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2017年12月18日 22:44:57 | 作者:放心指南 | 来源:新华社
Concern over levels of drinking during pregnancy raised by studies一项调查研究引起了人们对于妇饮酒的担忧More than 17,000 women in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand were questioned, with confusion over guidelines blamed for the figures在英国,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和新西兰,超过17000名妇女参与了调查,由这一数字引起的看法也受到了质疑Alcohol use during pregnancy is #39;prevalent and socially pervasive#39; in the UK and Ireland, health experts have warned, after carrying out a large-scale study.在开展了大规模的调查之后,健康专家提醒指出,在英国和爱尔兰,怀期间饮酒是;流行的,普遍的;。Drinking in pregnancy is common, according to a study which labels it a ;significant public health concern; even though most women appear to give up once they know they are pregnant.一项研究表明,怀期间饮酒很常见。并将之归为“公共健康的重要问题”,即使大多数女人知道自己怀了,可能会放弃饮酒。The authors of the study, in the journal BMJ Open, say the guidelines on safe drinking are confusing, pointing out that Ireland, New Zealand and Australia recommend no alcohol for the entire pregnancy, while the UK says one to two units once or twice a week will do no harm after the first three months.该研究的作者,在BMJopen杂志中说,安全饮酒的准则是比较令人困惑的。他指出,在爱尔兰,新西兰和澳大利亚,都提倡整个期不要饮酒,而在英国,怀三个月之后的妇女,每周一到两次,少量的饮酒是没有坏处的。Substantial numbers of women appear to be taking no heed of guidelines when they become pregnant, according to the findings. The research pulled together results from several studies carried out in different ways in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. They found that as much as 80% of more than 17,000 women may have drank during the first trimester of pregnancy.研究表明,当女人怀时,她们中的大多数都不会对所谓的准则加以理睬。这一研究是将各项研究融合到一起,这些研究曾经在英国,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和新西兰以不同方式进行过。在这接受调查的17,000名妇女中,80%甚至更多,都在怀的头三个月期间喝酒了。In all countries, drinking dropped dramatically in the second trimester (between three and six months pregnant).而在所有的国家,怀第二个阶段(三到六月期间)饮酒人数就会急剧的减少。A higher level of education, having other children, and being overweight/obese were also associated with a lower risk of drinking while pregnant, but being a smoker made it more likely that a woman would drink while pregnant.更高层次的教育,有其他孩子,以及超重/肥胖这些情况也与怀时饮酒较少有关,但是如果一个人吸烟的话,她就更可能在怀时饮酒。The authors write that alcohol exposure may occur in over 75% of pregnancies in the UK and Ireland. Since women drink in the first three months, when the development of the foetus is less well understood, they say, ;the widesp consumption of even low levels of alcohol during pregnancy is a significant public health concern;.作者还写道,在英国和爱尔兰怀女性中,75%会接触酒精。他们说,怀头三个月妇会饮酒可能是因为那时胎儿发育还不健全。;在怀期间尽量少饮酒在公共健康方面是很受重视的;。审校:哎呀 校对:落花生 编辑:Freya然 /201507/385120You#39;ve probably heard a lot of myths and stereotypes about India. Some stereotypes might be true, but many are not. Mariaebinesan3, a blogger from India, tries to dispel some stereotypes most people assume about India.或许,你听过很多对于印度的偏见和谬传。有一些可能是对的,有些则是错的。来自印度的主Mariaebinesan3试图通过此文,消除大多数人对于印度的错误理解。1. All educated Indians are IT professionals.1、所有受过教育的印度人都是IT专业人员。Fact: 1 out of every 200 workers is a software engineer in the US.Indiahas about 2.75 million software developers while theUShas 4.5 million. So do the math.事实上:在美国,每200个人中,有1个人是软件工程师。在印度有将近275万软件开发人员,而在美国,这一数字为450万。你们自己算一算吧。2. Dowry is prevalent in every part of India.2、嫁妆在整个印度都盛行。There#39;s no dowry system in most of the North Eastern states ofIndia. In fact, in Meghalaya, marriages are matriarchal with a matrilineal system where property, names and wealth passes from mother to daughter rather than father to son. You#39;ll find women take center-stage in every aspect of life.在印度,东北部邦大部分地区都没有送嫁妆的习俗。事实上,在梅加拉亚邦,婚姻为母系婚姻,采用母系传承制,在这一制度之下,姓名、资产和财富都通过母亲传给女儿而不是通过父亲传给儿子。因而在生活各个层面,女性都居于核心地位。 /201505/375559The true nature of Vincent van Gogh’s death continues to be a topic ripe for mystery – after a leading forensics expert has claimed that the artist was murdered.在一位法医学专家声称画家文特森#8226;梵高是被谋杀之后,梵高之死的真相继续成为了谜团解密的热门话题。The Sunflowers painter died an agonising 29 hours after taking a bullet to the abdomen in a wheat field near Paris in 1890. On his death bed he apparently revealed he had shot himself.1890年,这位向日葵画家在陷入持续苦闷的29小时之后,于巴黎近郊的麦田里朝腹部开自杀。临终时分在床上,他说是他朝自己开了。However, Dr. Vincent Di Maio, an expert on gunshot injuries, has said that he be believes the wound was “not self-inflicted”.然而,伤专家文特森#8226;迪马尤士认为这伤口“不是自己造成的”。According to Vanity Fair, Di Maio, who was a key witness at the George Zimmerman trial, said that it was highly likely that Van Gogh “did not shoot himself”.根据《名利场》杂志的说辞, 迪马尤——这位乔治齐默尔曼试验的关键目击者声称梵高很有可能“没有朝自己开”。He made the claim in response to a request by Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith, whose biography of Van Gogh disputes the long-held suicide theory.这是他对于史蒂芬#8226;奈芬和乔治#8226;怀特#8226;史密斯请求的回应。奈芬和史密斯的梵高传记对于一直以来梵高自杀理论的主张提出了争议。In Van Gogh: The Life, a 960-page book published in 2011, the Pulitzer Prize-winning authors claim that the artist had been shot, possibly accidentally, by a couple of boys and that he had decided to protect them by accepting the blame.在2011年出版的960页的《梵高的一生》中,普利策的获奖作家们表示:这位画家很有可能是被两个男孩出于意外射杀的;为了保护他们,画家选择抗下责任。American academic John Rewald had talked of hearing local rumours about such a theory in the 1930s.在20世纪30年代,美国学者约翰#8226;瓦尔德曾表示听过该理论的当地传闻。But Naifeh and Smith were attacked for publishing their theory and in 2013 Louis van Tilborgh and Teio Meedendorp published a critical review in the Burlington Magazine, which reiterated the suicide narrative.但是奈芬和史密斯这套理论的出版受到了攻击,且在2013年,路易斯#8226;范蒂尔赫和提奥#8226;梅登多普在《伯灵顿》杂志中发表,重申了自杀论调。Following this, Naifeh and Smith asked Di Maio to compare the two accounts and put forth his opinion.由此,奈芬和史密斯请求迪马尤比较两者说法并提出自己的见解。Van Tilborgh and Meedendorp wrote that the son of the attendant physician at Van Gogh’s death bed, Paul Junior, said Van Gogh’s wound had a “brown and purple haloaround [it].”范蒂尔赫和梅登多普写道, 保罗二世——这位梵高临终床边医师随从的儿子说过,梵高的伤口周围有一圈“棕色和紫色的晕”。According to the authors, this meant “the gun must have been fired at very close range … and was caused by the bullet’s impact.”根据作者们所言,这意味着“开范围肯定是近距离的……而且是子弹冲击的影响。”But Di Maio said: “In fact, [the purple halo] is subcutaneous bleeding from vessels cut by the bullet and is usually seen in individuals who live awhile.但是迪马尤说道:“事实上,(紫色的晕圈)是子弹中伤血管后皮下流血造成的,而且常见于中后还留有一口气的死者。”“Its presence or absence means nothing.”“它存不存在并不能说明问题。”Meanwhile, he said the brown ring is “an abrasion ring and seen around virtually all entrance wounds”.与此同时,他说道棕色的晕圈是“擦伤晕圈,并且几乎所有伤口入口都有”。Di Maio also said that if Van Gogh did shoot himself there would have been “soot, powder tattooing and searing of the skin around the entrance”.迪马尤也声称:如果梵高没有自己开射杀自己,那么伤口入口就该是“被煤烟弄脏,出现粉末的纹身样,且入口处的皮肤是灼伤的”。He said: “These would have been grossly evident. None of this is described [in any of the forensic accounts]. This indicates the muzzle was more than a foot or two away (closer to two rather than one).”他说:“这些本该是充分的据。但没有一条在任何法医学条目中被描述出来。这说明了开点距离一英尺或者两英尺以外(更有可能是两英尺)。”In conclusion he said: “It is my opinion that, in all medical probability, the wound incurred by Van Gogh was not self-inflicted. In other words, he did not shoot himself.”在结论中他说道:“我的见解是这样的,在所有医学的可能性中,梵高的伤口不是自己造成的,换而言之。他没有朝自己开。”However, it may take more than Di Maio to sway academic opinion.然而,要去撼动学术界的观点,有了迪马尤的持还远远不够。A curator at the Van Gogh Museum told Naifeh and Smith in an email. “I think it would be like Vincent to protect the boys and take the ‘accident’ as an unexpected way out of his burdened life.梵高物馆的馆长在一封邮件中告知奈芬和史密斯,“我觉得很有可能文特森他为了保护男孩们,把这次意外当作自己不堪重负的一生所意想不到的终结。““But I think the biggest problem you’ll find after publishing your theory is that the suicide is more or less printed in the brains of past and present generations and has become a sort of self-evident truth. Vincent’s suicide has become the grand finale of the story of the martyr for art, it’s his crown of thorns.”“但是我认为你们会发现一个大问题:你们出版了自己的理论后会发现,自杀论或多或少已在过去人的脑海中根深蒂固了,并且通过代代相传成为了某种意义上不言而喻的事实。梵高的自杀已成为艺术殉道之路上伟大的终章,这是他的荆棘之冠。” /201411/345147

Question: Why do I find it more difficult and tiring when I take my walk on a tmill?问:为什么我发现在跑步机上走会觉得更吃力、更累?Answer: Many people, including me, find a tmill workout more draining than the same activity on a sidewalk or track. In a 2012 experiment, runners were asked to jog on a track while rating how difficult the exercise felt. Then they hopped on tmills without speed displays and were told to set the machine to a pace that felt the same as what they had just run. Almost all chose a speed that was much slower. On the tmill, this gentle pace felt as difficult as swifter running on the track.答:很多人,包括我自己,发现在跑步机上比在人行道或跑道上进行同样的锻炼更累。在2012年的一项实验中,研究者要求跑步者在跑道上慢跑,同时评估这项锻炼的难度感受。然后他们跳到没有速度显示器的跑步机上,把速度设定为刚才慢跑时感觉的速度。几乎所有人选择的速度都慢得多。在跑步机上以较慢速度跑步与在跑道上以较快速度跑步的难度感觉是一样的。But scientists are unsure why tmill exercise feels harder. Most people’s biomechanics are the same, whether they are on a tmill or the ground, studies show. And where there are differences, the advantage would seem to reside with the machine. Tmill jogging is less jarring than running on the ground, for instance. A 2014 study shows that we strike the ground with about 200 percent of our body weight while running on the track and only 175 percent of our body weight when we are on a tmill.但是科学家们不确定为什么在跑步机锻炼感觉更吃力。多项研究表明,不管在跑步机上还是在地面上,大多数人的生物力学是一样的。如果说有区别的话,跑步机似乎更有优势。比如,在跑步机上慢跑比在地面上的震动更小。2014年的一项研究表明,我们在跑道上跑步时,撞击地面的力量相当于体重的约200%,而在跑步机上,撞击力量只有体重的175%。So the most likely explanation for any drudgery associated with tmill exercise is psychological. Tmills are indoor machines, and many studies show that people generally prefer outdoor workouts. In various experiments, people have reported experiencing less fatigue, more vitality and greater pleasure after walking outside compared with on an indoor tmill.所以用跑步机锻炼更累人的原因很可能是心理方面的。跑步机是室内机器,而很多研究表明,人们总体来说更喜欢户外锻炼。人们在不同的实验中报告称,与在室内跑步机上锻炼后相比,在户外散步后感觉不那么累,更有活力,更愉悦。Also, tmills typically provide a walk to nowhere, which may be demoralizing. In a study published last year, volunteers who set out to walk a course that had no clear finish line felt more fatigued afterward than when they covered the same distance with an obvious finish line ahead on which to focus.另外,跑步机通常没有目的地,这可能令人气馁。在去年发表的一项研究中,志愿者们走过两段同样长度的路程,一个没有明确的终点线,另一个有明确的终点线。完成之后,志愿者们发现,如果没有一个明确的终点线可以关注,感觉会更累人。So the lesson may be that, if you can, find a tmill with a monitor and programing showing an outdoor walking course with a beginning and, most important, an end.所以,我们可以得出这样的经验:如果可以的话,找一个带监视器和视频节目的跑步机。视频节目可以展示户外行走路程,它有起点,更重要的是,它有终点。 /201502/361067

Top 10 Modern Foods With (Mostly) Delicious Histories10种拥有美妙历史的现代食物9. French Fries9.炸薯条Of all the foods to have an origin story, this one seems to be the most clear cut as to where it came from. Unfortunately, there’s an ongoing dispute between France and Belgium as to who really made it.在所有具有历史起源的食物中,这一款食物的源起最清楚不过。不幸地是,法国与比利时一直在争论到底是谁真正发明了这种食物。The Belgian side of the story is that the 17th Century residents of the Meuse Valley in Belgium were not shy of frying things. They had a tendency to fry any fish that they caught, which made up the majority of what they ate. When winter came and the rivers froze over, the Belgians turned to the ever-reliable spud, preparing them in battered slices, the same way they prepared fish.比利时的版本是:17世纪比利时默兹河流域的居民喜欢吃油炸食品。他们习惯把捕来的所有鱼都进行油炸,这在他们的饮食中占据了绝大部分。当冬天来临,河流冰冻,比利时人就求助于他们一直以来所依赖的马铃薯,把它们切成薄片预备着,他们对鱼也采取同样的处理方式。The French side states that, in the late 17th Century, potatoes were regarded unfit for human consumption, and only for pigs to eat. When a famine struck in 1785, this mind-set changed, and the French gave the potato another chance. It caught on so well, by 1795 they were grown everywhere, with even some royal gardens being converted to help grow the friendly spud. During this boom, someone had the smart idea of frying the slices and selling them as ‘frites’. Thus, the French fry was born.法国的版本是:在17世纪后期,人们认为土豆并不适合食用,只能用来喂猪。到1785年爆发了饥荒,这种想法才得以改变,法国人发现了土豆的另一个用途。它 变得相当流行,到1795年已经在各个地方都有种植,甚至一些皇家公园都被改造以有利于这些友好的马铃薯生长。在这个土豆繁荣的时期,有人想出一个聪明的 点子,将土豆切片并油炸,然后起名为“炸薯条”进行售卖。薯条由此诞生。 /201506/382657

Each week in Bookends, two writers take on questions about the world of books. This week, Thomas Mallon and Ayana Mathis on authors whose life stories should be told.每周的书挡专栏(Bookends)都会有两位作家谈论有关书籍的话题。这周托马斯·马隆(Thomas Mallon)和阿雅娜·马蒂斯(Ayana Mathis)讨论哪位作家值得立传。By Thomas Mallon托马斯·马隆:Any biography requires raw material, and archivally, Tom Wolfe seems to be a man in full.任何传记都需要素材,而从素材的角度讲,汤姆·沃尔夫(Tom Wolfe)简直是无所不有。Back in September The New York Times carried news about a coming biography of Jonathan Franzen. The item surprised some ers because of the writer’s relative youth and mostly quiet personal life. A public rebuke from Oprah is not nothing, but that alone won’t make for a biography “crowded with incident,” as Lady Bracknell would put it.去年9月,《纽约时报》曾报道乔纳森·弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)的传记即将面世。这本书让一些读者吃惊不已,因为这位作家相对年轻,个人生活大体上也平淡无奇。尽管欧普拉对本书的批评非同小可,但仅此也不足以让这本传记如同王尔德《诚实的重要性》剧中人物布拉克奈尔夫人所说的那样,“争议不断。”A more likely living candidate for the full life-and-works treatment might be Tom Wolfe, still young in his subjects and style, but at 84 getting up there in years. True, one could say, as with Franzen, that this writer has put most of his exclamation points onto the page, not off it. A biographer of Wolfe will be reporting on an unscarifying boyhood; a late but long marriage; apparently amiable children; a domestic tranquillity that has supported immersive research and long intervals between hefty volumes. Even so, several aspects of the author’s long career make him ripe for scrutiny beyond the modest critical studies he’s prompted up to now.另外一位尚健在,而且其生平和作品或许值得大书特书的作家是汤姆·沃尔夫。他的写作主题和风格仍旧矫健,但84岁的他已经不年轻了。也许我们可以说,他如同弗兰岑一样,人生最可圈可点之处在于他的作品,而不是个人生活。沃尔夫的传记作家会写到如下这些:不显山不露水的少年时代;晚婚但白头偕老;与子女们关系融洽;家庭和谐,令他能够全身心投入于研究写作,并且花长时间酝酿鸿篇巨制。尽管如此,他漫长写作生涯的某些方面仍够提供了丰富的素材,能够让传记作家突破目前关于沃尔夫的平淡的批评研究,进行更深层次的探讨。Wolfe has been both in sync with his times — a key figure in the New Journalism that became the dominant mode of chronicling them — as well as a figure apart: His conservative inclinations alone distinguish him from most American writers of his generation. Well into midcareer he shifted away from nonfiction, glossing his first novel, “The Bonfire of the Vanities” (1987), with a thumping manifesto titled “Stalking the Billion-Footed Beast” (1989). That essay planted Wolfe’s flag on the social and realist turf he believed the novel had long since foolishly abandoned. He had made enemies before — an essay called “Tiny Mummies!,” back in 1965, appalled stalwarts at The New Yorker — and his bumptious, commercially successful move toward fiction renewed his foes’ animus and increased their ranks. I remember John Updike flashing me a relieved smile the night Wolfe’s second novel lost the National Book Award in 1998; two years later Wolfe numbered Updike one of the “Three Stooges” who had failed to appreciate him. It’s hard to have a biography without misbehavior; it’s almost impossible to have one without feuds.一方面,沃尔夫与他所处的时代步调一致——他是“新新闻主义”的核心人物之一,后者也成为他记录自己的时代的首要风格;另一方面,他又特立独行。单是他的保守倾向就令他与同时代的多数美国作家格格不入。在写作生涯中后期,他从非虚构作品转向虚构,继首部小说《虚荣的篝火》(The Bonfire of the Vanities, 1987)之后,又在《潜随10亿只脚的动物》(Stalking the Billion-Footed Beast ,1989)一文中发出掷地有声的宣言。这篇随笔让沃尔夫跻身于社会和现实主义阵营,他则在此文中批评美国小说界早已愚蠢地背弃了现实主义传统。沃尔夫此前已经树敌不少——他早在1965年发表的一篇题为《袖珍木乃伊!》(Tiny Mummies!)的文章已经令《纽约客》杂志的大腕作家们震怒不已。而他大张旗鼓进军小说,并且在商业上颇为成功,再次激起这种敌视情绪,并且让更多的人加入了批评他的阵营。我还记得在1998年,当沃尔夫的第二部小说在角逐“国家图书奖”功亏一篑之际,约翰·厄普代克(John Updike)向我展露了如释重负的微笑;两年之后,沃尔夫则还以颜色,称厄普代克为有眼无珠、未能欣赏他的作品的“三个傻瓜”之一。如果没有出格言行,很难写出一本传记;而如果没有宿怨,就干脆不可能有传记。The editor of this life story will be hoping people want to buy it. Fortunately, Wolfe has the kind of public branding and recognition (the white suits haven’t hurt) that one associates more with the oft-televised writers born in the mid-1920s, less than a decade before he was — Vidal, Capote, Mailer, Baldwin, Buckley; excellent biographical subjects all. Wolfe has fans: I can recall a Washington arts function some years ago at which a Supreme Court justice waited to greet the novelist almost as if he were a costumed superhero who’d arrived on the floor of Comic Con. Few writers have cemented phrases into the national lingo, but Wolfe has done that with several: “radical chic,” “pushing the envelope,” “social X-rays,” “masters of the universe.”这部传记的编辑会希望读者对它趋之若鹜。幸运的是,沃尔夫与那些经常出现在电视上、生于1920年代中期的著名作家——包括戈尔·维达(Gore Vidal)、杜鲁门·卡波蒂(Truman Capote)、诺曼·梅勒(Norman Mailer)、詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)和威廉·F·巴克利(William F Buckley)等人,他们都是绝佳的传主——具有类似的公众品牌和知名度(他标志性的白色西装也增色不少)。沃尔夫有大批拥趸:我记得多年前在华盛顿一个文艺界聚会上,一位最高法院法官等待迎接他,就好像动漫粉丝们在国际动漫展上迎接身穿制的超级英雄一样。没有几位作家能像他一样把文学语言引入全民的日常会话,比如radical chic(“与激进派人物交往的时尚”)、pushing the envelope(“挑战极限”)、social X-rays(“社交X光”)、masters of the universe(“时空的主宰”)等等。Any biography requires raw material, and archivally Wolfe seems to be a man in full. The New York Public Library has lately paid more than million for a collection of the writer’s papers said to contain, along with notebooks and manuscripts, over 10,000 letters. The senders and recipients prove Wolfe a busy, connected creature, a figure in the sort of social tapestry he considers to be the novel’s real business.任何传记都需要素材,而从素材的角度讲,汤姆·沃尔夫简直是无所不有。最近,纽约公共图书馆以200多万美元购入了一批他的文件,据称包括笔记本、手稿和一万多封信件。信件的收发人显示沃尔夫的社交生活异常活跃丰富,就是他自己的小说热衷于描写的那种社交人物。I greet the announcement of new fiction by lower-key, ultimately greater artists — let’s say William Trevor or Alice Munro — with a different, if no less keen, sort of pleasure. But I feel no urgent desire for a biography of either one of them. They’ve earned their privacy through a kind of exquisite circumscription, the deep, career-long exploration of individual psychologies in remote precincts. Wolfe, by contrast, has looked for life above the fold and at high decibel levels — on the frantic trading floor, in clamorous courthouses, amid the roar of rockets and racecars. It makes sense for his own life to wind up as a chronicle with an index.每当那些低调但又不失伟大的作家——例如威廉·特里弗(William Trevor)和爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)有新著问世,我都会颇为欣慰,但这是一种不同的愉悦感:如果有人为上述两位作家立传,我可没什么兴趣读。他们早已通过微妙的自我定位,通过多年来在陌生领域的对个人心理的深刻探索,赢得了他们的隐私权。而沃尔夫则不同,他热衷于描写名利场,在那些万众瞩目的喧嚣场景中探究人生——混乱忙碌的股票交易大厅、人声鼎沸的法庭,噪音震耳欲聋的火箭发射场和赛车场等等。所以,他自己的人生成为一部精心编撰的历史,也不足为奇。Thomas Mallon’s eight novels include “Henry and Clara,” “Bandbox,” “Fellow Travelers” and “Watergate,” a finalist for the PEN/Faulkner Award. He has also published nonfiction about plagiarism (“Stolen Words”), diaries (“A Book of One’s Own”), letters (“Yours Ever”) and the Kennedy assassination (“Mrs. Paine’s Garage”), as well as two books of essays. His work appears in The New Yorker, The Atlantic Monthly and other publications. A recipient of the Vursell prize of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, for distinguished prose style, he is currently professor of English at George Washington University.托玛斯·马隆的八部小说包括《亨利与克拉拉》(Henry and Clara)《同途旅人》(Fellow Travelers)和《水门》(Watergate),后者入围国际笔会/福克纳奖最终候选名单。他的非虚构作品还包括关于抄袭的文章《被盗的文字》(Stolen Words),日记《自己的一本书》(A Book of One’s Own)和关于刺杀肯尼迪事件的文章《佩恩夫人的车库》(Mrs. Paine’s Garage),另外还有两本散文合集。他的作品曾发表在《纽约客》、《大西洋月刊》等期刊上。他曾获得美国艺术暨文学学会表彰优秀散文风格的Vursell奖。他目前在乔治·华盛顿大学担任英文教授。 By Ayana Mathis阿雅娜·马蒂斯:Albert Murray was a man of great accomplishments and not nearly the renown he ought to have had.阿尔伯特·穆瑞(Albert Murray)的卓越成就和他的名气不成正比。You may not have heard of Albert Murray. You might not own any of his 12 books or have sat in on any of his lectures at Columbia or Emory University. You may have entirely missed the life and work of an inimitable novelist, cultural critic, and jazz and blues scholar — I certainly did.你可能没有听说过阿尔伯特·穆瑞;他的12本著作,你可能一本也没有买过;他在哥伦比亚和埃默里大学的讲座,你可能一次也没去听。你可能完全错过了一位独特的小说家、文化家、爵士乐和蓝调研究者的生活和作品——就跟我一样。Albert Murray died at 97 on Aug. 18, 2013. He was a man of great accomplishments and not nearly the renown he ought to have had. Which isn’t to say he was obscure; the people who knew Murray loved him. They loved him so much that his memorial service was held at Jazz at Lincoln Center, which he helped found alongside Wynton Marsalis and Stanley Crouch. Judith Jamison, the former artistic director of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, was there, along with Crouch and Henry Louis Gates Jr. Not to mention the publishing luminaries Sonny Mehta and Erroll McDonald. And, in the jazz-funeral style Murray deserved, Marsalis ended the memorial by marching his band out of the auditorium playing “Didn’t He Ramble.”阿尔伯特·穆瑞于2013年8月去世,享年97岁。他成就卓越,却并没有与之匹配的名声。这倒并不是说他默默无名——认识他的人都非常喜欢他。出于对他的喜爱,亲朋好友们在林肯中心的爵士厅为他举办了追悼会。而这一演出场所是穆瑞和温顿·马沙利斯(Wynton Marsalis,小号演奏家,林肯中心爵士乐团艺术总监——译注)还有斯坦利·克劳奇(Stanley Crouch,诗人、爵士乐评家)一起促成创建的。出席追悼会的有“阿尔文·艾丽美国现代舞团”的前艺术总监朱迪斯·杰米森(Judith Jamison)、克劳奇和小亨利·路易斯·盖茨(Henry Louis Gates Jr.,哈佛大学教授,美国黑人问题研究专家—译注),当然还有索尼·梅塔(Sonny Mehta)和艾洛尔·麦克唐纳德(Erroll McDonald)这样的出版界名流。 追悼会由马沙利斯带领他的乐队演奏着《他到处游逛》(Didn’t He Ramble)走出演奏大厅而收场。穆瑞的一生完全配得上这个爵士味十足的追悼会。Here is a crash course in Murray: He was the author of a memoir, four novels, several books about the blues that are at once scholarly and down-homey, and a few volumes of cultural criticism. Ah, yes, and a collection of poetry that includes a poem about William Faulkner I’d dare anyone to top. Ralph Ellison was a dear friend of his. The painter Romare Bearden was a friend, too. Murray and Bearden entered into an artistic collaboration that yielded Bearden’s series “The Block,” inspired by the view from Murray’s balcony in Harlem. Murray hung out with James Baldwin in Paris in the 1950s. He was the co-writer of Count Basie’s autobiography. The National Book Critics Circle gave him a lifetime achievement award in 1997. Duke Ellington called him “the unsquarest man I know.” During his college days, he spent a night at Ma Rainey’s house; in his memoir, “South to a Very Old Place,” he describes sleeping in her “red-velvet-draped, tenderloin-gothic, incense-sultry sickroom.”穆瑞的生平简介如下:他写了一部回忆录,四部小说,几部关于蓝调音乐的既富于学术价值而又平易近人的著作,还有几本文化的作品。对了,他还出版过一本诗集,里面有一首关于威廉·福克纳(William Faulkner)的诗,我敢打赌没有任何人能够超越。拉尔夫·埃里森(Ralph Ellison, 美国当代黑人作家)和画家罗米尔·比尔登(Romare Bearden)都是他的好朋友。 穆瑞在哈莱姆住处的阳台景观是比尔登《街区》系列的灵感来源——这可以说是两位好友之间的一次艺术合作。穆瑞在50年代的巴黎还和詹姆斯·鲍德温过从甚密。他是“贝西伯爵”(William James ;Count; Basie 爵士音乐家——译注)自传的合著者。美国国家书评圈在1997年授予他终身成就奖。艾灵顿公爵说他是“我所认识的人中最特立独行的”。上大学的时候,穆瑞在芮妮大妈(Ma Rainey, 美国蓝调歌手,被誉为“蓝调之母”——译注)的家中度过一晚。在他的回忆录《向南重游旧地》(South to a Very Old Place)中,他描述了睡在她“红丝绒窗帘遮挡,弥漫着厚重香薰的病房,这哥特风格房间有着牛里脊般的质感”。Murray didn’t publish his first book until he was in his 50s, and then he spent the rest of his life making up for lost time. That first book, “The Omni-Americans,” argued for a wider conception of American identity that acknowledged the centrality and profundity of black culture. Murray maintained that America is so mingled as to be “a mulatto culture” (a startling reappropriation of the term). His ideas struck some as too integrationist and earned Murray more than a few enemies. But as Henry Louis Gates Jr. points out in “King of Cats,” his 1996 New Yorker profile of Murray, “in Murray’s hands, integration wasn’t an act of accommodation but an act of introjection.”穆瑞直到50多岁才出版了他的第一本书。这之后他著作不断,像是在弥补之前的沉寂。在这第一本书《综合美国人》(The Omni-Americans)中,穆瑞提出,美国身份的概念应该更加宽泛,这一概念应该正视黑人文化的中心地位和深度。穆瑞坚称美国种族混杂,是一个“黑白混血文化”(穆瑞令人吃惊地重新使用了“黑白混血文化”这一说法)。他的观点在一些人看来过于强调融合,从而为他招致了不少敌人。而小亨利·路易·盖茨在1996年为《纽约客》撰写的题为《猫王》的穆瑞人物特写中指出,“在穆瑞笔下,融合并不是适应外界,而是一种不自觉地把外面的东西拿来为我所用的过程。”Visionary though he was, Murray wasn’t right about everything — and certainly his polemics against the likes of Richard Wright and James Baldwin rightfully stuck in more than a few craws — but his work reveals a nuanced and agile thinker, and his prose is transcendent. When it comes to the blues, Murray’s expertise is undeniable. With characteristic brio, his seminal “Stomping the Blues” explores that music as the African-American idiom through which the spirit, mood and variety of black experience finds expression.尽管颇有远见,穆瑞并不总是正确的。他与理查德·怀特(Richard Wright)、詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)和其他一些人的论战触怒了不少人,而对此他并不能为自己开脱。但是他的作品细致入微,思维敏捷。他的文字也极为精妙。在谈论蓝调音乐时,谁都不能否认穆瑞的专业知识。在他影响深远的《顿足蓝调》(Stomping the Blues)中,穆瑞以特有的生动笔触探讨了蓝调音乐和“顿足”这一美国黑人俚语之间的关系,而两者都充分表达了黑人生活的神髓和多样性。I’ve saved my favorite for last: Murray’s first novel, “Train Whistle Guitar,” an autobiographical coming-of-age story set in his native Alabama. His style was heavily influenced by the language of the South and by the jazz and blues he loved. His sentences dive and soar, they vibrate with word play and hum with lyricism.我把我最喜爱的留到了最后。穆瑞的第一本小说《火车,口哨,吉他》(Train Whistle Guitar)是一步自传性质的成长小说。故事发生在他的家乡阿拉巴马州。他的文风很大程度上受到了美国南方语言和他所喜爱的爵士乐和蓝调的影响。他的句子跌宕起伏,充满了文字游戏,读起来就像歌词那样韵律有致。Murray had a phrase he used often in his work: “the also and the also.” He used this as shorthand for the relatedness of things, and the complexities — and challenges — in that relatedness. He used it to evoke the multivalence of cultural memory, of blues and jazz music and of American identity itself. Murray seems more relevant now than ever. If this isn’t a moment in which we could all benefit from an encounter with a little “also and also,” I don’t know what is.在他的作品中,穆瑞常用“诸如此类”这一短语来概括事物之间的关联性,以及关联性之中的复杂和质疑。他用这一短语来描述文化记忆,蓝调和爵士乐以及美国身份本身的多种意义。这样看来,穆瑞的思想在现在意义尤其相关。在这个时节点,我们所有人都能从穆瑞的“诸如此类”之中获利。Ayana Mathis is a graduate of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop and a recipient of the 2014-15 New York Public Library’s Cullman Center Fellowship. “The Twelve Tribes of Hattie,” her first novel, was a New York Times Bestseller, a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, one of NPR’s Best Books of 2013 and was chosen by Oprah Winfrey as the second selection for Oprah’s Book Club 2.0. Ayana taught Creative Writing at The Writer’s Foundry MFA Program at St. Joseph’s College, Brooklyn. She is an Assistant Professor of English and Creative Writing at the Iowa Writers’ Workshop.阿雅娜·马蒂斯毕业于艾奥瓦大学作家坊,获得过2014-2015年纽约公共图书馆Cullman中心奖金。她的第一部小说《海蒂的12个部落》(The Twelve Tribes of Hattie)曾登上《纽约时报》畅销书榜单,获得《纽约时报》年度优秀图书奖,美国公共广播电台2013最佳图书奖,并登上欧普拉·温弗雷(Oprah Winfrey)的“欧普拉图书俱乐部2.0”图书榜单。她在布鲁克林圣约瑟夫学院作家培训MFA班教授创意写作,并担任艾奥瓦大学作家坊的英文与创意写作副教授。 /201502/359419

Sweat it out: could your sportswear be toxic?运动后,你的运动竟是有毒的?It might be hard to imagine that exercise could be harming your health. It turns out that even while you are doing something healthy, what you are wearing while doing it could be cause for concern. Public health advocates, including Greenpeace and European regulatory bodies that oversee chemical safety, are becoming increasingly concerned by evidence that shows a possible link between sportswear and health issues such as cancer, obesity and developmental disabilities. While toxic chemicals are a longstanding issue in various types of apparel, sportswear presents a particular problem because sweat and friction can prompt more rapid absorption of toxins into the body.也许对于你来说很难以想象,能会损伤你的身体。然而研究明当你正在进行锻炼的时候,你的穿着可能会引发上述的担心。包括绿色和平组织和欧洲化学安全性监管机构监管在内的公共健康倡导者,越来越关注据显示的运动和健康问题如癌症、肥胖和发育问题之间的联系。而有毒的化学物质则是长期存在于不同装中的一个问题,运动也因为因为运动的汗水和擦可以促进更快速的吸收到体内毒素引发了一个新的问题。Greenpeace released a report last month cataloguing how apparel companies are failing to regulate the chemicals in the sportswear they manufacture.The Greenpeace report comes after a slew of research over the past few years highlighting the potential health risks of various chemicals used in sportswear- primarily dyes, solvents, and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), which make items water, grease and stain-proof.上个月绿色和平组织发布的一份报告中,登记了装公司未能调节他们制造的运动化学品含量(的问题)。绿色和平组织的报告是基于过去的几年中的一系列的研究的,突出强调了各种化学品在用做运动主要染料、溶剂、和用于润滑和防锈的氟化合物(PFCs)的使用中带来的潜在健康风险。In Greenpeace’s report it promoted Adidas from “greenwasher” to “trendsetter” and bestowed the less complimentary “greenwasher” title on Nike. Following earlier findings by Greenpeace about Adidas’s previous poor performance, the company sat down with Greenpeace and committed to eliminating hazardous chemicals by 2020 and being 99% PFC-free by 2017. Manfred Santen, toxics campaigner for Greenpeace International in Germany, called this “a big step in the right direction”. Nike spokesperson Greg Rossiter responded to the report by saying their own greenwasher title is undeserved. He said that the company phased out long-chain PFCs at the beginning of this year, requiring that all materials meet the standards laid out in Nike’s Restricted Substances List.绿色和平组织的报告推动了阿迪达斯从“漂绿者”成为了“潮人”的进程,却未授予尼克“漂绿者”的称号。绿色和平组织早期研究发现,阿迪达斯的前期表现不佳。该公司与绿色组织的谈判中,同意致力于到2020年止减少有害化学物质的使用,到2017年止99%不含氟化合物。德国国际绿色和平组织污染防治项目主任曼弗雷德参天,称这是“一个大方向正确的步骤”。耐克发言人格雷戈罗斯特回应说自己命名为漂绿者的的标题不当。他说,在今年年初公司淘汰长链氟化合物,要求所有材质均符合耐克的受限物质清单的标准。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,不得转载。 /201507/379967

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