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2017年12月18日 22:27:43 | 作者:飞度云健康 | 来源:新华社
Women do really talk more than men, a study has concluded.American researchers found females are the more talkative sex because of a special “language protein” in the brain.The study, compiled by neuroscientists and psychologist from the University of Maryland, concluded that women talked more because they had more of the Foxp2 protein.The research, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, found that higher levels were found among humans that were women but in rats they were males.Their findings come after it was previously claimed that ladies speak about 20,000 words a day – more than 13,000 more than men.;This study is one of the first to report a sex difference in the expression of a language-associated protein in humans or animals,” said Prof Margaret McCarthy, who led the study.“The findings raise the possibility that sex differences in brain and behaviour are more pervasive and established earlier than previously appreciated.”In their study, the researchers attempted to determine what might make male rats more vocal than their female friends.They separated four-day-old rats from their mothers and then counted the number of times they cried out in the “ultrasonic range”, the frequencies higher than humans can hear, over five minutes.While both sexes emitted hundreds of cries, the males called out twice as often, they found. But when the pups were returned to the same cage as their mother, she fussed over her sons first.According to tests compiled on the parts of the brain known to be involved in vocal calls showed the male pups to have up to twice as much Foxp2 protein as the females.The researchers then increased the production in the brains of female pups and reduced it in males.This led to the female rats crying out more often and their mothers showing more interest to them. In contrast, males became less “talkative”.The researchers then tested samples from ten children, aged between three and five, which showed that females had up to a 30 per cent more of the Foxp2 protein than males, in a brain area key to language in humans.“Based on our observations, we postulate higher levels of Foxp2 in girls and higher levels of Foxp2 in male rats is an indication that Foxp2 protein levels are associated with the more communicative sex,” said Prof McCarthy, from the university’s School of Medicine.;Our results implicate Foxp2 as a component of the neurobiological basis of sex differences in vocal communication in mammals.;美国马里兰州大学神经学家和心理学家联合进行的一项研究显示,女性的确比男性话多,其原因是女性大脑中的“语言蛋白”比较多。此前有研究称,女性一天大概说2万个单词,比男性多出1.3万个。而这项研究是首次从语言蛋白含量角度来解释男女语言表达方面的差别。研究人员对出生四天的雌雄实验鼠的观察发现,雄性实验鼠在5分钟内发出的声音是雌性老鼠的两倍,而对其脑部检测结果显示,雄性实验鼠脑中跟语言表达相关的Foxp2蛋白含量是雌性老鼠的两倍。研究人员又对十位年龄在3到5岁的儿童脑部蛋白取样分析后发现,女孩脑中的Foxp2蛋白比男孩多出30%。马里兰州大学医学院教授麦卡锡表示,研究结果表明Foxp2蛋白是哺乳动物口头交流性别差异的神经生物因素之一。 /201302/226855

My husband, Clay, does the laundry. He also cooks a mean dinner and manages our 7-year-old#39;s schedule with the seamless precision of the Blue Angels.我丈夫克莱(Clay)负责洗衣。他晚餐做得也不赖,另外,他还负责安排我们七岁女儿的日程表,精准度甚至可以媲美“蓝天使”特技飞行队(Blue Angels)。Clay loves what he does, and he#39;s proud that he does it all so well. But, he also concedes, it comes with a price.克莱喜欢他现在所做的事情,并且对自己能够这么胜任颇感自豪。但是,他也承认,为此他付出了一些代价。Clay resents the perception that some people (including some ers) have that he is henpecked, or that he doesn#39;t contribute enough to the family. He has at times felt isolated among stay-at-home moms, or shunned by the dads who find his situation odd, or threatening.克莱非常反感一些人(包括一些读者)把他看作“妻管严”,或认为他没有为家庭做出足够的贡献。在全职妈妈们的圈子里,他时常会感到孤单,他还会被那些认为他的家庭角色尴尬或具有威胁性的爸爸们拒之千里。Amid all the talk of women ;leaning in; to their careers, Clay says that he would like to hear more stories about men who are leaning into their families, as he did after shutting down his contracting business when the housing market collapsed nearly three years ago.有关女性“投身于”事业的讨论称得上铺天盖地,克莱说,他希望看到更多讲述男性献身家庭的故事。差不多三年前,在房地产市场暴跌后,克莱关闭了自己日益不景气的公司。此后,他便承担起照顾家庭的重任。So for Clay, this is one of those stories.因此,对克莱来说,他的故事便是一个这样的故事。Clay never anticipated being a stay-at-home father. Seeing his business succumb despite his best efforts to keep it going was sad and stressful for both of us.克莱从未想过自己会成为一名全职爸爸。尽管他使出了浑身解数,但仍未能保住自己的公司,这对我们两个人来说都是既伤感又沉重的一件事情。But when I was offered a promotion, he encouraged me to take it, even though it involved frequent travel and would require him to become a full-time parent. Our daughter was 4 years old at the time, and he felt he could do the greatest good for the family by being there for her—and for me.但是,当我得到了一次升迁机会的时候,他却鼓励我接受这个机会,尽管新岗位需要频繁出差,而这要求他不得不成为全职爸爸。我们的女儿那时候四岁,克莱觉得最有利于这个家庭的选择就是陪伴在她身边──也陪伴在我身边。Although society has progressed in its acceptance of stay-at-home fathers, Clay feels that outside of larger urban areas, including in parts of our small town, traditional attitudes remain more entrenched.尽管社会在接纳全职爸爸方面已经取得了一些进步,但是克莱感觉到,在大城市以外,包括我们所居住的小镇上的某些地方,传统观念仍然根深蒂固。;My pat reply to #39;What do you do?#39; is that #39;Laura earns our income and I try to do most everything else, #39; ;he says. ;Sometimes, depending on who#39;s listening, the #39;everything else#39; feels weak.;克莱说,“对于别人‘你现在做什么工作?’的问题,我总是熟练地回答‘劳拉(Laura)负责赚钱,而我则尽量去完成大多数剩下的事情。有的时候,取决于聆听对象,‘剩下的事情’听起来苍白无力。”Early on, he felt isolated as most of the other parents he would meet in preschool were women. If he wanted to set up a play date with another child, he would give the mother his email address and phone number, but felt odd asking for contact details in return, as he didn#39;t want her to think he was hitting on her.克莱在女儿的学前班遇到的大多数家长都是妈妈们,因此在开始的时候,他感到有点孤单。如果他想帮女儿和另一个小朋友安排个一起玩耍的时间,他就得给这个小朋友的妈妈留下自己的邮箱地址和电话号码;但他觉得如果是反过来向她要联系方式就有点奇怪,因为他不想让她产生自己在向她示好的误解。He was also careful about where play dates would occur, especially after an unpleasant experience at the house of one of our daughter#39;s classmates. When the child#39;s father came home unexpectedly, the mood suddenly turned tense, even though my husband was just sitting while the kids played in front of them.克莱对于约定女儿和小朋友玩耍的地点也很谨慎,特别是有次他在女儿的一个同学家有过不愉快的经历之后。那天,当这位同学的爸爸意外提早回家时,气氛顿时变得紧张起来,尽管我丈夫只是坐在那儿看孩子们在大人们面前玩耍而已。;Perhaps he was just having a rough day, but I would never have greeted a guest in my home with the cold surprise that he greeted me with, ; Clay says. ;It#39;s a standout memory, but not in a good way.;克莱说,“可能是他那天过得很糟糕吧,但是我无论如何也不会在自己家里像他那样用冷漠不解的眼神来问候客人。那是一次让人难以忘怀的回忆,不过并不是什么美好的回忆。”Generally, Clay says, he finds that women seem more sympathetic, or at least less critical of his role. He has rarely if ever heard a female acquaintance crack a joke about his role as a stay-at-home parent.一般来讲,克莱说,他发现女性更富同理心,或者说至少较少地讽刺他的家庭角色。他几乎没有被女性朋友开过“全职奶爸”的玩笑。;Is this because many if not most of them have been the primary caregiver of their children and held a full- or part-time job?; he wonders. ;Is it because, on average, a man#39;s sense of self is more deeply embedded in his career or earning power?;他问道,“难道是因为很多母亲──如果我们不说大多数母亲的话──一直都是家里为小孩付出更多的那个人,并且还同时做着一份全职或兼职的工作?”“或是因为,一般来讲,男人的自我感受更深地植根于他们的职业和赚钱能力之中?”He felt this contrast earlier this year when he attended an open house at our daughter#39;s school. Only a handful of fathers attended, and they all spent a good part of the time by themselves talking about their jobs. He found himself gravitating to the mothers.今年早些时候,他在参加女儿学校组织的家庭招待会时就感受到了两性之间的这种差异。只有为数不多的爸爸参加了这次活动,他们大部分时间都在聚在一起对自己的工作高谈阔论。他发现自己身不由主地被妈妈们吸引了过去。;The moms seemed more engaged in the event itself, more focused on chatting with teachers, viewing student work and touring the school, ; Clay says, even though many of them hold jobs outside of the home. ;It was a window into issues of gender identification and role playing.;克莱说,“妈妈们似乎对活动本身更为投入,她们更关心与老师们交流、欣赏学生作品和参观校园”,尽管她们中的很多人在家庭之外也有自己的工作。“这个窗口投射出了男性和女性对性别身份和所扮演角色的看法。”After nearly three years as a stay-at-home dad, Clay also says that he has gained more confidence in his role and has fewer regrets. ;I like being a househusband and a homemaker, ; he says. ;I enjoy folding clothes and mowing the lawn. I didn#39;t realize that, as a result of this, I would start to think more deeply about how cultural stereotypes originate and, more interestingly, why some people are loath to challenge them.;在做了将近三年的全职爸爸后,克莱还说,对于他的角色,他已经收获了更多自信,也少了些踌躇。他表示,“我喜欢当‘家庭主夫’并料理家务”。“我喜欢叠衣、给草坪除草。我以前并没有认识到,这段经历可以让我对文化固有观念是如何形成的以及为什么有些人会墨守成规开始进行更深入的思考。”He has forged friendships with other stay-at-home parents. At the same time, he has come to appreciate the time and freedom. It has allowed him to focus on things he enjoys, including projects around the house, like repainting our kitchen and bathroom or replacing the faucet.他还与其他全职家长建立起了友谊。与此同时,他也开始享受时光和自由。这让他有精力关注自己喜欢的事情,包括和房子相关的工程,比如重新粉刷我们的厨房和浴室、更换水龙头等。;Nothing feels quite as right as plying a trade that I know inside and outside on my own house, ; he says.他说,“没有什么比经营自己家房前屋后的事儿更让人觉得心旷神怡了。”These days, Clay#39;s occasional doubts tend to revolve around whether he#39;s ;doing enough; and whether I ;secretly resent; him.这些天,克莱偶尔会纠结于是否他已经“做得足够多”以及是否我“暗自怨恨他”这两个问题。Straight answer? I don#39;t, although there have been moments when I have envied Clay#39;s freedom. But I am also grateful for the tremendous amount of work he puts into our home and family, and I feel lucky that I have married a man who sees the big picture and supports my career.我实事求是的回答是什么?我不怨恨他,尽管有一些时候,我深羡他的自由。但同时,我对他为家庭所付出的大量辛勤劳动心怀感激,并且对自己嫁给了这样一个能放眼全局、持我事业的丈夫而深感幸运。Life is a narrative, and we are editing as we go along. As circumstances change, we will adjust. We realize that the most important thing isn#39;t what one of us is leaning into. It#39;s that we remember that we can always lean on each other.生活是故事,由我们在生命长河中慢慢书写。周围的环境在变,我们也在调整。我们认识到,最重要的事情并不是我们俩人中的谁投身于家庭谁投身于事业,而是我们知道我们永远都能互相依靠。 /201307/247388

20minutes20分钟Raw king prawns 300g, peeled and de-veined生虾 300克,去皮并抽掉虾线Garlic 2 cloves, thinly sliced大蒜 2瓣,切成薄片Dried chilli flakes a large pinch干辣椒片 若干Olive oil 2 tbsp橄榄油 2 汤匙Parsley leaves a small handful, chopped西芹叶 少量,剁碎#8226; Heat the oven to 220C/fan 200C/gas 7. Divide the prawns, garlic, chilli, sherry and the olive oil between 2 small ovenproof dishes. Cook for 6—8 minutes until pink and sizzling. Sprinkle with the parsley and serve with crusty b. Serves 2#8226; 将烤箱的热风加热到220C,煤气开到7档200C。将对虾、大蒜、辣椒、雪利酒和橄榄油摆放到两个耐热烤盘中。烹饪6—8分钟,直到虾变成粉色并发出咝咝声。撒上西芹叶,搭配硬皮面包食用。(2人餐)Raw prawns deteriorate very quickly—when buying, avoid any that smell particularly fishy.生虾会很快变坏,所以应该注意避免购买那些闻起来特别腥的虾。 /201212/216166

Police are under investigation for jokingly filling in a witness statement in the name of a force dog.英国某警局的警察因为以警犬的名义而开玩笑地填写词而被调查。Officers became exasperated when prosecutors asked for an account of a crime from a ‘PC Peach’, not realising Peach was the name of a police dog.英国皇家检察署检察官要求“警员Peach”提交案件词,他们并没有意识到Peach其实是警犬的名字。警察们显然火了。So they completed the form as if it had been written by the alsatian, and signed it with a paw print.所以他们冒充这只阿尔萨斯血统的警犬填写了这份表格,上面还盖了一个爪印。The dog’s statement : ‘I chase him. I bite him. Bad man. He tasty. Good boy. Good boy Peach.’这份词中写到:“我追了他,我咬了他,他是坏人。他味道不错。我是好孩子,好孩子Peach。”The form was pinned up at a West Midlands Police station last week for the amusement of colleagues, who are often at odds with the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) over the handling of cases.这份表格上周被英国的西米德兰兹郡警局贴出来了,只为同事一笑。该警局的警官们跟英国皇家检察署经常在处理案件上产生分歧。Another officer took a photo of the statement and it found its way to a ‘cop humour’ page on Facebook on Friday.周五,另一位警官将词拍照上传到了Facebook上的“警察幽默”页面。The image was later deleted but the dog section of a different force, West Yorkshire, enjoyed it so much they posted the image on Twitter in a tweet that was shared more than 150 times.照片随后被删除,但西约克郡警局的警犬部门非常喜欢这张照片,所以又将其发布到推特上,该照片被分享超过150次。The CPS, however, failed to see the funny side. Officials are believed to have complained to police that their mistake has been turned into a very public joke.不过英国皇家检察署可没觉得有多有趣,他们向这些警察投诉,觉得他们把工作失误变成了一个众人围观的大笑话。This is being considered by West Midlands Police’s Professional Standards Department and the officer who shared the picture, PC Mark Tissington, referred himself to the internal discipline unit. Sources say he is unlikely to be reprimanded.西米德兰兹郡警局的专业标准部门表示将调查此事,分享该照片的警察Mark Tissington也将接受内部纪律调查,不过有消息称他不会因此事受到训斥。DCI Julian Harper, from West Midlands Police, said: #39;The Professional Standards Department is looking into this, early enquiries suggest it is a light-hearted exchange as a result of a misunderstanding around a police dog and a police officer. The matter will be investigated.#39;西米德兰兹郡警局的总督察Julian Harper表示:“专业标准部门正在调查此事,我们从此前的问询中得知,这是一次由于对警犬和警察产生误解的轻松交流。我们将对此事进行调查。” /201302/225919

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