of 103.2, compared to 102.7 for those with brown hair, 101.2 for those with red hair and 100.5 for those with black hair.研究结果显示,金发白人女性平均智商为103.2,而棕发、红发和黑发女性的智商分别是102.7,101.2和100.5。Blonde women were slightly more likely to be in the highest IQ category than those with other hair colours, and slightly less likely to be in the lowest IQ category.与其他发色的女性相比,金发女性属于高智商人群的可能性略高,而属于低智商人群的可能性也略低。The study can#39;t say whether there are any genetic relationships between hair colour and intelligence, but Zagorsky did find one fact that could at least partially explain why blondes showed slightly higher intelligence - they grew up in homes with more ing material than did those with any other hair colour.对于发色和智力之间是否存在基因关系,此研究并不能给出定论。但是,扎葛斯基发现金发女子成长的家庭拥有的阅读材料比其他发色的女子更多,这在一定程度上可以解释金发女性智商略高的现象。#39;This study provides compelling evidence that there shouldn#39;t be any discrimination against blondes based on their intelligence.#39; Zagorsky said.扎葛斯基说:“此研究有充分的据说明,我们不应该歧视金发人的智商。”#39;I don#39;t think you can say with certainty that blondes are smarter than others, but you can definitely say they are not any dumber.#39;“我不认为你可以断言金发人就是比其他人聪明,但你绝对可以说金发人并不比别人笨。” /201603/433092

If you only got six hours#39; shut eye last night, there is no need to lose sleep over it.如果昨天晚上你睡够了六个小时,那么你真的没有必要再继续睡下去了。Scientists say that despite the widely held belief that we need eight hours of sleep a night, six to seven hours is the natural amount.尽管大多科学家都坚信一天需要睡八个小时,但是六个小时就已经是自然睡眠的足够时间了。Advising short-sleepers to rest easy, the US researchers said: #39;This has important implications for the idea that we need to take sleeping pills because sleep has been reduced from its natural level by the widesp use of electricity, TV, the internet and so on.#39;快速入睡者往往能得到更好的休息。美国的研究者称:这个结论暗示很多人都需要用安眠药,因为大量的使用像电视,网络这样的电器,会让人们的睡眠质量降到自然水平之下。The lead author of a study Ghandi said: #39;There#39;s this expectation that we should all be sleeping for eight or nine hours a night, and if you took away modern technology, people would be sleeping more.一项调查研究的第一作者甘地称:“人们期望每晚应有八至九小时的睡眠时间,且要是撇除现代科技,他们应睡更长时间。#39;But now, for the first time, we are showing that#39;s not true.#39;“然而如今我们是第一次展示这一观念不正确。”Most of those studied slept for less than seven hours a night, with the average amount just six hours and 25 minutes. This is much less than the eight hours often recommended in western societies.大多数被试者一晚的睡眠时间少于七小时,而平均睡眠时间只有六小时二十五分。这比西方社会经常倡导的八小时睡眠少多了。Despite this, the peoples studied were in good health, with lower rates of obesity, better blood pressure and healthier hearts than people in industrialised societies. They were also fitter.除此之外,这些被试身体状态良好。较之身处工业化社会的被试者,这些被试则享有更低的肥胖率、更优的血压状况以及更为健康的心脏。非工业化社会的被试者要更强壮。 /201510/404848

In the fields of science and culture, the Eastern Han exceeded the former Western Han due to the enhanced regime and the maintained stability of the society in its early period.东汉前期,政权进一步加强,国家趋于稳定,文化、科学技术等方面的发展都超过了西汉的水平。Wang Chong was a militant materialist and philosopher, whose main workLuAi/ie/ig (Discourses Weight in the Balance) lashed out at orthodox theology, and showed a rationalist critic of superstition and the thought of cosmic universalism.王充是唯物主义思想家和哲学家,著《论衡》 抨击封建神学,批判神秘主义和世俗迷信。Regarding yuan qi (primordial substance) as the original material basis of all things, heaven and earth included, he took matter as the point of departure in interpreting natural phenomena and life itself.他主张元气论,认为天地万物都是元气分化出来的,人与物禀气而生,气散而亡,天道自然无为,没有意志和神灵。His great book erected a monument in Chinese history of atheism in the method of demonstration and argumentation.他的著作用实和说理的方法,在中国无神论史上树起一座丰碑。Ban Gu was the editor of Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall , but what earned his lasting academic fame is his History of the Han Dynasty .东汉班固是《白虎通义》的编撰者,但使他名声大震的却是《汉书》。Following the biographic-thematic style of Records of the Historian , Ban Gu spent twenty years finishing this voluminous work.班固花费20多年的心血,仿《史记》,著成了中国第一部断代史《汉书》。The book comprises 100 volumes, covering the history of 230 years from the peasant uprisings towards the end of the Qin Dynasty to the defeat of Wang Mang.《汉书》共100篇,叙述了秦末农民战争至王莽覆灭的230年的断代历史。In 105, Cai Lun improved the old technique of paper making, using tree barks, rags and old fishing nets to make paper,which was called Marquis Cai,s paper in honour of the inventor.公元105年,蔡伦改造了原有的纸张制造技术,用树皮、麻头、破布、旧渔网等原料造纸,被称为“蔡侯纸”。It put an end to the use of bamboo slips as writing materials and became one of the four great ancient Chinese inventions. Chinese paper making was sp to Japan from Korea in the 7th century,to Arabia in the 8th and to Europe in the 12th, which contributed greatly to the development ol world culture.中国的文字记录方式脱离了使用竹简的时代,同时造纸术也成为中国古代四大发明之一,中国的造纸术在7世纪传人日本、朝鲜,8 世纪传人阿拉伯,12世纪传入欧洲,这都极大地促进了世界文化的发展。In the field of natural science, represented by Zhang Heng, the academe of the Eastern Han made great achievements.在自然科学方面,以张衡为代表的东汉学术界,有着很高的成就。Zhang Heng invented seismography and the Armillary Sphere so as to observe the universe and perceive earthquake. The theories of making this equipment are still in a wide application.张衡则以高超的工艺制造了“浑天仪”、“地动仪”等科学仪器,观察天象,感应地震。制造这些仪器的原理至今仍被广泛使用。The Mathematics in Nine Sections , completed in early Eastern Han after repeated revision over a long period, systematically summarized the important achievements in this field since the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods.《九章算术》完成于东汉初年。此前先后有多人对 其进行了修改、补充。该书系统总结了春秋、战国以来的数学成就。The book contained 264 applied mathematics problems and was divided into nine sections according to the methods of solution and field of application.书中收有264个数学应用问题,并依照问题的解法和应用范围分为9个部分。Its appearance demonstrated that mathematics in China had developed into a scientific system.《九章算术》的完成标志着中国的数学已发展成为一个科学体系。Emperor Shen Nong*s Material and Medica (Shengnong Bai Cao) is the earliest existent pharmaceutical work of the Eastern Han and the first systematic conclusion about the medicine application, known as the classic of the traditional Chinese pharmaceutical system.《神农本草经》是现存最早的药物学专著,为我国早期临床用药经验的第一次系统总结,历代被誉为中药学经典著作。The book is composed of three volumes, recording 365 kinds of medicine—252medicinal herbs, 67 animal drugs and 46 mineral drugs— together with their locations, their properties, their functions, their efficacy and their mixed application.全书分三卷,载药365种(植物药252种,动物药67种,矿物药46种)。书中对每一味药的场地、性质、采集和主治病症都有详细记载。对各种药物怎样相互配合应用,以及简单的制剂,都做了概述。Zhang Zhongjing was from the modern Nanyang, Henan province, one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the last years of the Eastern Han.张仲景,今河南南阳人,是东汉末年的名医。During his time, many people were infected with febrile disease.汉末疫疾流行,大批人感染死亡。He learned medicine from his townfellow Zhang Bozu, assimilating from previous medicinal literature, and collecting many prescriptions elsewhere, finally writing the medical masterpiece Shanghan Zabing Lun or Treatise on Febrile Diseases .张仲景从师同乡张伯祖学医。他汲取前人医学著作之所长,广泛于写出了传世巨著《伤寒杂病论》。Due to Zhang ’ S contribution to Traditional Chinese medicine he is often regarded as the sage of Chinese medicine.后人尊称他为“医宗之圣”。Hua Tuo, a famous physician at the end of the Eastern Han, first employed the method of anesthesia in his surgical operation. He devised a series of exercises based on the movements of five animals (tiger, deer, bear, ape, and crane) known as wuqinxi , or “ Frolics of The Five Animals ”,which helps to enhance health.另外,东汉末年的名医华佗,是有记载以来第一位利用麻醉技术对病人进行手术治疗的外科医生,他创造的“五禽戏”是我国第一套体操性质的健身活动。In the field of agriculture, Fan Shengzhi (his book Fan Shengzhi Shu ) proposed measurements to ameliorate the harvest results. The peasantry was recognized as the provider of the whole society, and his work had to be estimated.范胜之著《范胜之书》,提出了改进农业生产的方法,认为农民要为全社会提供粮食,为此必须对其劳动进行评估。While men worked the fields, women had to spin and to wave.男人在田间劳作,女人应在家中纺纱织布。Fan Shengzhi also made propositions for gardening, horse breeding, and the breeding of silkworms.他还对园艺、养马、养蚕提出了建议。In this period, calligraphy and painting no longer merely served as picture writing ,they began to develop into a kind of art.到东汉时期,书法、绘画已不单纯作为文字图形符号使用,它们的艺术地位逐渐显露出来。 /201512/413046

5.Immunity To A Brain Disease5.对脑疾病拥有免疫力In case we needed another reason to avoid cannibalism, eating our own kind is not a particularly healthy choice. The Fore people of Papua New Guinea showed us as much in the mid–20th century when their tribe suffered through an epidemic of Kuru—a degenerative and fatal brain disease sp by eating other humans.如果我们要给避免同类相食增加一个理由的话,从健康的角度来看,这不是一个好的选择。巴布亚新几内亚; Fore;族人在20世纪中期流行的库鲁病很好地说明了这一点,他们因同类相食,产生了退化性和致命性的脑疾病。Kuru is a prion disease related to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Like all prion diseases, kuru decimates the brain, filling it with sponge-like holes. The infected suffers through a decline in memory and intellect, personality changes, and seizures. Sometimes, people can live with a prion disease for years, but in the case of kuru, the afflicted usually die within a year of showing symptoms. It#39;s important to note that, although very rare, a person can inherit a prion disease. However, the illness is most commonly sp by eating an infected person or animal.Initially, anthropologists and medical doctors didn#39;t know why kuru was sping across the Fore tribe. Finally, in the late 1950s, it was discovered that the infection was being transmitted at mortuary feasts, where tribe members would consume their deceased relatives out of respect. Mostly women and young children participated in the cannibalistic ritual. Consequently, they were the ones predominantly affected. Before the funerary practice was banned, some Fore villages had virtually no young women remaining.But not all who were exposed to kuru died from it. Survivors had a novel variation in a gene called G127V that made them immune to the brain disease. Now, the gene is widesp among the Fore and surrounding people, which is surprising because kuru only popped up in the area around 1900. This incident is one of the strongest and most recent examples of natural selection in humans.库鲁病是一种与库兹菲德-雅各氏症和疯牛病有关的朊病毒疾病。和所有朊病毒疾病一样,库鲁病杀死大量脑细胞,使其产生空洞、海绵化。患者会记忆衰退,智力下降,性格改变,产生癫痫等。通常,患有朊病毒疾病的人可以继续生活数年,但是患有库鲁病,则一般在产生症状之后一年内便会死亡。需要注意的是(尽管非常罕见),朊病毒能够遗传。不过,绝大多数患者是因为食用了产生感染的人或动物。最初,人类学家和医生们都不知道为什么库鲁病会在Fore族人中大肆传播。直到20世纪50年代末才发现这类疾病是在太平间盛宴时传染的。因为出于对死去亲人的尊敬,Fore族人会将尸体吃掉。妇女、孩子都参加此种仪式,高峰时该病在女性和儿童中的发病率是在男性中的8至9倍。因为该族人吞食已逝亲属的肉以完成后者的;生命循环;时,由男性先选择所食部分,然后再由女性和儿童打扫剩下的包括脑部在内的人肉,而脑部正是致病朊毒体含量较高的部分。在这种食人习俗被禁止之前, Fore族人的一些村庄几乎连一个年轻妇人都没有。并不是所有患此病的人都会死亡,这些存活下来的幸存者们的G127V基因有了新变化,这使得他们对大脑疾病产生了免疫能力。现在,这种基因遍布Fore族和周围的人。这是令人十分惊奇的现象,因为库鲁病是在1900年才开始爆发的。这个例子是自然在人类身上做出选择的最强和最近的例子。4.Golden Blood4.黄金血Although we#39;re often told that type O blood is a universal blood type that anyone can receive, that#39;s not the case. In fact, the whole system is a bit more complicated than many of us realize.我们都知道O型血是所有人都可以接纳的血液,然而这并不是事实。事实上,血液分类的系统比我们所知道的要复杂得多。While most of us are aware of the eight basic blood types (A, AB, B, and O—each of which can be positive or negative), there are currently 35 known blood group systems, with millions of variations in each system. Blood that doesn#39;t fall into the ABO system is considered rare, and those who have such blood may find it challenging to locate a compatible donor when in need of a transfusion.Still, there#39;s rare blood, and then there#39;s really rare blood. Presently, the most unusual kind of blood is known as ;Rh-null.; As its name suggests, it doesn#39;t contain any antigens in the Rh system. It#39;s not that uncommon for a person to lack some Rh antigens. For instance, people who don#39;t have the Rh D antigen have ;negative; blood (e.g. A-, B-, or O-). Still, it#39;s extremely extraordinary for someone to not have a single Rh antigen. It#39;s so extraordinary, in fact, that researchers have only come across 40 or so individuals on the planet who have Rh-null blood.What makes this blood even more interesting is that it totally beats O blood in terms of being a universal donor, since even O-negative blood isn#39;t always compatible with other types of rare negative blood. Rh-null, however, works with nearly any type of blood. This is because, when receiving a transfusion, our bodies will likely reject any blood that contains antigens we don#39;t possess. And since Rh-null blood has zero Rh, A, or B antigens, it can be given to practically everyone. Unfortunately, there are only about nine donors of this blood in the world, so it#39;s only used in extreme situations. Because of its limited supply and enormous value as a potential lifesaver, some doctors have referred to Rh-null as ;golden; blood. In some cases, they#39;ve even tracked down anonymous donors (a big no-no) to request a sample.Those who have the Rh-null type undoubtedly have a bittersweet existence. They know that their blood is literally a lifesaver for others with rare blood, yet if they themselves need blood, their options are limited to the donations of only nine people.我们都非常了解8种基本的血型(A、B、AB、O,每一血型有正负之分),事实是,现在已经发现的血型系统一共有35个,每一个系统又有上百万种变体。不包括在ABO血型系统的血型被认为是稀有血型,稀有血型的人会发现当他们需要输血的时候,要找到一个适配的血型非常困难。在稀有血型之中,还有极其稀有的血型。比如说,Rhnull血型。正如它的名字所显示的,它在Rh血型中不会产生任何的抗原。某人缺少一些Rh抗原并不奇怪,例如,缺少Rh D抗原的人就是负的血型(A-、B-、O-等)。然而,一个完全没有Rh抗原的人是特别难以找到的。研究者们在整个地球上都仅仅发现40个左右的人拥有Rh-null血型。Rhnull血型之所以如此吸引人们好奇心的是:它比O型血适配血型还广,因为O型血和稀有血型中的负血型并不适配,Rhnull血型却几乎能跟所有血型适配。Rhnull血型之所以如此广泛地适配是有原因的。当接收到输入的血液时,人体会自动排斥它原本不具有的抗原。Rhnull血型没有Rh、A、B型抗原,因此它可以被输送给任何人。不幸的是,整个世界上Rhnull血型的献血者只有9个人,他们的血液因此也只有在极端情况下才会用到。由于Rhnull血型血液的广泛适配性以及它可能被作为拯救生命之血的这种极大潜质,它被某些医生称作;黄金血液;。某些时候医生们甚至会跟踪匿名的Rhnull血型献血者以求能采集到一份样本(当然,这是绝对不可以做的事情)。拥有Rhnull血型的人对于他们自己的血液的感受可以说是喜忧参半。一方面,他们知道自己的血对于别人来说可能是救命神血,但另一方面,如果他们自己病了需要输血的话,他们能够指望的也就只有世界上仅存的那九个Rhnull血型的捐献者。3.Crystal-Clear Underwater Vision3.在水下拥有水晶般透明的视力Most animals#39; eyes are designed for seeing things underwater or in air—not both. The human eye, of course, is adept at seeing things in air. When we try to open our eyes underwater, things look blurry. This is because the water has a similar density to the fluids in our eyes, which limits the amount of refracted light that can pass into the eye. Low refraction equals fuzzy vision.很多动物的眼睛是被设计来看清在水底或者空气中的事物的——不能够兼顾。人类的眼睛擅长于看清空气中的东西。当我们身处水下,试着睁开眼睛,我们便会发现,眼前模糊不清。这是因为水的密度与我们眼睛里液体的密度相当,这限制了眼睛折射光线的数量,从而导致视线模糊不清。That knowledge makes it all the more surprising that a group of people, known as the Moken, have the ability to see clearly underwater, even at depths up to 22 meters (75 ft). The Moken spend eight months of the year on boats or stilt houses. They only return to land to get essential items, which they acquire by bartering foods or shells collected from the ocean. They gather resources from the sea using traditional methods, which means no modern fishing poles, masks, or diving gear. Children are responsible for collecting food, such as clams or sea cucumbers, from the sea floor. Through this repetitive and consistent task, their eyes are now capable of changing shape when underwater to increase light refraction. Thus, they can easily distinguish between edible clams and ordinary rocks even when many meters below water.When tested, the Moken children had underwater vision twice as sharp as European children. However, it seems that this is an adaptation that we might all possess if our environment demanded it, since researchers have trained European children to perform underwater tasks as successfully as the Moken.这就使得当我们得知莫肯人能够在水下(甚至是22米深的水下)将事物看得一清二楚时感到吃惊不已。莫肯人一年中有8个月的时间在船上度过。除了获取一些必备生活用品之外,他们很少返岸。他们用传统的方法在海上捕捞。这意味着他们不使用包括钓竿、面具、潜水装置等一切现代工具。孩子们负责从海底收集蛤和海参等食物。这种工作每日不断重复,最终使得他们的眼睛在水下具备了可以改变形状从而增加光反射的能力。因此,他们能够轻易分别出水下的蛤和石块,获取食物。经过试验,莫肯人孩童的水下视力是欧洲孩童的两倍。不过,这似乎是每个人都能够拥有的能力,只要我们改变环境,同样也会产生相应的变化。研究者们训练欧洲孩童向莫肯人孩童一样在水底不停地作业,最终成功地明了这点。2.Super-Dense Bones2.高密度骨骼Getting old comes with a host of physical problems. A common such issue is osteoporosis, a loss of bone mass and density. This leads to inevitable bone fractures, broken hips, and hunched spines—not a pleasant fate for anyone. Still, it#39;s not all bad news, as a group of people have a unique gene that may hold the secret to curing osteoporosis.变老伴随着一系列身体问题。一个常见的问题就是骨质疏松症,骨质流失和空隙增大。这将会导致骨折、髋部损坏、驼背等。不过,也不全然是坏消息,因为有人拥有特殊的基因能够将其治愈。The gene is found in the Afrikaner population, and it causes people to gain bone mass throughout their lives instead of losing it. More specifically, it#39;s a mutation in the SOST gene, which controls a protein (sclerostin) that regulates bone growth. If an Afrikaner inherits two copies of the mutated gene, they develop the disorder sclerosteosis, which leads to severe bone overgrowth, gigantism, facial distortion, deafness, and early death. Obviously, that disorder is far worse than osteoporosis. However, if they only inherit one copy of the gene, they don#39;t get sclerosteosis and simply have especially dense bones throughout their lives.Although heterozygous carriers of the gene are currently the only ones enjoying the benefits, researchers are studying the DNA of Afrikaners with hopes of finding ways to reverse osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders in the general population. Based on what they#39;ve learned so far, they#39;ve aly started clinical studies on a sclerostin inhibitor that#39;s capable of stimulating bone formation.这种基因在阿非利卡人上发现,它使人们在一生中增加骨量而不是失去。确切地说,它是SOST基因变异,这种基因控制着管理骨头增长的蛋白质。如果阿非利卡人遗传了两对突变基因,那么他们会患上障碍性的硬化性骨化病,这会导致严重的骨质增生、巨人症、口眼歪斜、失聪和早逝。很明显,这个障碍远比骨质疏松症要严重。然而,如果他们只是遗传了一对突变基因,那么他们不会患上骨质疏松症且他们在一生中仅有密质骨。虽然目前仅有该基因的杂合子携带者能从中受益,但研究员已经在研究阿非利卡人的DNA,希望能够找到方法来逆转骨质疏松症和普通人群中的其它骨骼疾病。基于他们现在所掌握到的,他们已经开始了关于可促进骨形成的硬化蛋白抑制剂的临床研究。1.Need Little Sleep1.睡眠需求减少If it ever seems like some people have more hours in their day than you do, it turns out they just might—at least more awake hours. That#39;s because there are unusual individuals who can operate on six or fewer hours of shut-eye a night. And they aren#39;t simply getting by—they thrive on this limited amount of sleep, while many of the rest of us are still dragging ourselves out of bed after snoozing for eight solid hours. These people aren#39;t necessarily tougher than the rest of us, and they haven#39;t trained their bodies to function on less sleep. Instead, they have a rare genetic mutation of the gene DEC2, which causes them to physiologically need less sleep than the average person.If normal sleepers were to stick to six or fewer hours of slumber, they#39;d start experiencing negative impacts almost immediately. Chronic sleep deprivation can even lead to health problems, including serious ones like high blood pressure and heart disease. Those with the DEC2 mutation don#39;t have any of the problems associated with sleep deprivation, despite the limited time their heads are on the pillow. While it might seem odd that a single gene could change what we believe is a basic human need, those studying the DEC2 mutation believe it#39;s helping people to sleep more efficiently with more intense REM states. Apparently, when we have better sleep, we need less of it.This genetic anomaly is exceedingly rare and is only found in less than 1 percent of self-proclaimed short-sleepers. So, chances are, even if you think you have it, you probably don#39;t.如果有些人的一天似乎比你的要长,那么他们可能只是有更多醒着的时间。那是因为有一些独特的人,他们一个晚上只需要六个小时甚至更少的睡眠时间。他们仅靠有限的睡眠时间就可以维持一天,然而,我们当中的许多人在睡了整整八个小时后仍然要挣扎着将自己拖出床外。这些人并不是比我们当中的其他人都更顽强,也没有训练自己的身体去适应更少的睡眠,而是拥有罕见的突变基因DEC2,这种基因能使他们在生理上比普通人需要更少的睡眠。如果普通人要坚持只睡六个或少于六个小时,那么他们几乎是立即就会开始体验到负面影响。长期的睡眠不足甚至会导致一些健康问题,包括一些严重的问题诸如高血压、心脏病。虽然那些携带DEC2突变基因的人睡觉时间有限,但是他们并没有因为睡眠缺失而产生任何问题。单基因能够改变我们所相信的一个人基本的需求,尽管这听起来似乎很奇怪,然而研究者认为DEC2帮助人在快速眼动睡眠状况下睡得更有效率。很显然,我们睡得越好,我们就越不需要它。这种基因异常极其稀有,仅仅在不到百分之一的自称短睡眠者身上发现。所以,即使你认为你有这种基因,你可能并没有。翻译:烟囱、徐杉、欧阳远丽、阿饭、孟庆润 来源:前十网 /201510/404360

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