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2017年10月21日 01:51:36 | 作者:求医频道 | 来源:新华社
The Northern Song was a regime of the Han people founded by Zhao Kuangyin who was known as Emperor Taizu.宋是由汉人赵匡胤建立。他就是宋太祖,宋的首都在河南开封。The Song capital was located in Kaifeng in Henan Province.宋朝从公元960年宋太祖赵匡胤陈桥兵变建立,到1279年被元朝灭亡,共存在了319年。Song lasted 319 years from 960, when Zhao Kuangyin, founded Song through an army revolt, to 1279 when it was destroyed by Mongolia.时间超过了唐朝,但其影响却远在唐朝之下。Its existence was longer than that of the Tang Dynasty; however its influence is less-reaching than that of the Tang Dynasty in history. The long-term existence of Song due to, first, unlike the generals before him who had declared themselves emperors of dynasties that soon failed, Zhao Kuangyin lived a long life. This allowed him to establish a more solid foundation for his successors.宋的长期存在,一是由于:和其他的军事统领不同,赵匡胤活了很长时间,这使他有时间为自己的继位者创造一个更加稳定的环境。Another reason that his dynasty lasted longer was that he did not try to fight the Khitans in the north ; instead he conquered the southern half of China. The southern kingdoms, while economically and culturally advanced, did not have strong militaries and were relatively easy to defeat.另一个原因就是宋统一了南方而不是去和北方的契丹作战。宋征了南方的小国,南方的小国虽然经济和文化都很发达,但没有强大军事,易于击破。In order to maintain peace with the Khitans, the Song was forced to pay them annual tributes.宋通过进贡和北方契丹保持了和平。There were two periods in Song, the Northern Song and the Southern Song. The Northern Song was a time coexisted with its counterparts of Liao, Xia and Jin.The Southern Song was continuing of the Northern Song which was retained in the south.宋通常分为北宋和南宋两个时期,北宋是与辽、夏、金对峙时期,而南宋则是偏安衰亡时期。The founding of Song Dynasty once again ended the disunifica-tion of the ancient China since the end of the Tang Dynasty.宋王朝的建立,结束了自唐末形成的四分五裂的局面,使中国又归于统一。The Making of Song Dynasty : In the 6th year of Xiande (959) of the Later Zhou, Emperor Shizong, Cai Rong died of illness, so Emperor Gong, seven years old then, succeeded to the throne.北宋的建立:五代后周显德六年(959 ),周世宗柴荣病死,七岁的恭帝继位时任殿前都点检、归德军节度使的赵匡胤掌握了军权。In the early first lunar moon of the following year, Zhao Kuangyin, Satrap and Commander of the imperial army, started a mutiny in Chenqiaoyi(southeast of Fengqiu in Henan) and led an army into Kaifeng to force Emperor Gong to abdicate his throne to him.翌年正月初,赵匡胤在陈桥驿 (今河南封丘东南陈桥镇)发动兵变,黄袍加身。并率军人开封,胁迫周恭帝禅位,夺取了皇位。Kaifeng remained as the capital ,but the name of the dynasty was changed to the Song, which became known as the Northern Song in history because the Guide Army led by Zhao Kuangyin garrisoned in Song Prefecture.因赵匡胤所领的归德军驻在宋州,所以建国号为宋,定都于开封。史称北宋。The Northern Song had nine emperors who ruled for a total of 168 years.北宋经历了九位皇帝168年的统治。The fourth year after the establishment of the Northern Song Dynasty, the rulers of Song commenced to carry out their military operations to unify China by applying the strategy—“the south first and the north second. ”北宋建立后的第四年,就开始进行统一全国的军事行动,并采取了“先南后北” 的政策。They held that to keep the defense in their Northern fronts was wise because Liao was strong enough not to be defeated easily ; contrastively, those southern states were economically and culturally advanced, however, with weak military strength.宋太祖认为,当时对辽国还没有取胜的把握,只能在边境上采取守势;而南方割据政权统治区域大都是物产丰富的地区,这些政权的实力又较为薄弱。因此,其统一战略部署是先消灭南方的割据政权,然后北上削平北汉以及收复幽云地区。Since 963 after fighting for over decades of years across the country, Song eliminated the resistant forces of the Later Zhou and cleared away the separatist regimes of the Jingnan, the Later Shu, the Southern Han and the Southern Tang.从公元963年(乾德元年)以后的几十年,北宋首先出兵灭掉荆南,接着陆续灭掉后蜀、南汉和南唐。Later, Emperor Taizong summoned Wuyue and the Former Shu to surrender, which meant the end of the Southern states.在强大的军事、政治压力下,公元978年(太平兴国三年),前蜀和吴越相继归附,南方的割据政权全被消灭。In 979, Taizong of Song personally led his strong army and destroyed the Northern Han, the last kingdom of the ten states. By this time, the state of warfare that had lasted over 200 years from the time of the An Lushan and Shi Siming Revolts in the Tang Dynasty almost ended.公元979年,宋太宗亲率大军出征北汉,把“十国”中的最后一国灭掉,消除了五代十国独立割据的局面,从唐代安史之乱开始,持续了二百多年的封建军阀割据局面基本上结束。The Northern Song^ territories extended to the eastern and southern coastlines. In the north, it bordered on the Liao, along the present-day Jin River, Baxian in Hebei and Yanmenguan in Shanxi. In the northwest, it reached as far as the Baiyu Mountain in Shaanxi, the eastern Gansu and the northeastern Qinghai, and was contiguous to the Western Xia and the Turfan. In the southwest it bordered on Vietnam.北宋疆域东、南临海,北境以今津海河、河北霸县、山西雁门关一线与辽接壤,西北至今陕西白于山、甘肃东部、青海东北部与西夏、吐蕃毗邻,西南与越南接界。The later Jin of the Five Dynasties and Ten States cec%l the sixteen cities of Youyun to Liao of Qidan.在五代十国的后晋时期,曾把北方的燕云十六州割与契丹族所建立的辽国。In order to regain it, the Northern Song and Liao had been fighting for a long time.为了收复燕云十六州,北宋与辽进行了长期的战争。Actually, since Zhao Kuangyin came to power, the Northern Song fought many wars with Liao but failed to recover the land.自宋太祖赵匡胤起,北宋曾多次与辽交战,但一直未能收复失地。Till to the year of 1004, a peace pact was concluded in Chanzhou, under which the Liao obtained a bountiful annual gift of silver and silk from the Northern Song, while Emperor Zhenzong had to admit Empress Dowager Xiao of the Liao aunt and take Shengzong of Liao as his brother.直至公元1004年,北宋真宗与辽国在澶州定下了停战和议,约定真宗称辽萧太后为母,宋辽为兄弟之邦,北宋每年向辽交纳“岁币”和丝绸,双方互不侵犯。Since then the northern border of Song was peaceful and quiet. The pact between the Northern Song and the Liao was later known as “the Pact of Chanyuan” in history.自此,中国北方才有了少许安宁,宋、辽的这次结盟被后世称之为“澶渊之盟”。The Economy and Politics of the Northern Song : The early Northern Song peri-od (960 ?997) covered the reigns of Emperors Taizu and Taizong. In order to a-chieve a long reign instead of becoming the sixth short-lived dynasty after the Five Dynasties in the north, Zhao Kuangyin, Taizu of the Northern Song, made great efforts to end separations and introduced a package of political, military and economic reforms aiming at u strengthening the central government while weakening the local”.北宋的政治、经济:在宋朝建立之初,也就是太祖、太宗时期(960 ~ 997),为使宋王朝能长治久安,而不致成为继五代后的第六个短命的王朝,宋太祖赵匡胤除了致力于结束五代十国的分裂割据局面之外,还制定了一系列的方针政策,大力实施“强干弱枝”政策。Militarily, to avoid the old tricks of the powerful garrison commanders to kill and replace the emperor, Taizu successfully removed their governing rights over the army in a banquet after they sensed the implication of Emperor Taizu. After that some civil perfects were put into important positions and the commanders of the army were not allowed to be represented in the government.在军事方面,为防止武将专政篡弑重演,太祖以“杯酒释兵权”解除了大将对军队的控制,实行重文轻武政策,提倡文人典军,严禁武人干政。Taizu abolished the post of Commander of the Imperial Army and set up a Military Council to take charge of troop-deployment arrangement, but without any power to command troops.取消禁军最高统帅殿前都点检、副都点检职务,朝廷设枢密院掌管调动军队,但无统兵权。The Marshals and the Military Council had their own duties but held each other in check. They were both under direct control of the emperor.三帅统兵权和枢密院调兵权职责分明,相互制约,直接对皇帝负责。In the army, a shifting defense system was implemented:troops and their commanders were regularly transferred to different regions for military service to prevent them from forming cliques.军队实行更戍法,定期换防,将帅常调,以防止官兵“亲党胶固”。Administrative reforms, following the system of the Tang Dynasty, in-cluded the three central agencies, the Secretariat, the Military Council, and the Chancellor of the Treasury, which were placed under the chief Minister to share ad-ministrative,military and financial power. In this way,the chief Minister would not have too much power.另外,宋沿袭唐制,又大力削弱宰相(中书令)实权,宰相下设数名参知政事、枢密使、三司使,以分其军、政、财三权,使宰相无法独揽大权。Measures were also taken to drain the power of local despotic satraps, limit their wealth and utilize their most capable men. Finally, these satraps were given sinecures in the capital, while their former domains were to be governed by civil prefects appointed by the emperor and under the direct control of the royal house.为消除藩镇割据的局面,对独霸一方的节度使,采取“稍夺其权,制其钱谷,收其精兵”的办法,逐步从地方调回都城任闲职,其原领州郡由朝廷控制,委派文官任知州、知府,直接对朝廷负责。The local surplus revenues, after deduction for expenditures, weresubject to the central government.规定地方财政每年赋税收人,除度给用外,凡属钱币之类,“悉奉送京师”。These reforms greatly strengthened the power of the central government, created political stability and spurred economic development. The increase in centralized power also produced negative effects such as the weakening of local governments and the military strength.这些措施加强了中央集权,巩固了政局,刺激了经济的发展,但也造成了弱枝强干的负面影响。In examination, Taizu of the Song innovatedly chose the talented staff by presiding over the test in person.在科举方面,宋太祖打破常例,以殿试的方式对考生进行最终的考核。Therefore, more capable statesmen were singled out to work for the government which enlarged the bureacracy and consolided the regime of the Northern Song.这样一来,北宋王朝的官僚阶级队伍得到了壮大,从中出现了一大批优秀的政治家,巩固了政权。The policy of the strong central government and weak military officials did successfully help to establish a strong central government which maintained the social stability and laid foundation for ending the separation and enhancing the development of economy. All these led to the long reign of the Song Dynasty. However, it left an impoverished and weak local government with limited power and military strength, poverty of the country and heavy troubles from other states to face the threats from their strong enemies in the north, namely, the Liao (the former Qi-dan), the Xi Xia and Jin.北宋的“强干弱枝”、“重文轻武”政策,虽然成功地削弱了地方权力,使宋朝中央集权得到强化,这对政治稳定,结束分裂局面和经济的发展创造了有利的条件,宋朝国家存在时间长,但却造成宋代的国力积贫积弱,使财政拮据、地方权限过小、军队战斗力削弱、外患深重等消极后果。北宋的外敌主要有辽国(其前身即契丹)、西夏和金国。Although enormous silvers and silks were attributed to Liao annually, Song was suffered from the consistent situation of being threatened and finally was conquered by Liao.尽管宋室耗费大量银、絹向它们缴纳岁币,始终改变不了被动挨打的状态,最后亡于外敌之手。Despite all the defects towards the outside, the Northern Song^ administration was successful and its economy, culture and science were as developed and advanced as that of the Tang Dynasty and even more than that.北宋在内治方面,却非常成功,宋代的经济、文化、科技之强,人才之盛较之汉唐有过之而无不及。The Growth of the Northern Song : The growth of the city was drastically improved in the Northern Song.北宋的发展:中国古代城市的发展,到北宋出现了新的转折。The layout of the cities before the Northern Song was that the workshops and the uptowns were separated.北宋以前的城市,一般是坊、市分区,即住宅区与商业区严格分开。However, with the growth of economy and expansion of the population the division was eliminated and the workshops could be found everywhere instead of gathering in certain place.北宋时,随着商品经济的发展和城市人口的增加,彻底打破了“坊”、“市”的界线,商店可以随处开设,不再采取集中的方式。The middle period of the Northern Song (998 ~ 1099), lasting from Emperor Zhenzong to Emperor Zhezong, was an important period in the history of the Northern Song.北宋中期(998 ~ 1099),从真宗到哲宗时期是北宋历史的重要时期。The farmlands were doubled in ten years after the establishment of the Northern Song.宋初几十年间,全国耕地扩大了将近一倍。The new economic policies such as the “two-taxes” system and the tenancy system greatly motivated the peasants to work.由于实施两税法、代役制和租佃制等新的经济制度,激发了广大农民的生产积极性。As a result, population increased, more lands were cultivated, more advanced iron tools were made, more effective farming techniques appeared and farming products became more diversified besides doubled in output.随之而来的是:人口的增加,垦田面积的扩大,铁制工具制作的进步,耕作技术的提高,农作物的种类和产量倍增等等。Statistics show that in the 3rd year of Zhidao (997) of Emperor Taizong9s reign, there were 4.13 million families on the household register. But in the 8th year of Jiayou (1063) of Emperor Renzong^ reign, the number of families increased to 12.46 million.据统计, 宋太宗至道三年(997),北宋户籍上有413万多户,而到宋仁宗嘉祐八年(1063), 北宋户数已逾1246万多户。Farm lands increased from 300 million in the 2nd year of Zhidao (996) of Emperor Taizong^ reign to 520 million mu in the 5th year of Tianxi (1063) of Emperor Zhenzong’s reign.宋太宗至道二年(996),耕地有3亿多亩,而至宋真宗天禧五年(1021),增至5.2亿多亩。This fast agricultural growth promoted the development of handicrafts and commerce.农业经济的迅速发展促进了手工业、商业的发展。In the Northern Song dynasty, industries of shipbuilding, metallurgy, textiles, dyeing, paper-making and china-making all experienced greater progress than any previous dynasties either in scale of production or techniques.北宋的造船、矿冶、纺织、染色、造纸、制瓷等手工业,在生产规模和技术上远超唐代。The old patterns of the trade were broken which resulted in the prosperous business situation in the cities. There were a-bout 40 cities with population over 100 000 family households and Kaifeng became a commercial center of the Northern Song.商业市场打破了旧的格局,大小城镇贸易盛况空前,都市商业十分兴旺繁荣,十万户以上的城市达四十多个,而宋都开封更成为全国的商业中心。The capital Kaifeng also named Dongjing or Bianjing in the Northern Song Dynasty.开封在北宋时又称东京(东都或汴京)。As records said that there were not less than 160 trades of handcrafts and business shops in all, so much so that there were numerous people coming and leaving the downtown all day and night.据记载,东京的手工、商业多达一百六十行,沿街店铺林立;闹市上人来人往,熙熙攘攘,通宵不绝。The busy street of the Dongjing was crammed with various kinds of goods from all over the country even from Japan, Korean and Arab.在京都市场上,各地货物琳琅满目,甚至日本、朝鲜、阿拉伯等国的商品亦有买卖。To meet the needs of expanded economy, the Northern Song issued the paper money, called Jiaozi, the earliest paper money in the world. Paper money appeared and soon was in widesp use which indicats an epoch-making growth of economy in the Northern Song Dynasty.而北宋为了应付贸易及商业发展的需要,还发行了世界上最早的纸币——“交子”,纸币的出现及广泛使用,具有划时代的意义。其社会经济的发达,由此亦可见一斑。Meng Yuanlao of the Northern Song in hisbook, Dongjing Menghua Lu( the Collections of The Prosperous Dongjing ), depicted the rich and thriving of Dongjing in details : there are downtowns, hotels, teahouses, and bawdyhouses in Dongjing ; all the businesses end till deep night and start very early in the next morning; at any time of the year, there are always continuous flow of people so that Dongjing seems a Nightless City.宋人孟元老曾撰 《东京梦华录》,详尽描写了宋东京的繁华,当时开封城中有闹市、有酒楼、有茶馆、 有妓院,城中夜市至三更方尽,五更时分又再燃灯开张,夜以继日,人烟不断,可谓 “不夜城”。Still, the painter of the Northrn Song, Zhang Zeduan, described the flourishing Dongjing in his picture, Qinming ShangHeTu (the Scene on the Pure Brightness Day). Accommodating more than 600 people in vistas, his picture was a treasure of arts in Chinese history.此外,画家张择端的《清明上河图》描绘了汴京的风物,使近600人跃然纸上,成为中国绘画史上不朽的佳作。The Chinese word Shanghe means worship of the ancestors of the family.上河是宋时民间对清明祭祖坟之谓,意同 “上冢”。In the picture, he focused on the scenery around the Eastern Jiaozi Gate of Dongjing and the banks of the Bian River and noted down with painting the crowded and prosperous moment on the festival of the Pure Brightness, a traditional Chinese festival for ancestor worship. By depicting the heavy traffic, the gathering of all the business trades and the foot passengers, the picture revealed the splendor and thrives of the Kaifeng, the most prosperous capital of ancient China.该画描绘出清明时节东京东角子门内外及汴河两岸的繁荣热闹景象,但见桥上车水马龙,商贩云集,行人络绎不绝,表现出当时中国第一都会的繁荣兴盛。There were high achievements in terms of literature and history in the Northern Soiig Dynasty and many famous and productive persons were made in this time.在史学和文学方面,北宋有着极高的成就,其间名人辈出。Education and the examination system became central to the upper class. It created the space for the development of the bookmen.宋朝的科举制度使文人得到了可以自由发展的空间。The rise in the popularity of education was due in part to advances made in printing and the greater availability of books.教育的发展得益于印刷术的进步,使书本的普及成为可能。Examinations grew progressively in popularity throughout China ; although, only a few were allowed to pass to fill the administrative positions.科考开始在中国流行,尽管考取的人不多,但考取后都能担任一定的官职。This resulted in the education itself, and the attempted examination, gaining more importance socially than it had in the past.这使备考和赶考都成为有史以来最具社会意义的事情。In history, the New History of Tang , complied by Ouy-ang Xiu, contributed a lot to the preservation of the history of Tang.The History as a Mirror(Zi Zhi Tong Jian) wrote by Sima Guang, starting from the third year of Yingzong (1066) and finished in the 7th year of Shenzong ( 1084) was of great historical value.Sima Guang once said that the book, which cost him 19 years, was made with all his energy and efforts .史学方面,北宋欧阳修等编纂《新唐书》,对唐史的保存,有很大的贡献。而司马光主编的巨著《资治通鉴》,更是编年史的典范。《资治通鉴》自英宗治平三年(1066)始修,至神宗元丰七年(1084)成书,前后历时十九年。在《进资治通鉴表》中,司马光曾说“臣之精力,尽于此书”。Consisting of 294 Juan , the book recorded events from the 23 rd year of the emperor Zhouwei in the Warring States (403 B. C. ) to the end of the Later Zhou, the 6th year of the Five Dynasties, covering 1362 years of history with the prosper and wane of the dynasties and the success and the fails of the administrative practice as well. This book offered the later emperors the significant reference besides its literature and historical charms.该书上起周威烈王二十三年(公元前403年),下迄五代后周世宗显德六年(959),将1362年中王朝的兴衰、政治的得失记载下来,为后代帝王统治提供了重要借鉴,它对史学和文学的影响力至今不衰。In literature ,the poems of the Song Dynasty carried forword the cause into future, especially the Ci , was another remarkable success following the Tang Dynasty.除史学之外,北宋的文学发展,也在中国文坛上起着继往开来的重要作用。尤其是“宋词”,更是唐诗之后中国文学史上另一座丰碑。The most prominent poets are Ouyang Xiu, Yan Shu, Liu Yong, Su Shi, Qin Guan and Zhou Bangyan etc.北宋的词人辈出,如晏殊、欧阳修、柳永、苏轼、秦观、周邦彦等等。Among them Liu Yong and Zhou Bangyan were widely known for their description of delicate feelings and Su Shi was much praised for his plain and graceful style.柳永、周邦彦的词以绮艳著称,而豪放派的苏轼则最为后世所熟识。The prose writing reached another height : Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Su Xun, Su Che, Wang Anshi, Zeng Gong of the Song Dynasty and Han Yu, Liu Zongyuan of the Tang Dynasty were called The Eight Most Prominent poets of the Tang and Song”.北宋在散文上的成就也是巨大的,其中欧阳修、苏洵、苏轼、苏辙、王安石、曾巩,与唐代的韩愈、柳宗元并称“唐宋古文八大家”。With the endeavors of writers from the Song Dynasty, the reform against the old style of flowery parallelism and favored the classic form of prose was gainful and left today’s world with voluminous,expressive writings.在北宋文学家的努力下,使自唐代韩愈以来的古文运动取得进一步的成功,当中有许多作品传颂至今。Meanwhile the drama and vernacular tales,which were humorous and satirical accompanied with recitation and dance, became very popular. These were the prototypes and foundations of the drama and novels of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty.在散文、诗、词等文学 形式发展的同时,话本和戏曲这类民间说唱文学也蓬勃发展,并为元代戏曲和明代小说的兴盛,打下了雄厚的基础。Hence, the literatures in the Northern Song Dynasty were in the stage of pioneering and transition.由此可见,北宋的文学成就,具有承前启后的划时代意义。This period also saw a boom in science and culture as a result of the inventionand application of the compass, printing techniques and gunpowder.宋代也是科技文化的繁荣时期。尤其是闻名于世的指南针、印刷术和火药三大发明的开发和应用主要是在这个阶段。The gunpow der could be used as a weapon in siege warfare.宋用火药作为攻克城市的武器。Foreign trade expanded greatly, and the Chinese had the best ships in the world in the Song Dynasty.对外贸易也发展很快,宋时中国有世界上最好的船只。Their ships contained as many as four decks, six masts, and a dozen sails. The seaships were guided by a stern post rudder, while navigation was done through the use of charts and compasses. These ships could carry 500 men.当时的大船高四层,六个桅杆,双帆,船由坚实的后舵控制,靠指南针把握方向,可以载重500人。European ships on the other hand used manu power and an inefficient steering oar.与此同时,欧洲的船是靠人力划桨来行使的。Advances were also made in medicine, as the first autopsy was performed in about 1145 on the body of the southern Chinese captives.宋时的医学在世界上也居于领先地位,在公元1145年 就以南方的俘虏为试验做过人体解剖。The Perdition of the Northern Song: “The strong central government policy” carried out at the early stage of the Song was turned out to be a poor and weak government in that it was submissive to its northern counterparts outside, and inside the court corruptions were in rampage.北宋的灭亡:北宋由于一建国即推行“强干弱枝”政策,到了中期便造成积贫积弱局面:对外软弱无能,屡受外敌进侵;对内吏治败坏,冗官冗吏充斥。Under these circumstances, the higher officials in the Northern Song advocated reforms in hoping of turning the declining tides.有识之士深以为忧,遂生改革弊政之议,以扭转危机四伏的局面。The well-known examples are the“Qingli Reform” during Emperor Renzong,s reign and the “Wang Anshi Reform” during Emperor Shenzong.北宋改革影响最大的是宋仁宗时期的“庆历新政”和宋神宗时期的“王安石变法”。But these reforms brought about few results, with strong opposes from the conservatives in the court for the sake of their own interests hence the Northern Song went into decline.但两次变法维新却屡遭保守朝臣及既得利益者的阻挠。庆历新政、王安石变法均以失败而告终。Social conflicts became increasingly common.北宋逐步走向衰亡。Both military and political expansion together with quick land annexation pace gravely depleted the government treasury.社会冲突更加频繁,政治和军事的扩张和土地的快速兼并耗尽了北宋政府的财力。The last stage of the Northern Song (1100 ?1127) covering the reigns of Em-perors Huizong and Qinzong was the darkest and most corrupted period of the entire dynasty.宋徽宗(1100 ~ 1127)在位时期是北宋王朝最腐朽黑暗的时期。Many peasants, the impoverished and the homeless on account of corruption and poverty, rose to rebel against the government.众多的农民倾家荡产无以为生,纷纷起义反抗暴政。The uprisings led by Fang La and Song Jiang were the biggest worry of the period.其间以方腊、宋江领导的农民起义影响最大。The peasants uprising ,led by Song Jiang at Liangshanpo, Shandong province, fought with the Song^ troops in Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Anhui, and the Northern Jiangsu . Although the peasants army won over the government army, their general, Song Jiang accepted amnesty and pledged loyalty to the Emperor.以山东梁山泊为据点的宋江农民起义,转战于山东、河北、河南、安徽、江苏北部一带,并屡次打败官军。最后宋江等被朝廷招安。At the time the Huizong of Song was fond of rare stones, thus collected rare jewels all over the country and shipped them back capital. Every ten ships was a Gang ( unit of counting the ships), therefore the goods were named 4lt;the Gang of Beautiful Stones,T ( Hua Shi Gang ). The sheer grab brought sufferings to the families especially in the southeast of Hangzhou City, which finally led to the uprising of Fang La.宋徽宗因素爱奇石玩好,时常在民间搜刮珍宝,并用大船运回京,每十船组成一纲,称为“花石纲”,许多百姓因而家破人亡,东南地区的杭州一带受害尤烈,终于激起以方腊为首的民变。This was the largest peasants uprising in the Northern Song which lasted from the October 2nd of Xuanhe(1120) to the March in 1122.从公元1120年(宣和二年)十月到公元1122年三月,在江浙地区爆发了方腊领导的农民起义。这是北宋时期规模最大的一次农民起义。Fang La, a tenant, was born in Muzhou of Qingxi(now Chun^n County, Zhejiang).方腊是睦州青溪县(浙江淳安)人,雇工出身。His hometown was teemed with bamboos, lumber, lacquer and tea etc. The two government workshops pinched thousands kilo of lacquer and lumbers so much so that the small private business and the populace were forced to the corner and complains were heard everywhere.青溪及其附近地区盛产竹、木、 漆、茶等经济作物,造作局和应奉局每年从这里勒索成千上万斤的漆,其他竹木花石的数量也极为庞大。小生产者和一般劳动人民的生活陷入绝境,怨声载道。In 1120, Fang La staged a peasant uprising and established his regime.于是在公元1120年,方腊发动群众,宣告起义,设置官吏将帅,起义队伍很快便扩大到数万人。In three months he and his men took control of six prefectures and over 60 counties in modern Zhejiang and Anhui provinces , while their forces grew nearly a million, which shocking the southeast of China.起义军所向披靡,三个月内,接连攻占了两浙首府杭州等地,共攻占六州六十多县,队伍扩大到近百万人,“东南大震”。When the uprising threatened Hangzhou, the general Tong Guan was sent to fight against the peasant army.当北宋最高统治者接到方腊起义军逼近杭州的消息之后,立即派童贯率军南下,镇压起义。At the same time, the Emperor, Zhenzong of the Song apologized to the public for his misdeeds and promised to abolish the agencies of workshop and stop shipping of the rare rocks and stones.接着,宋徽宗又“下诏罪己”,宣布撤消“造作局”、“应奉局”,停运花石纲。When Tong Guan crossed the river and directed his army to attack Hangzhou from two directions, the local militia all gathered to cooperate to fight.童贯带领的宋军过江之后,分路指向杭州等地。这时各地的地主武装也纷 纷出来配合官军进攻。The uprising army was defeated and in April the following year, Fang La was captured and soon put to death in Kaifeng.起义军兵力分散,抵挡不住宋军的反扑。次年四月,方腊被俘,就义于开封。Other uprisings were put out till 1122.浙东的各起义军到1122年以后也被镇压下去。Although the uprisings at the end of the Song Dynasty were destroyed, they weakened the reign of the Northern Song badly.宋末农民起义虽然失败,但却大大动摇了宋室的统治。Moreover, external aggression aggravated the sad situation of the Northern Song. For a long time, the Northern Song kept fighting against the Liao, the Xi Xia and the Jin.与此同时,来自外部边境的进犯更加恶化了北宋的局势,北宋一直与辽,西夏和金在北方对峙。At that time, the Jin established by Nuzhen grew strong. To recover the sixteen states of Youyun, the Northern Song sent an emissary to the state of Jin to negotiate an agreement for a joint attack on the Liao. However, the resort also exposed its weakness to Jin.北方女真族所建的金国崛起,宋室为了收复燕云诸州,便联金灭辽,但其弱点也为金国所洞悉。Therefore soon after the destroy of Liao, a powerful Jin force launched a large-scale attack on the Northern Song in winter in the 7th year of Xuanhe of Huizong (1125).就在灭辽的同一年,即徽宗宣和七年(1125)冬,金兵分兵两路大举南下攻宋。The two troops of Jin attacked Taiyuan from the west and the east together with Nianhan and Wobuli as their leaders respectively.东路大军由斡不离指挥,西路则由粘罕指挥,共同进攻太原。Meanwhile the Northern Song was in panic and Huizong of Song gave the throne to his son, Zhao Heng, who was known as Qinzong and pinned on him the hope to improve the situation and turn the tide.此时,宋朝的局面已经大乱,徽宗迫不得已将皇位让于太子赵恒,是为宋钦宗。寄希望于能改善局面,抗拒金兵,以扭转不利局势。The Jin’s army has arrived at the bank of the Yellow River, threatening the Song’s capital, Kaifeng. Huizong fled to Jinling(now Nanjing).此时,金兵已到达黄河岸边,直逼宋都开封,宋徽宗逃至金陵(今南京)。Under the direction of Li Gang, the chancellor of the Northern Song, Jin was defeated and was detained to march southwards for a while. However, the Emperors of the Northern Song were not resolute to fight, instead, they sent emissary to seek negotiation with the Jin.北宋军队在丞相李纲的指挥下,击退了金军,暂时制止了金国的南侵,但由于徽、钦二帝的无能,一心想与金国求和。A peace pact was agreed inwhich the Northern Song promised to cede lands and give tributes to Jin except dismissed Li Gang and other loyalists, thus the troops of the Jin became even fearless.他们先后答应割地赔款给金国,又罢免了李纲等忠臣,使得金兵更加肆无忌惮。In the 1st year of Jingkang( 1126), the Jin army conquered Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song.靖康元年(1126),金军攻陷汴京。In the following year, the Northern Song emperor was deposed and his dynasty came to end.靖康二年(1127)春,金废宋帝为庶人,至此,北宋王朝宣告灭亡。In all, the Northern Song lasted 168 years with the reign of nine emperors of seven generations.其间共历七世九帝,享国168年 /201602/421841

Five dynasties were the five kingdoms established on the Central Plain and the ten states were all in the south of the Qinling Rang and Huihe River except the Northern Han. Meanwhile, there were other parallel administrations established by minorities tribes like Liao and the West Xia.五代是中原上的五个王朝,先后与之并存的十国除北汉外都在秦岭——淮河以南,其它与之并存的还有辽和西夏。Liao was a regime dominated by the Khitan. Its capital was Linhuangfu in Shangjing( south of present-day Bairin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), and its founder was a man called Yelu Abaoji(the Han name was Yi).辽国是中国历史上以契丹族为主体建立的王朝,都城上京临潢府(今内蒙古巴林左旗南),其创建者为耶律阿保机(汉名亿)。The Liao Dynasty had nine emperors and ruled for 210 years.辽国共历九帝,前后210年。Its territory reached the coast of the Northern Sea, the Eastern Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the east, the Jinshan (now the A#39;ertai Mountain) and Liusha (now the Bailongdui Desert in Xinjiang) in the west, the Kelulun, the E’erkun and the Selun’ge Rivers in the north, the southern side of the Outer Xing^nling Mountains in the northeast, the northern part bordered the Northern Shanxi, Baigou in Hebei Province and the northern part of Gansu in the south.其疆域东临北海、东海、黄海、渤海,西 至金山(今阿尔泰山)、流沙(今新疆白龙堆沙漠),北至克鲁伦河、鄂尔昆河、色楞格河流域,东北迄外兴安岭南麓,南接山西北部、河北白沟河及今甘肃北界。The Rising and Development of Liao:The Khitan Tartars were an old normadic nationality from the northern China.辽的兴起和发展:契丹族是中国古代北方地区的一个游牧民族,以放牧、打猎为生。They were first mentioned in historical records dating from the 4th year of Dengguo(389) in the Northern Wei period.历史文献上有关契丹族的确实记载,始于北魏登国四年(389)。They were located in Huang River(the Xar Moron River) valley and lived a nomadic life. The tribe was increasingly grown.主要活动在潢河(今西拉木伦河)一带。By the early Tang Dynasty, the then existing eight Khitan tribes formed an ally, having an army of 40 000 and was under the control of the Tang regime.唐朝初年,契丹8个部落组成部落联盟,拥兵四万,接受唐朝统辖。After the decline of the Tang, the Khitan Tartars frequently attacked its neighbours, captured people from other states and rapidly increased in power.唐朝衰落后,契丹族不断向外扩张,俘掠外族人口,实力大增。In the 2nd year of Zhenming of the Later Liang (916), Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Khitan Tartars, declared himself emperor and named his state Khitan, after having defeated other tribes like Cige and Died.后梁贞明二年(916),契丹族首领耶律阿保机凭借强大的军事力量,击败了的剌葛、迭剌等人,在龙化州称天皇帝,国号契丹。Two years later, Yelu Abaoji, who was known as Emperor Taizu(the first emperor) of the Liao, set up his capital north of the Xar Moron River and named it Huangdu (imperial capital ; later called Shangjing).神册三年(918),辽太祖耶律阿保机在潢河以北正式建都城,称为皇都(后改称上京)。Before long, he conquered the Uygurs in Ganzhou and captured the Bohai.随后,降甘州回鹘,灭渤海国。In the 1st year of Huitong (947), Emperor Taizong of the Liao defeated the Later Jin and changed the name of his dynasty to the “Great Liao”.会同元年(947),辽太宗灭后晋,改国号大辽。In the 1st year of Tonghe (983), the Liao Emperor Shengzong, Yelu Longxu, revived the name Khitan.统和元年(983),辽圣宗耶律隆绪曾改国号契丹。Later in the 2nd year of Xianyong (1066), Emperor Daozong restored the name the “Great Liao”.以后辽道宗咸雍二年(1066),又恢复大辽国号。During the reign of Taizong of Liao, Liao acquired sixteen cities of Yanyun from Shi Jingtang and started from which it began to extend to the Central Plain.辽太宗耶律德光统治时期,辽国从石敬塘的手中得到了燕云十六州。以此为基础,辽开始了对中原地区的扩张。Yelu Deguang launched several attacks to conquer the Central Plain but had to retreat in facing the severe counterattacks from the people there.耶律德光数次对中原进兵,希望征整个中国,但因中原人民的反抗,使其计划搁浅下来。After Taizong of Liao, from Ruan, the Shizong(947 ?950) of Liao to Jing, AAuzong (951 ?969),the period witnessed the conflicts from within and the rulers did not turn their head to the Cen-tral Plain. The conflicts were settled till Xian,Jingzong (969 ?982) of Liao.在太宗之后,经历世宗阮(947 ~ 950)和穆宗璟(951 ~ 969)两代,辽的统治内部出现了激烈的纷争,直到景宗贤 (969 ~ 982)时,其统治才渐渐稳定下来。Jingzong was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, known as Shengzong, who co-ruled Liao with his mother, Empress Xiao. Xiao was an outstanding female statesman in history. In the fourth year of Shengzong (987), Liao launched war against Song and won the battle.景宗死后,其子12岁的耶律隆绪即位,是为辽圣宗。由于圣宗年龄尚小,所以由其母萧太后摄政,萧太后是辽历史上著名的女政治家,于圣宗统和四年(987)进 兵攻宋,大败宋军。From then on , Liao started their attack on the Song every year till the 22nd year of Shengzong , Liao army threatened the Chanzhou city and was offered to sign a compromise with Zhenzong of Song according to which the Song was forced to contribute to Liao silver and goods annually in return of the peace.此后,辽国连年发兵攻宋,至圣宗二十二年,辽国攻至澶州城下,与宋真宗签定了“澶渊之盟”,迫使宋朝年年向辽国进贡“岁币”,辽宋两国从此相对安定下来。Therefore a temporary peace was bought, and with the tributes from the Song, Liao became rich and strong and attained the height of power and splendor.辽圣宗依靠宋国的进贡,使辽的经济发展起来,此时辽国达到了历史上的鼎盛时期。Liao reached a stage of decline after Shengzong and Xingzong( 1031 ?1055).经过圣宗、兴宗(1031 ~1055)的盛世之后,辽国开始走向衰亡。In 1101, when Emperor of Tian Zuo came into power, Liao was progressively threatened by Jin of Nuzhen, their rising neighbor.公元1101年, 辽天柞帝即位,此时随着女真族的兴起,辽国的统治逐渐受到威胁。In 1115 Jin captured Huang Longfu, an important city of Liao. At the same time, Jin reached an agreement with Song, namely the “Haishang Agreement” to form a joint force to fight against Liao.公元1115年, 金兵攻占辽国重镇黄龙府,随后又与宋朝订立“海上之盟”,共同攻辽。In several years, Jin seized most of Liao’s territory including Uaoyangfu in Dongjing. In the 5th year of Baoda (1125), Emperor Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end.金兵在几年的时间里,占领了包括东京辽阳府在内的大部分辽国土地,保大五年(1125),辽天祚帝被金军俘虏,辽国自此灭亡。In the 9th year of Tianhui (1131) of the Jin, Yelu Dashi, a minister of the former Liao, reestablished the Liao in the Chuhe valley which became known as the Western Liao.金天会九年(1131),原辽国大臣耶律大石在楚河 流域重建国家,仍沿用辽国号,史称西辽。The Economy and Political System of Liao : In politics, the Liao adopted a differential ruling system. That is, different systems were applied to people from different cultures and economies in different areas.辽的社会经济和政治:辽国采用“因俗而治”的统治制度,其特点是根据不同地域、各民族不同的发展水平,而制定独特的统治制度。The important ones were the tribal system, the slavery system, the Bohai system, and the feudal system of the Han people. Officials were divided into two groups according to where they came from (the north or the south).Corresponding administration systems were set up for each area.其内容包括有部族制、奴隶制、渤海制和汉族封建制,采用南、北两套官制进行管理。“官分南、北,以国制治契丹,以汉制待汉人”(《辽史?百官志》)。The Khitan administrative system, called the orthodox system, was applied to Khitan officials who were called northern officials, while the Han administrative system was applied to the Han officials, who were called southern officials.“国制”是指契丹官制,统称北面官,汉制官职统称南面官。北面官地位优于南面官。北南两面官的区别还在于管理的范围不同。Because of different customs and levels of economic development, the northern officials mainly governed the Khitan Tartars and other nomadic peoples while the southern officials took charge of agriculture mainly in areas where the Han people resided.北面官主要管理北面的契丹人和其他游牧民族,南面官主管南面从事农业经济的汉族等。As the Liao Dynasty was founded by the Khitan, the northern officials were superior in status to their southern counterparts. But the southern administrative system was actually the feudal system used to be practiced in the Central Plain states.北面官制是在契丹氏族部落制基础上发展来的一套官制。因此,北面官职多保留部落联盟制的痕迹。辽南面官制实际上是从中原王朝移植过来的制度。The northern administration system embodied the old trace of tribe influence, while the southern administrative of Liao was an imitation after the Tang system although it was not so perfect as the latter.最初,辽太祖仿唐制在中央设立三省,但是当时还未完全具备后来南面官三省的职能。In particular it included a department “Han,er Si”,which was in charge of the Han affairs with Han officials.朝中另设汉儿司,主管汉人事务,官员为总知汉儿司事,由汉族大臣担任。After the Liao conquered the sixteen prefectures in the Yanyun area, this system was further improved with the assimilation to the Chinese governing system.辽朝得燕云十六州后,对中原制度进一步吸收,汉制逐渐完备。The Liao Dynasty went through different stages of economic development. In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and robbery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽代社会经济的发展经过几个不同的阶段,前期由于国力主要用于向外扩张, 采取奴隶制的掠夺式经济,使辽初经济发展较为缓慢,甚至对某些地区的经济造成破坏。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong that the Liao managed to institute feudal reform.直到辽圣宗时期,辽朝的经济才有一个较大的发展,这无疑是封建化改革的结果。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝统治者管理经济的办法与政治制度相同,也采取“因俗而治”的方针。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area due to its adaptation to the reality.由于这一方针适应当时社会经济的发展,因此北方社会经济在这一时期处于上升阶段。The Liao economy was divided into three zones: the fishing-hunting zone, the nomadic zone and the agricultural zone.从生产性质上划分,辽代经济大体可划分为三大区域:渔猎区、牧区和农区。The fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan Tartars9 area between the Huang River(Xar Moron) and Tuhe rivers, and the Nuzhen peopled area in the northeast and so on.以渔猎为基本生产方式的是居住在潢河(西拉木仑河)、土河之间的契丹族以及东北部女真族等。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities.以畜牧业为基本生产方式的是北方草原各民族。The agricultural zone referred to the southern area where the Han lived and the eastern area where the Bohai people lived.以农业为主要生产方式的是南部地区的汉族以及东部渤海人。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between different nationalities and promoted a higher level of economic development.三个地区的社会组织形态融为一体,加速了相互之间的交流,推动了辽代经济的发展。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy and directed other economic zones to step into the feudal economic system with different paces.早已进人封建社会的南部汉族地区经济,在辽代起主导作用,使牧区、渔猎区在不同的基础上,以不同的步伐向封建经济过渡。 /201602/421851

Did you hear about the girl who was so keen on road safety that she always wore white at night?你听说过那个女孩吗?她那么担心交通安全,总是在晚上穿着一身白衣。Last winter she was knocked down by a snow plough.去年冬天,她被一辆铲雪车撞到了。 /201511/410371

The first inkling that we were getting close came toward the end of our flight from Beijing into northwestern China when snow-blanketed mountains suddenly appeared above the beige miasma of the desert floor. Morning sunlight sparkled off the grand Kunlun range that borders the northern edge of the Tibetan plateau and the southern rim of the Gobi Desert, a welcoming note on our journey to a distant world of Buddhist art painted and carved in grottoes centuries ago.从北京前往中国西北的飞行快要结束时,白雪皑皑的群山从沙漠上空的米黄色扬尘中突然冒出,这是提醒我们快到了的第一个信号。清晨的阳光照耀在雄伟的昆仑山脉之上,它与青藏高原北缘和戈壁滩的南缘相邻。这光芒仿佛是欢迎的问候,迎接我们踏上通往遥远世界的旅程,目睹几个世纪前绘制雕刻在洞窟内的佛教艺术。We were a group of seven — an American gallerist in Beijing, a Thai publisher of art books, a Singaporean businessman, among others — connected by our interests in Chinese art and history.我们一行七人——一位来自北京的美国画廊主人、一位来自泰国的艺术书籍出版人、一位新加坡商人,以及其他一些人——我们因为对中国艺术和历史感兴趣而聚到了一起。Our intrepid leader, Mimi Gardner Gates, a specialist in Chinese art and the former director of the Seattle Art Museum, raises funds to support the preservation of what we had come to see: the Dunhuang caves where delicate, brightly hued wall paintings and carvings depict religious and social life from the fourth to the 14th centuries during the height of Buddhist culture in China.我们无畏的引领者是米米·加德纳·盖茨(Mimi Gardner Gates)。她是一位中国艺术专家,曾任西雅图美术馆(Seattle Art Museum)馆长,为我们前来参观的这座石窟募集保护资金。在敦煌的石窟中,技法精湛、色明亮的壁画和石刻,描绘了4世纪至14世纪中国佛教文化巅峰时期的宗教和社会生活。The city of Dunhuang, a hodgepodge of cheap stores and a mediocre night market, was once a thriving oasis on the Silk Road, beckoning caravans of pilgrims and merchants from Central Asia and India with their Buddhist beliefs, and fabulous jewels and gold. As we arrived at the modern airport, it was hard not to think about more recent intruders: European and American scholars who visited the caves in the early 20th century, fell in love with what they found, and snatched priceless sculptures, manuscripts and frescoes for museums in London, Paris and Cambridge, Mass.敦煌城里如今遍布廉价的杂货店,还有一座平平无奇的夜市,这里曾是古代丝绸之路上繁华的绿洲,吸引着中亚和印度的朝圣者和商人,他们传播了佛家思想,带来了光夺目的珠宝和黄金。我们抵达现代化的机场时,不禁想起了近代的侵入者:欧洲和美国学者在20世纪初期造访了这里的洞窟,深深地被这里的宝藏所吸引,将无价的雕刻、抄本以及壁画掠夺到了伦敦、巴黎和马萨诸塞州坎布里奇的物馆。Theirs had been arduous treks compared with ours. The Harvard art historian and archaeologist Langdon Warner endured more than three months on an ox-drawn cart as he headed back to Beijing from Dunhuang in 1924 with a three-and-a-half-foot bodhisattva wrapped in his underwear for his patrons in Cambridge. In contrast, our journey was a comfortable three-hour flight from Beijing on Air China.相比我们的旅行,他们旅途更加艰险。1924年,哈佛大学的艺术史学家及考古学家兰登·华尔纳(Langdon Warner)坐了三个多月的牛车,从敦煌辗转回了北京,内衣里包着一尊3.5英尺高的菩萨雕像,要交给他在坎布里奇的客户。与他相反,我们的旅行非常舒适,从北京到敦煌,乘坐国航的航班仅需3个小时。And while some of these early scholars — it is tempting to call them scoundrels — spent months in Dunhuang, recovering from their journeys, dodging diphtheria and other diseases, we spent four days in a pleasant hotel on the edge of the dunes. Over breakfasts of dumplings and Chinese porridge on the roof deck, we watched the sun rise and the sky change from flamingo pink to lapis blue. At sunset, we drank local wine pressed from new vineyards coaxed out of the sandy soil.早前的一些学者——很难不把他们称作恶棍——为了缓解旅途奔波之苦,躲避白喉等疾病,要在敦煌停留数月。而我们在沙丘边缘舒适的酒店里住了四天。在屋顶吃完早餐(饺子和稀饭)后,我们欣赏了美轮美奂的日出,看着天色从红鹤粉变到青金蓝。日落时,我们品尝了当地酿的葡萄酒,出自沙土上精心培育出的葡萄园。And, of course, our gear was far less elaborate than that of our predecessors. In a display near the caves that is devoted to the travesties of the Western scholars, a photo of Warner depicts him in knee-high boots, his hat at a rakish angle and a shovel in his right hand, y to dig for antiquities. We, on the other hand, wore running shoes for the easy trek along the outdoor passageways that connect the caves, and carried little more than cellphones and cameras. (No photos, however, are allowed in the caves, to keep visitors moving swiftly since the carbon dioxide in our breath damages the wall art, and camera flashes don’t help either.)当然,我们的装束相比前人也简单很多。石窟附近的陈列区展示了西方学者的滑稽形象。在一张照片里,华尔纳穿着齐膝的靴子、把帽子歪戴到不羁的角度,右手握着铲子,准备挖掘古物。再看看我们,我们穿着跑步鞋,从通向石窟的露天步道悠闲地行走,身上除了手机和相机就没有什么了。(但是石窟内不允许照相,并要求游客快速离开,因为呼出的二氧化碳会损坏壁画,闪光灯也会造成影响。)As we learned from Ms. Gates, those earlier Western scholars were dazzled for good reason. She never let us forget that we were seeing original art in situ, about which there was no question of authenticity.据盖茨女士介绍,这些早期的西方学者如此着迷是有原因的。她告诉我们,我们是在现场观看艺术品的原件,毫无疑问都是真品。When Warner and others like him arrived, they found 1,000 years of art that told the story of China’s imperial dynasties and their long relationship with Buddhism, which seeped into China from India in the first century. In A.D. 366, according to legend, a monk named Yuezun arrived in Dunhuang, and had a vision of a thousand Buddhas. He was so overwhelmed he chiseled a cave for meditation in a vast sandstone cliff about 15 miles from the city center at a place now known as the Mogao Caves. Master artists and their apprentices began painting images of Buddha and his life story in murals that stretched across cave walls, and, in some cases, onto the ceilings.当华尔纳和他的同行到达这里时,他们发现了历经1000多年的艺术宝库,其中展现了中国各朝代与佛教之间久远的故事。佛教在公元一世纪时,就从印度渗透到了中国。根据传说,公元366年,一位名为乐尊的僧人来到敦煌,在这里见到了一千位佛陀。他深受触动,在距离城中心约50里的砂石崖壁上开掘了一处洞穴用以打坐,这座洞穴如今称为莫高窟。之后,艺术大师及其徒弟们开始通过壁画的形式,描绘佛祖以及他们的生活故事,壁画覆盖了石窟的墙壁,有时还画到了洞窟顶上上。The monk sparked a trend; over the years, about 1,000 caves were carved out of the mile-long escarpment as shrines or living quarters for monks, or the equivalent of private art museums where rich families could show off their wealth. By 1400, the exuberant show of art and religion faded as maritime routes supplanted the Silk Road.乐尊和尚开启了一种潮流。经年累月,1600多米长的悬崖上开挖了1000多处洞窟作为佛殿或僧舍,或者供富贵家族展示自己财富的私人艺术馆。到1400年,随着海上航路逐渐取代了丝绸之路,曾经兴盛的艺术和宗教景象随即凋零。When the caves were abandoned, the sweeping desert sands took over, ruining some, damaging others, but preserving many. Today, 735 caves remain, and nearly 500 are decorated.石窟废弃后,肆虐的黄沙侵袭,一部分石窟彻底消失,一部分遭受了损坏,但有很多存留了下来。今天,仍存有735座石窟,其中大约500座装点着壁画或塑像。These days, streams of Chinese tourists arrive in great numbers — 14,000 on one day this summer. The biggest challenge for the Dunhuang Academy, the institution that manages the site, is crowd control, as we learned at the new visitors’ center, a building designed by the Chinese architect Cui Kai to blend into the desert dunes.如今,成群的中国游客蜂拥而至,今年夏天每天有1.4万人参观。我们从新游客中心了解到,石窟的管理机构敦煌研究院面临的最大挑战,就是人群控制。这座由中国建筑师崔凯建造的中心,与周围的沙丘很协调。With a theater that gives a 360-degree digital representation of one of the caves, the center is an important tool in the battle to keep the Dunhuang caves intact. Since the center opened last year, tourists who are not on a private tour like ours are required to go there first, and watch the digital show, a substitute for lengthy tours that are no longer allowed for most visitors.中心剧场内提供了石窟的360度电子展示,这是保敦煌石窟完好的重要工具。自从中心去年投入运营以来,无法像我们这样作为贵宾接待的游客,需要先来到这里,欣赏石窟的电子展示,用以替代从前漫长的石窟之旅。如今对于多数游客来说,全程参观已经难以实现。Most of these tourists are limited to the hustle of a 75-minute visit that covers eight caves. We, however, had almost unfettered access thanks to Ms. Gates, who has visited the caves for 20 years and whose Dunhuang Foundation has raised significant funds for their maintenance.多数游客只能匆匆忙忙地花75分钟参观八座石窟。不过多亏了盖茨女士,我们的参观几乎毫无限制。20年来,盖茨女士时常到访这里,她的敦煌基金会(Dunhuang Foundation)为石窟的维护募集了大量资金。On our first morning, a shuttle bus dropped us in a grove of aromatic pines, and soon we were at the foot of the rock face that inspired the monk, Yuezun, nearly 1,700 years ago.来到这里的第一天早上,班车把我们带到了一处香松林。不久,我们来到了一块岩壁脚下,就是这里,在大约1700年前,启发了乐尊和尚。Looking up, we could see a honeycomb of dark holes where the caves pierced the rock. Much of the rock is now buttressed with concrete, a utilitarian reinforcement devised in the 1960s when China was short of cash and architects.向上看,能够看到蜂窝般的黑洞,洞窟凿入岩石。如今大部分岩石经过了混凝土护,这是在1960年代,中国在缺少资金和建筑人员的条件下,想出的加固方法。The most splendid cave art was produced during the height of the early Tang dynasty from roughly 618 to 718, a period when the statues and mural paintings were the most sumptuous. In one tableau, which is rendered in greens, browns and beige, a wide-girthed, beautifully dressed Chinese emperor listens closely to a debate on Buddhist doctrine The artists, who usually painted with rabbit hairbrushes, achieved their rich colors by grinding and mixing mineral and organic pigments — red ocher, cinnabar, lapis lazuli — much as painters do today, according to Susan Whitfield, the director of the International Dunhuang Project at the British Library.最灿烂的石窟艺术出现在唐初,大约在公元618年到718年之间,这期间创造的雕像和壁画最为瑰丽。在一个场景中,画师使用绿色、棕色和米色,描绘一位胖胖的、衣着精致的中国皇帝在认真倾听佛法辩论。大英图书馆(British Library)的国际敦煌项目(International Dunhuang Project)主任苏珊·惠特菲尔德(Susan Whitfield)说,这些画师通常使用兔豪毛笔,通过研磨和混合矿物,他们获得了层次丰富的色和有机颜料——赭红、朱砂、青金石——这与如今画家的做法相差不大。After the Tang, there was a 70-year interlude of Tibetan rule, followed by a long line of local clans who commissioned life-size portraits of themselves. The Cao family, for example, loved their women, and had them painted on the cave walls with rouged cheeks, layers of splendid necklaces and voluminous gowns. Some of the caves used as chapels featured floor-to-ceiling paintings in lapis blue and earth reds that depict the life of the Buddha.唐代以后,西藏对这里进行了70年的短暂统治,之后很长一段时间,当地的部族委托画师在这里为他们绘制真人大小的肖像。比如曹氏家族热爱自家的女性,就让画师把她们画在石窟的墙壁上,这些肖像脸颊上抹着胭脂,戴着华丽的项链,穿着繁琐的礼。在一些被用作小佛堂的石窟中,画师用青金石蓝和土红色描绘了佛陀的一生,图案从地面延伸到窟顶。In several caves, scenes show daily village life: figures bathing, wheat being winnowed and preparations for a wedding ceremony. Some caves are as large as a small ballroom with high coffered ceilings covered with fields of patterns that give the illusion of draped fabric in a desert tent. Others feature deep niches with life-size sculptures of Buddha and his disciples. Much of the painting is devoted to Buddha, but it was also easy to imagine from the mortal figures in the murals that during its heyday Dunhuang was alive with traders dealing in silk, furs, ceramics, gold and ivory.在几个石窟中有日常乡村生活的场面:人们洗澡、扬谷、筹备婚礼。一些石窟的大小犹如小型宴会厅,格子天花板上布满了图案,看上去像是沙漠帐篷顶上的褶皱。另外一些石窟中深嵌着壁龛,里面是佛陀及其弟子真人大小的雕像。很多绘画都是关于佛陀的,但是从壁画描绘的世俗者形象中,你也很容易想象得到,在敦煌的鼎盛时期,买卖丝绸、皮草、陶瓷、黄金和象牙的商人让这里呈现出怎样的一派勃勃生机。The size of some of the sculptures is startling. A 75-foot-tall Buddha stands bolt upright, carved from the rock face and covered in plaster, protected from the elements by the facade of the Nine-Story Temple. In a nearby cave, a 50-foot-long Buddha statue from the Tang dynasty lies on its side, tranquil in death, surrounded by paintings of anguished disciples.一些雕像的尺寸十分惊人。一座笔直站立的佛像高75英尺,从岩壁上雕刻而出,覆以灰泥,并用“九层楼”为它遮风挡雨。在附近的一个石窟里,一座唐代的50英尺长涅槃佛像卧在一侧,周围画着悲痛的弟子。On our second day — after being greeted by Ms. Gates’s breakfast mantra, “Let’s go to more caves” — we drove two hours in a minibus on a paved road to Yulin, a rock face that is also punctuated with caves. The desert and the distant snow-encrusted mountains along the route were a reminder of the terrain along the old Silk Road.第二天,盖茨用他的早餐口头禅跟我们打招呼:“我们去看看更多的石窟”。之后我们乘坐一辆面包车,在一条铺面的路上行驶了两个小时,到达了榆林,那里的岩壁上也开凿了很多石窟。沿途看见沙漠和远处白雪点缀的山峰,不免想到古代丝绸之路的地形就是这样。“This is one of the highlights,” said Ms. Gates as we clambered with a young Chinese guide, Wang Yan, to Cave No. 3 at Yulin, a space measuring about 20 by 20 feet. Here the 10th-century artists painted with ink and brush in rich blues and greens the color of malachite. Landscapes with graceful waterfalls and willowy trees surrounded scores of Buddha’s followers dressed in robes, their hair tightly knotted on top of their heads.“这是亮点之一,”盖茨说,当时我们和年轻的中国导游王燕(音)爬上了榆林第3号石窟,里面的空间大约有20×20英尺。在这里,10世纪的艺术家们使用笔墨,画出了孔雀石那种层次丰富的蓝色和绿色壁画。佛陀的追随者们身着长袍,头发紧紧扎束在头顶,周围环绕着优美的瀑布和袅娜的树木。One follower, Samantabhadra, her face a portrait of calm, sailed through the landscape on the back of an elephant whose feet were planted on lotus leaves. It was such fine line painting. Who were the artists?, we asked. The artists were almost always anonymous, and many were just paid with food, Ms. Gates said.其中的一位追随者普贤菩萨面容平静,坐在脚踩荷叶的大象背上轻快地穿过一片山水。实在是精的线描绘画。我们询问是谁画的。盖茨表示,这些画家几乎都是无名的,其中很多人得到的唯一报酬是食物。At Yulin, we ate a delicious farm-cooked lunch at a no-name rustic restaurant set beside the Yulin River, a fast flowing, narrow stream. The came from the fields: elm tree seeds coated in flour and steamed; stir-fried green beans; steamed pumpkin slices; and soup with freshly made noodles and veal.我们在狭窄湍急的榆林河旁的一家无名乡村餐馆吃了一顿美味的农家午餐。菜单上的菜都来自田里:蒸榆钱、炒青豆、蒸南瓜片以及现做的面条和牛肉汤。Back at the Mogao Caves, another local guide, Liu Qin, an art historian at the Dunhuang Academy, was eager to show us the spot where Warner ripped out the statue. In Cave No. 328, Mr. Liu showed us a Buddha set on a low platform surrounded by a half-dozen attendants. On the far left at an easy-to-reach height, one attendant is missing, a gap that destroys the symmetry of the tableau. A slightly raised gray plaster disc marks the place where Warner and his men removed the bodhisattva.回到莫高窟,另一名当地导游——敦煌研究院的艺术历史学家刘勤(音)迫切地引领我们参观华尔纳劫走雕像的地方。在第328号石窟,刘勤向我们展示了坐在一个低矮的平台上、由六名侍者围绕的佛陀雕像。在最左边很容易触及的高度,少了一名侍者,这一缺口破坏了画面的对称性。一个略微高出一点的灰泥圆盘标记着华尔纳及其手下掠走的菩萨像所在的位置。Mr. Liu was also anxious to take us to the place where Aurel Stein, a British historian, and Paul Pelliot, a French scholar, took thousands of books and manuscripts. Inside the entrance to Cave No. 17, Mr. Liu pointed to a small, nearly empty room where Stein found 7,000 manuscripts, including one of the world’s oldest printed books, the Diamond Sutra, produced in 868. It is now at the British Library. Stein paid a local monk 130 for his booty. A little later, Pelliot took another substantial haul of scrolls for the Musée Guimet in Paris, and paid even less.刘勤还热切地带我们参观了英国历史学家奥莱尔·斯坦因(Aurel Stein)和法国学者保罗·伯希和(Paul Pelliot)带走的数千份书籍及手稿所在的地方。在17号石窟入口处,刘勤指向一个很小而且几乎空荡荡的屋子,斯坦因在那里发现了7000份原稿,其中包括世界上历史最悠久的印刷书籍——公元868年印制的《金刚经》。《金刚经》现藏于大英图书馆(British Library)。斯坦因向一名当地僧侣付了130英镑就带走了他所掠夺的物品。不久之后,伯希和以更低的价格带走了另一批书卷,送到巴黎的吉美艺术物馆(Musée Guimet)。In recent years, the Chinese authorities have said the treasures from Dunhuang now stashed abroad should be returned. That battle may be waged in the future. For the moment, the new director of the Dunhuang Academy, Wang Xudong, has a friendlier approach. Over lunch in his private dining room, Mr. Wang, who praised Ms. Gates’s work, said he was intent on making Dunhuang not only a tourist attraction but also an international research center for scholars.近些年来,中国当局曾表示,存放在海外的敦煌珍宝应该归还给中国。未来可能会上演争夺战。目前,敦煌研究院新任院长王旭东采取了一种比较友好的方式。在私人餐厅吃完午餐后,王旭东称赞了盖茨的工作,称他计划使敦煌不仅成为观光胜地,还要成为国际研究中心。Unlike the Great Wall, a monument to China’s strenuous efforts to keep outsiders at bay, ancient Dunhuang was inclusive, a fitting theme for the contemporary era of China’s global reach.长城是中国为抵御外来者开展的宏大工程的遗迹。与长城不同,古老的敦煌是兼收并蓄的,这是一个符合当代中国全球影响力的主题。“Dunhuang is a broader story,’’ he said. “It shows China’s willingness to interact with other cultures.”“敦煌要更广阔,”他说。“显示了中国希望与其他文化互动的意愿。”Our hotel and flights were organized by Abercrombie amp; Kent Hong Kong. The round-trip flight between Beijing and Dunhuang on Air China and three nights at the Dunhuang Silk Road Hotel, double room, breakfast included: ,470.雅趣旅遊(香港)有限公司为我们安排了酒店和航班。我们乘坐的是中国国际航空公司往返北京与敦煌的航班,在敦煌山庄住了三晚,双人房含早餐价格为:1470美元(约合9345元人民币)。The Dunhuang Foundation, established in 2010 by Mimi Gardner Gates, a group that supports the preservation of the caves in conjunction with the Dunhuang Academy, requests a ,500 per person, tax deductible donation for the full access tour with Ms. Gates. The foundation plans at least two trips in 2016, dates to be determined. Information: dunhuangfoundation.us.米米·加德纳·盖茨于2010年创办了敦煌基金会(Dunhuang Foundation),该组织与敦煌研究院协力持石窟保护工作。与盖茨一同完成不加限制的参观需要每人捐赠2500美元,捐款可以抵税。该基金会计划2016年至少组织两次旅行,日期待定。具体信息请查看dunhuangfoundation.us.As excellent preparation (or in case you cannot go) the Getty Center in Los Angeles is opening an exhibition on the Dunhuang caves in May 2016 that will feature three hand-painted replicas of caves at Dunhuang; the ninth-century Diamond Sutra, on loan from the British Library; and other art and sculpture borrowed from Dunhuang.洛杉矶盖蒂中心(Getty Center)将在2016年5月举办敦煌石窟展,可以作为旅行的一次理想的准备工作(或以防你无法前往敦煌)。展览中有三个手绘的敦煌石窟复制品;从大英图书馆借出的公元9世纪印制的《金刚经》;以及从敦煌借出的艺术品和雕像。For background ing: A new account of America’s fascination with Chinese art, “The China Collectors: America’s Century-Long Hunt for Asian Art Treasures,” by Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac (Palgrave Macmillan), has a highly able chapter on the adventures of Langdon Warner. A more scholarly account of Dunhuang is “Cave Temples of Mogao at Dunhuang: Art and History on the Silk Road,” by Roderick and Susan Whitfield and Neville Agnew (Getty Conservation Institute).背景阅读:有关美国对中国艺术的迷恋的新记述,卡尔·E·梅耶(Karl E. Meyer)与沙林·布莱尔·布莱萨克(Shareen Blair Brysac)合著的《中国藏家:美国追寻亚洲艺术珍宝的百年》(The China Collectors: America’s Century-Long Hunt for Asian Art Treasures,麦克米伦出版社)中有关兰登·华尔纳冒险经历的章节非常值得一读。还有一本比较学术的书籍,罗德里克(Roderick)和苏珊·惠特菲尔德(Susan Whitfield)及内维尔·阿格纽(Neville Agnew)所写的《敦煌莫高窟的石窟寺:丝绸之路上的艺术与历史》(Cave Temples of Mogao at Dunhuang: Art and History on the Silk Road,盖蒂保护研究所出版)。 /201510/404904

In 1977, a University of Oxford statistician named Richard Peto pointed out a simple yet puzzling biological fact: We humans should have a lot more cancer than mice, but we don’t.1977年,牛津大学(University of Oxford)的统计学家理查德·皮托(Richard Peto)指出了一个简单却令人费解的生物学现象:照理说,我们人类应该远比小鼠更容易患癌症才对,可事实却并非如此。Dr. Peto’s argument was beguilingly simple. Every time a cell divides, there’s a small chance it will gain a mutation that speeds its growth. Cells that accumulate several of these mutations may become cancerous. The bigger an animal is, the more cells it has, and the longer an animal lives, the more times its cells divide. We humans undergo about 10,000 times as many cell divisions as mice — and thus should be far more likely to get cancer.皮托士的理论依据乍一看似乎很简单。细胞每次分裂时都有极小的几率会产生可以加速其生长的突变。如果此类突变累积到一定程度,细胞就可能癌变。动物的体型越大,它身上的细胞就越多;动物的寿命越长,其细胞分裂次数也就越多。我们人类一生中要经历的细胞分裂次数约为小鼠的1万倍,因此患癌症的风险也应比小鼠高得多。Yet humans and mice have roughly the same lifetime risk of cancer, a circumstance that has come to be known as Peto’s paradox.然而,事实上,人类与小鼠的癌症终生风险却大致相同,这一现象被称为“皮托悖论(Peto’s paradox)”。A number of scientists have speculated that large, long-lived animals must evolve extra cancer-fighting weapons. And if that’s true, they reason, then the biggest, longest-lived animals should have an especially big arsenal. Otherwise, these species would go extinct.许多科学家推测,体型较大、寿命较长的动物必定是演化出了其他的武器来抗击癌症。如果事实果真如此,那么,体型最大、寿命最长的动物就应该拥有一个超大号的抗癌军火库,要不然这些物种早就该灭绝了。“Every baby elephant should be dropping dead of colon cancer at age 3,” said Dr. Joshua D. Schiffman, a pediatric oncologist at the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah.拿大象这个物种来说,如若没有这样一种机制,“小象们在3岁前就会因为结肠癌而夭折殆尽。”犹他大学(University of Utah)亨斯迈癌症研究所(Huntsman Cancer Institute)的小儿肿瘤学家乔舒亚·D·希夫曼(Joshua D. Schiffman)如是说。Writing Thursday in The Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues report that elephants appear to be exceptional cancer fighters, using a special set of proteins to kill off damaged cells.希夫曼士及其同事在10月8日的《美国医学协会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上报告,大象是杰出的抗癌斗士,它们可以利用一组特殊的蛋白质杀死受损的细胞。Working independently, Vincent J. Lynch, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago, and his colleagues have come to the same conclusion. Those researchers posted a draft of their paper on Wednesday on the bioRxiv server. It is currently in review at the journal eLife.独立工作的另一组科学家——芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)的演化生物学家文森特·J·林奇(Vincent J. Lynch)及其同事也得出了相同的结论。这些研究人员10月6日在生物学预印网站bioRxiv的务器上发布了他们的论文草稿,《eLife》期刊正在对该论文进行审稿。Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues found in their research that elephants have a remarkably low rate of cancer. They reviewed zoo records on the deaths of 644 elephants and found that less than 5 percent died of cancer. By contrast, 11 percent to 25 percent of humans die of cancer — despite the fact that elephants can weigh a hundred times as much as we do.希夫曼士和他的同事们在研究中发现,大象中的癌症发生率非常低。他们审查了644头动物园大象的死亡报告,发现其癌症死亡率还不到5%。相比之下,尽管人类的体重只有大象的百分之一,却有11%至25%因癌症丧命。To understand the elephants’ defenses, the scientists investigated a gene that is crucial for preventing cancer, called p53. The protein encoded by the gene monitors cells for damage to the DNA they contain. In some cases, it triggers the cells to repair the genes. In other cases, p53 stops cells from dividing further. And in still other cases, it even causes the cells to commit suicide.为了了解大象的癌症防御机制,科学家们研究了一个对预防癌症非常关键的基因——p53。由该基因编码的蛋白质可监视细胞内的DNA损伤。某些情况下,它会促使细胞修复受损的基因;另外一些情况下,p53会阻止细胞进一步分裂;还有一些情况下,它甚至会引起细胞自杀。One sign of how important p53 is for fighting cancer is what happens to people born with a defective copy of the gene. This condition, known as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, creates a lifetime risk of cancer of more than 90 percent. Many people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome get cancers as children and can have several types of cancer over their lifetimes.下面我们通过一个实例来阐释p53对于抵御癌症的重要意义:如果人生来p53基因就有一个拷贝存在缺陷,就会患上李-佛美尼综合征(Li-Fraumeni syndrome),患者的癌症终生风险高达90%以上。许多李-佛美尼综合征患者在童年时就开始患癌症,而且一生中还可能患有多种不同类型的癌症。Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues found that elephants have evolved new copies of the p53 gene. While humans have only one pair of p53 genes, the scientists identified 20 pairs in elephants.希夫曼士和同事们发现,大象的p53基因演化出了数对新的拷贝——人类只有一对p53基因,在大象的细胞内,科学家们却发现了20对这种基因!Dr. Lynch and his colleagues also found these extra genes. To trace their evolution, the researchers made a large-scale comparison of elephants to other mammal species — including extinct relatives like woolly mammoths and mastodons whose DNA remains in their fossils.林奇士及其同事也发现了这些额外的p53基因。为了追溯它们的演化过程,研究人员对大象和其他哺乳动物(包括猛犸象和乳齿象等虽然已经灭绝,但DNA在化石中得到保存的现代象的“亲戚们”)的基因组进行了大规模的比对。The small ancestors of elephants, Dr. Lynch and his colleagues found, had only one pair of functional p53, like other mammals. But as they evolved to bigger sizes, they steadily evolved extra copies of p53.林奇士和同事们发现,大象的体型较小的祖先们与其他哺乳动物一样,只有一对有功能的p53基因。然而,当它们随着演化体型不断增大后,就开始不断地出现额外的p53基因拷贝。“Whatever’s going on is special to the elephant lineage,” Dr. Lynch said.林奇士说:“这些都是大象这个谱系所特有的。”To see whether these extra copies of p53 made a difference in fighting cancer, both teams ran experiments on elephant cells. Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues bombarded elephant cells with radiation and DNA-damaging chemicals, while Dr. Lynch’s team used chemicals and ultraviolet rays.研究人员们想知道这些多出来的p53基因拷贝是否在抗癌方面发挥了什么作用,于是两个研究团队都对大象的细胞进行了实验。希夫曼士及其同事使用辐射和可造成DNA损伤的化学物质来处理大象的细胞,而林奇士的团队使用的是化学品和紫外线。In all these cases, the elephant cells responded in the same way: Instead of trying to repair the damage, they simply committed suicide. Dr. Schiffman saw this response as a unique — and very effective — way to block cancer. “It’s almost as if they said, ‘We’re elephants — we’ve got plenty more cells where those came from,’ ” Dr. Schiffman said.虽然处理方法各有不同,大象的细胞做出的应对却完全相同:它们并未尝试修复损伤,而是直接就自杀了。希夫曼士认为这种反应是一种独特而且非常有效的阻断癌症的方式。他说:“这基本上就像是在宣称:‘我们大象才不怕这点损失——还有很多很多细胞可以补充上来呢。’ ”Patricia Muller, an oncologist at the MRC Toxicology at the University of Leicester who was not involved in the studies, said the results, though compelling, didn’t firmly establish exactly how elephants use p53 to fight cancer. One possibility is that the extra copies don’t actually cause cells to commit suicide. Instead, they may act as decoys for enzymes that destroy p53 proteins. As a result, elephants can have higher levels of p53 than other animals. “All in all, it’s interesting, but the mechanism needs to be properly investigated,” she said.未参与上述任一研究的莱斯特大学(University of Leicester)英国医学研究委员会毒理学部(MRC Toxicology )肿瘤学家帕特里夏·马勒(Patricia Muller)表示,这些研究结果非常吸引人,但她也指出,它们并没有明确阐释大象是如何利用p53来对抗癌症的。一种可能性是额外的基因拷贝其实并不会导致细胞自杀。相反,它们只是充当了诱饵,消耗掉了破坏p53蛋白的酶,结果,大象体内的p53水平就会高于其他的动物。“总而言之,”她说,“这很有趣,但仍需要对个中机制进行适当的研究。”Dr. Muller said it was especially important to understand precisely how elephants fight cancer before trying to mimic their strategies with drugs for humans. Experiments in which mice get extra amounts of p53 have shown that the molecule has a downside: It can accelerate aging. “It has to be kept under tight control,” Dr. Muller said.马勒士指出,在试图用药物模仿大象的抗癌策略并应用于人类之前,准确地认识其中的原理尤其重要。在小鼠实验中,额外的p53显示出该分子具有一个缺点:它会加速衰老。“它必须受到严格的控制,”马勒士说。Dr. Schiffman is now investigating how to translate the new findings on elephants into cancer treatments for people. But he said it would be useful to look at other big or long-lived animals as well. Naked mole rats, for example, live up to 30 years without ever getting cancer. One weapon they use is a protein that arrests the growth of fast-dividing cells. It senses when these cells bump into other cells and brings their division to a halt.希夫曼士目前正在研究如何将从大象身上得到的新发现转化为可造福于人类的癌症新疗法。但他也表示,考察下其他大型或长寿的动物应该也会很有用。例如,裸鼹鼠可以活到30岁而从不患癌症。它们使用的抗癌武器是一种蛋白质,可以遏止快速分裂的细胞的生长,这些细胞碰上其他细胞就会让它们停止分裂。That is an entirely different solution from the one elephants appear to have evolved. And elephants are the only animals yet found that fight cancer with extra p53 genes. So Dr. Schiffman speculates that parrots, tortoises and whales may all have special longevity tactics of their own.这是对大象的演化历程的一个截然不同的解释。而且,鉴于大象是迄今为止发现的唯一一种通过额外的p53基因拷贝来抵御癌症的动物,希夫曼士推测,鹦鹉、乌龟和鲸鱼很可能都有各自独特的长寿策略。“The war on cancer was going on long before there were humans,” he said. “So let’s look at nature’s strategies.”“对抗癌症的战争早在人类诞生之前就久已打响了,”希夫曼士说。“那么,就让我们来看看大自然的战术吧。” /201510/404902

A healthy test tube baby was born Wednesday in northwest China#39;s Shaanxi Province from an embryo frozen 12 years ago, a record on the Chinese mainland.周三,一个健康的试管婴儿出生于中国西北部的陕西省一个冷冻了12年的胚胎,这也创造了中国大陆的一项纪录。On Wednesday morning, a 40-year-old woman gave birth to her second son, weighing 3,440 grams at birth at Tangdu Hospital in provincial capital Xi#39;an.周三早上,一名40岁的妇女在省会西安唐都医院生育出自己的第二个儿子,孩子重达3440克。She suffers from blocked fallopian tubes and polycystic ovary syndrome, a health problem that can affect a woman#39;s fertility and pregnancy. She began trying to get pregnant through IVF in 2003. That year, doctors harvested 12 of her eggs and created 12 embryos with her husband#39;s sperm. They implanted two fresh embryos to her womb, and froze the remaining seven that they considered viable.据悉,她患有输卵管阻塞和多卵巢囊综合征,这是会影响到妇女不的一个健康问题。2003年,她开始试图通过试管受精怀。那年,医生采集了12枚她的卵子,然后用她丈夫的精子创造出12个胚胎。他们把两个新鲜的胚胎植入她的子宫,然后冷冰了七个可用胚胎。Li gave birth to a healthy boy in 2004, and has since spent three yuan per day to store the embryos in the hospital in case of an emergency. Last year, when China dropped its one-child policy, she decided to have a second child.2004年,李某生育出了一个健康的男孩,自那以后,她每天花费三元在医院储存胚胎,以防万一。去年,当中国取消独生子政策后,她决定再生一个。Three embryos survived the thawing process. The two best were implanted in her womb, but only one survived.在解冻过程中,三枚胚胎存活了下来。两个品质最好的移植入了她的子宫,但是只有一个存活了下来。;The success rate of implanted thawed embryos is more than 40 percent in our hospital, so doctors usually place more than one embryo at a time,; said Wang Xiaohong, director of Tangdu Hospital reproductive medicine center.唐都医院生殖医药中心主任王晓红说道:“我们医院移植冷冻胚胎的成功率大于40%,因此,医生通常每次会多植入几个。”;Our first boy is 12 years old now. The purpose of freezing the embryos was to have a second child some day, and luckily, we succeeded,; said her husband.李某的丈夫说:“我们的第一个孩子已经12岁了。冷冻胚胎的目的就是为了有第二个孩子,幸运地是,我们成功了。”The infertility rate is high in China. China Population Association statistics from 2012 showed 40 million people with fertility issues, accounting for around 12.5 percent of the population at child-bearing age.中国的不率很高。中国人口学会2012年以来的数据显示,有4000万人患有不不育,占育龄人口的12.5%。;IVF is one of the most effective assisted reproduction techniques for treating of infertility,; said Wang.王晓红主任说:“试管婴儿是治疗不不育最有效的辅助生殖技术之一。”Tangdu Hospital began to freeze embryos for infertile couples in 2003. Up to now, it has frozen around 100,000 embryos, thawed more than 27,000, and created 4,293 healthy test-tube babies.2003年,唐都医院开始为不夫妇冷冻胚胎。迄今为止,已经冷冻了大约十万个胚胎,解冻27000多个,育了4293个健康的试管婴儿。 /201603/428958

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