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杭州西湖区瓷嵌体的费用杭州25岁可以矫正牙齿吗Stressed parents压力下的父母Cancel that violin class取消小提琴补习班Helicopter moms and dads will not harm their kids if they relax a bit揠苗助长的父母们,放松点,对孩子没坏处。WELL-TO-DO parents fear two things: that their children will die in a freak accident, and that they will not get into Harvard. The first fear is wildly exaggerated. The second is not, but staying awake all night worrying about it will not help—and it will make you miserable.富裕家庭的父母害怕两件事情:一件是他们的孩子死于意外事故,另一件是,孩子进不了哈佛读书。第一件可能过分的夸张,第二件则绝对真实。但是担心得夜不能寐起不到任何帮助作用,只会让你觉得痛苦。Modern parents see risks that their own parents never considered. They put gates at the top of stairs, affix cushions to table corners and jam plastic guards into sockets to stop small fingers from getting electrocuted. Those guards are “potential choking hazards”, jests Lenore Skenazy, the author of “Free-Range Kids”. Ms Skenazy let her nine-year-old son ride the New York subway on his own. He was thrilled; but when she spoke about it on TV, a mob of worrywarts called her “Americas worst mom”.现在的父母看到了他们上一辈从未注意到过的危险。他们把大门安在楼梯顶上,给桌子安上桌角防撞贴,给插座插上保护盖以防止孩子的小手指触电。 《自由放养孩子》一书作者Lenore Skenazy开玩笑的说,这些防护装置有潜在的窒息危险。Skenazy让她九岁的孩子自己乘坐纽约的地铁。孩子因此非常激动,但当Skenazy在电视上讲到此事,一群杞人忧天人士则说她是“美国最糟糕的母亲”。Yet in fact American children are staggeringly safe. A kid under five in the 1950s was five times as likely to die than the same kid today. The chance of a child being kidnapped and murdered by a stranger is a minuscule one in 1.5m.然而,事实上美国的孩子们异常安全。在二十世纪五十年代,5岁以下孩子死亡率是现在的5倍。孩子被陌生人绑架、谋杀的可能性只有微不足道的150万分之一。What about academic success? Surely the possibility of getting into Harvard justifies any amount of driving junior from violin lesson to calculus tutor?那学术上取得成功又是怎么样的呢?进入哈佛的可能性当真明了有从小提琴到微积分都很厉害的孩子?Bryan Caplan, an economist at George Mason University, says it does not. In “Selfish Reasons To Have More Kids”, he points to evidence that genes matter far more than parenting. A Minnesota study found that identical twins grow up to be similarly clever regardless of whether they are raised in the same household or in separate ones. Studies in Texas and Colorado found that children adopted by high-IQ families were no smarter than those adopted by average families. A Dutch study found that if you are smarter than 80% of the population, you should expect your identical twin raised in another home to be smarter than 76% but your adopted sibling to be average. Other twin and adopted studies find that genes have a huge influence on academic and financial success, while parenting has only a modest effect.乔治梅森大学的经济学家Bryan Caplan说,事实并非如此。在《多要孩子的自私原因》一书中,他拿出据指出,基因的影响力远大于教养的影响力。明尼苏达州的一项研究表明,同卵双胞胎不论是否在同一家庭环境中成长,他们长大后的聪慧程度是相似的。德克萨斯州和科罗拉多州的研究发现,被高智商家庭收养的孩子并没有比普通家庭收养的孩子聪明。荷兰一项研究发现,如果你比80%的人聪明,那么你生的、在别的人家抚养起来的同卵双胞胎,将会比76%的人聪明,而你自己领养的孩子则是平均水平。其他关于双胞胎和领养的研究显示,基因对学术和经济上的成功有着巨大的影响,而教养只有轻微的作用。The crucial caveat is that adoptive parents have to pass stringent tests. So adoption studies typically compare nice middle-class homes with other nice middle-class homes; they tell you little about the effect of growing up in a poor or dysfunctional household.关键的警告是,养父母必须经过严格的测试。因此,领养研究通常在不错的中产家庭之间比较,并没有说明在贫穷或非正常家庭中成长会有什么影响。The moral, for Mr Caplan, is that middle-class parents should relax a bit, cancel a violin class or two and let their kids play outside. “If your parenting style passes the laugh test, your kids will be fine,” he writes. He adds that if parents fretted less about each child, they might find it less daunting to have three instead of two. And that might make them happier in the long run. No 60-year-old ever wished for fewer grandchildren.对Caplan来说,其意义就是中产家庭父母应当放松点,取消一两个小提琴班,让孩子在外面玩玩。他在书中写到:“如果你的养育形式通过了欢乐测试,你的孩子就会很棒。”他补充说,如果父母少焦躁的对待孩子,父母可能会发现三个孩子比两个孩子更好。这会使他们在长期内更加快了。60岁的人(代指老年人)都希望有更多的孙辈。Does over-parenting hurt children? Probably not; but it exhausts parents. Hence the cascade of books with titles like “All Joy And No Fun” and “Go The F**k To Sleep”. Kids notice when their parents are overdoing it. Ellen Galinsky, a researcher, asked 1,000 kids what they would most like to change about their parentsschedules. Few wanted more face time; the top wish was for mom and dad to be less tired and stressed.过度的教养伤害到孩子了吗?可能并没有。但是它让父母筋疲力尽。所以有一连串像《所有的快乐与不快乐》和《去他妈的睡觉》这样的书名。孩子会注意到父母们什么时候过头了。一名为Ellen Galinsky的研究员询问了1000名孩子,问他们最想改变其父母时间表上的哪些东西。很少有孩子想要跟父母见面的时间。最大的心愿是,让爸爸妈妈不再那么紧张劳累。 /201407/316287温州牙科医院哪家最好 杭州看牙科医院

上虞市人民医院黄黑牙烟渍牙价格Its really awful.真是太糟糕了。You started seeing Michael coming in every day, looking like death.你开始看到迈克尔每天进来,像死了一般。It was opposite.这是背道而驰的。The testimony was just destroying him.词是在毁了他的一生。To sit there in court and watch the legal system hurl absurd and vindictive and nasty, mean-spirited allegations at him like this, absolutely traumatized him.坐在法庭亲眼目睹我们的法制系统对他进行这样荒谬,肮脏的报复,卑鄙的指控,绝对是在伤害他。For me, and for other people who actually knew Michael,对我和其他那些实际上真正了解迈克尔的人而言,this was a real human being, whose life was being destroyed, and every day it just seemed to get worse.这是一个真正的人,他的生活被摧毁,每天只是似乎变得更糟。One of the sheriffs came to me and said, you know ,Youve got the best seat in the house.其中一位地方长官来到我身边对我说,你知道,你获得了法庭中最好的位置。And I said,Why?我说:为什么?And he said,Because youre sitting right behind Michael.他说因为你坐在迈克尔身后。And when we find him guilty.而我们发现他有罪。201309/258189杭州市中医院治疗人工植牙的费用 Global house prices全球房价Mixed messages混乱的信息America surges, much of Europe sinks美国房价上涨,欧洲房价下跌Aug 31st 2013 |From the print editionHOUSING markets are prone to boom-and-bust cycles, with prices overshooting then undershooting sustainable levels. To work out whether they are over- or undervalued, The Economist uses two gauges. One assesses affordability by comparing prices with disposable income. The other considers the case for investing in housing by comparing prices with rents. If these ratios are higher than their historical averages (since the mid-1970s) property is overvalued; if they are lower it is undervalued. On this basis, Canada’s house prices are bubbly whereas Japan’s are undeservedly flat (see table).房地产市场容易在可持续水平上下波动从而形成涨跌周期。为了衡量房价被高估还是低估,经济学人采用了两种测量方法。第一种是比较可配收入与房价水平,第二种是考虑租金与房价的关系。如果这些比率高于自70年代中期以来的历史平均值,那么房地产市场就被高估了。如果低于历史水平,那么房地产市场被低估了。基于此,加拿大的房价有泡沫,而日本的房价则出奇的稳定。(见表)America’s formerly stricken market has rebounded: house prices have risen by 12.1% over the past year. But the recovery still appears to be sound, since prices remain undervalued against income. A sharp rise in mortgage rates since May, on signs that the Federal Reserve will shortly slow the pace of asset purchases, may in any case temper the boom.美国曾经低迷的市场有所起色:过去一年房价上涨了12.1%。但是恢复似乎有点过于平静,因为与收入挂钩的话,房价明显过低。自从五月以来的抵押贷款利率激增,这标志着美联储短期内将会放缓房地产购买节奏,这可能放缓经济繁荣的步伐。Britain’s recovery is built on shakier foundations. House-price growth has picked up in recent months to 3.9% and is likely to accelerate further, even though valuations are still overstretched. The market is being buoyed through a subsidy scheme that lowers funding costs for mortgage lenders and through special help for low-deposit borrowers.英国的复苏建立在极不稳定的基础上。近几个月房价已增长了3.9%,尽管估价仍就过高,但是未来还有加速增长的趋势。房地产市场的好转由补贴政策撑。补贴政策降低抵押贷款者的花费,对低收入者有特殊帮助方法。Despite favourable valuations, Japanese house prices continue to fall, though at a modest 2.2%. The worst-performing markets are in the euro area, notably in southern Europe (Spanish prices are down by 8.2% in the past year) but also in some northern countries (Dutch prices have fallen by 8.5%). The French market is also depressed. Valuations remain stretched in Spain even though house prices have fallen by 30% since early 2008. But the recent pick-up in the Irish market looks sustainable following a 49% price crash.尽管估价较好,但是日本的房价持续下落,最新数据显示下降了2.2%。表现最差的市场在欧洲,最差的在南欧(西班牙房价在过去一年中下降了8.2%)。但是在北欧也有表现很差的国家(荷兰的房价下降了8.5%)。法国的房地产市场也很低迷。尽管自2008年以来西班牙的房价已经下降了30%,但是其估价仍就过高。然而最近数据显示,爱尔兰房地产市场在房价暴跌49%以后看起来稳定了不少。Brighter signs gleam elsewhere, especially in Germany, which avoided the pre-crisis frenzy. Prices there have risen in the past year by 5.1%, which should bolster domestic demand and help support the economic recovery in the euro zone.其他地方则有好消息,尤其是在德国,德国避开了危机前的房产狂热。在过去的一年里,德国房价上涨了5.1%,扩大了国内需求并有利于欧元区的经济复苏。 /201309/255073杭州儿童口腔医院种植牙口腔

浙江省杭州哪个口腔医院比较好Science and technology科学技术Climate and the solar cycle气候与太阳周期Chilling out in the winter sun冬日下的冷噤Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层变化引起讨厌的严寒THOSE unconvinced—and those seeking to unconvince others—of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.那些自己不信和那些游说他人不要相信人类活动导致全球变暖的人,常常将其归咎于太阳活动多变。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究似乎为此提供了新据:该研究显示欧洲冬日的严寒以及北极地区的温暖也许真与太阳活动有关。In itself, it does not, for the heat in question is being redistributed, not retained.就研究本身而言,它并不能提供新的据,因为所提到的热能是被重新分配而不是滞留固定的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change:但它的确指出了关于气候变化的另外两个问题:that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by;一是有时候很难获得影响气候变化的因素的切实数据;and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.二是计算机气候模型在探究气候现象方面是十分强大的工具。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳活动的盛衰以11年为一个周期,在一个周期内,太阳放射的紫外线的变化幅度要比其放射的能量的变化幅度要大得多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to particularly sensitive to the cycle.因此,地球大气中吸收最多紫外线的平流层也许对这一周期变化最为敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience,《自然地球科学》杂志刚刚发表的一篇论文上,Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.英国气象局的莎拉?伊内森和她的同事们利用SORCE卫星收集的太阳放射的紫外线数据,对比了气象局新建立的改良版气候模型对于紫外线峰值年与低谷年的冬天的处理方式。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler,伊内森士发现,热带平流层在紫外线低谷年的温度偏低,because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.因为可吸收的紫外线较少,这就使得热带平流层与极地平流层的温差缩小。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.这一温差变化会改变大气循环的方式,而低层大气循环方式的改变让冬天北极冷空气更易南下,冰冻北欧大片地区。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters—which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况与欧洲上两次均发生在太阳活动沉静期的严酷寒冬的状况十分相似。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.这种状况下,无论在气候模型中还是现实中,北极和加拿大部分地区都比平常要温暖。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.相比之下,北欧、俄罗斯大部分地区以及美国小部分地区则比平常要冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为何太阳在这方面的影响之前未被发现?To some extent it had. Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.某种程度上说,的确有前人初见其端倪。早前一个的反映十七、十八世纪偏长的太阳活动低迷期的模型显示了类似的气候变化模式。That models of todays climate had not was, in part,今日的模型未能发现这一影响的部分原因是,because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.与SORCE卫星收集的最精确数据所计算衍生的数值相比,这些模型对太阳活动周期内紫外线值的变化幅度估计过低。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.也许就是更切实的数据让这些模型做得更好。This does not mean the question is settled.但问题并没有解决。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.有些科学家认为SORCE卫星的数据有夸大太阳活动变化幅度的嫌疑,如果将数据加以修正,那么太阳活动与气候的所谓联系很可能也不复存在。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也致力于找出近期严酷寒冬发生的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.如研究人员所说,基于这项工作的成果,他们就有可能对寒冬做出更精准的预测。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖使人们将气候模型视为预测工具,但这可不是它们最强大的地方。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered,它们更精于研究当紫外线等某一变量变化时发生的情况,compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.并将其与已有数据进行比较,从而了解气候运作机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.此项新研究很好地给我们展现了这一方法的潜能。 /201305/242230 Business商业报道Restructuring European aerospace欧洲航天重组Enders justifying means恩德斯的正当手段The effort to run EADS like an ordinary company努力像经营一个普通公司一样经营欧洲航空防务及航天公司ARNAUD MONTEBOURG must look back on September 16th with a certain wry amusement.阿诺·蒙特堡先生回顾9月16日时一定会哭笑不得。That was the day the French industry minister visited Elancourt, west ofParis, where the defence arm of European Aeronautic Defence amp; Space conducts research on cyber-security.这一天,法国工业部长参观巴黎西部的埃朗库尔酒店,那里是欧洲航空防务和航天公司进行网络安全的研究的防御区。The government had just publicly identified the sector as one that could propel Franceto a new industrial future, and Mr Montebourg waxed lyrical on site.政府刚刚公布确定这个部门作为一个可以推动法国新的产业未来的部门,蒙特堡先生。Then on December 9th EADS announced that it was cutting 5,800 jobs acrossEuropeas part of a reorganisation of its defence and space activities.12月9日EADS就宣布,它正在削减欧洲的5,800职位作为国防和空间活动的重组计划的一部分。In the past such an announcement would have set off a barrage of accusations, and not only from the firms workforce.在过去,这样的声明会掀起大批的指责,不仅仅是公司的员工。Relations among the companys main government shareholders—FranceandGermany—have long been strained.该公司的主要股东的政权,法国和德国,长期以来一直关系紧张。Those between Tom Enders, the chief executive of EADS, and Angela Merkel,Germanys chancellor, are no better.欧洲宇航防务集团的首席执行官托马斯·恩德斯和德国总理安格拉·默克尔之间的关系,也一直未见好转。It was Mrs Merkel who stopped a proposed merger last year between EADS and BAE Systems, a British defence firm.是默克尔终止了EADS和英国防务公司BAE系统公司在去年提出的合并计划。Mr Enders saw the deal as a way to win EADS a seat at the top table in the defence business.恩德斯先生将这一交易看做是EADS赢得国防业务顶尖席位的一条途径。Mrs Merkel thought it would reduce German influence over EADS and shift jobs out ofGermany.默克尔却认为这将减少德国对ESDS的影响力,EADS的许多工作将会被转移出德国。The merger was abandoned amid bitter recriminations, leaving Mr Enders determined to transform EADS into a normal commercial company focused on the profitability of its businesses rather than the nationality of its workers.这次放弃合使得双方都相互指责,恩德斯先生不得不下决心将EADS改造成为一个正常的商业公司,专注于各项业务的盈利能力,而非其工人的国籍。That the mudslinging this time has been relatively restrained is a sign of how far EADS has travelled down that road.这次较为克制的诽谤已经成为欧洲宇航防务集团在这条道路上走过多远的标志。The German economics ministry asked that the cuts do not bear down disproportionately on its country, where most of the defence operations are based.德国经济部指出这次削减难以承担德国经济不成比例的下跌,因为那里是大部分防卫作战的基础。Mr Montebourg thought it unacceptable that a profitable company with a bulging order book and state support had to cut jobs.蒙特堡先生认为一个拥有鼓鼓订单和政府持的盈利公司不得不裁员的理由是难以接受的。Neither government looks likely to intervene.Francenow owns just 12% of the company,Germanyless than 11% and neither now has a veto over management decisions.不过无论如何政府很可能要干预此事。法国目前只拥有公司的12%,德国也只有不到11%,两国都没有一票否决权的管理决策。Both can see that, however successful EADS is these days in commercial aviation, it is too small, too cost-heavy and too Eurocentric to compete globally for defence and space business, especially at a time when developed countries are cutting their budgets.从两方面都可以看出,虽然欧洲宇航防务集团最近在航空商业中是成功的,但对于以欧洲为中心在全球范围内为国防和空间业务构成竞争来说规模太小,花费太大了,尤其是当发达国家正在削减他们的预算的时候。The job losses are part of a bigger reorganisation to reflect this reality.工作损失是一个反映现实的更大的重组。Next year EADSs four operating units will come down to three, as its existing defence and space outfits—Cassidian, Astrium and Airbus Military—are merged into Airbus DS.明年欧洲宇航防务集团的四大经营单位将回落到三个,作为其现有的国防和航天装备,卡西迪安,奥斯特里姆公司和空中客车军用将合并成空中客车公司的DS 。EADS itself will take its name from its best-known brand, becoming Airbus Group.EADS公司将放弃其最知名的品牌名字,成为空中客车集团。No longer will the role of chief executive alternate between French and German bosses: Mr Enders will keep the job as long as the board wants him to remain.他们将不会再扮演法国行政总裁候补和德国老板之间的角色:What of the research into cyber-security that Mr Montebourg ventured out to see one September morning?只要董事会希望他留下来,恩德斯先生将继续这项工作。That, the company says, is here to stay.也就是说,该公司表示,是到停下来的时候了。 /201312/269450杭州口腔医院哪家好拱墅区美白牙齿需要多少钱

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