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连云港切包皮哪家好连云港九龙泌尿专科医院不孕不育多少钱Historical background : The mid-Ming was faced with the political crisis beause the national defence power was weakening down except for the political corruption ,high centralization of the land, poverty of the people and the country and the rising seriousness of the class contradictions.历史背景:明朝中期面临着政治危机,当时除了统治腐朽、土地高度中、民贫财竭、阶级矛盾日益尖锐外,国防力量也逐渐削弱。The northern Tartars took the chance to aggress and the Japanese pirates troubled the southeast seacoast areas from time to time.北方鞑靼乘机侵扰,倭寇也不断人侵东南沿海。All of these made the governors consider the problem to save the country themselves.这些都迫使统治阶级不得不考虑改革自救的问题。Reform:In the year of 1573, Zhang Juzheng occupied the office of the Chief Minister of the cabinet.改革的内容:1573年,张居正任内阁首辅。He reformed by taking it as the core to strengthen the centralization.他以加强中央集权为中心进行政治改革。In politics, he advocated to bring order into the local administration and cut off the unnecessary officials. In the army, he improved the frontier defense and appointed the strategist Qi Jiguang to guard Jimen and the strategist Li Chengliang to guard Liaodong. He also agreed to trade tea and horses with the Tartars and has the peaceful coexistence. In economy, he measured the land again and clarified the private land that the despots had grabbed for. He invited the water conser-vancy expert Pan Jixun to harness the rivers. He reformed the tax system and advocated the one-whip system.政治方面,澄清吏治,裁减冗员;军事方面,整顿边防,任用军事家戚继光守卫蓟门,李成梁镇守辽东,并与鞑靼进行茶马互市,和平相处;经济方面,丈量土地,清查豪强地主的隐田,聘请水利专家潘季驯主持治河,改革赋役制度,推行鞭法。The importance of the Reform Zhang : Juzheng Reform had improved the financial state of the Ming government and strengthened the frontier defense. The military power had been strengthened as well.改革的作用:张居正改革,改善了明政府的财政状况,明朝北方边防得到巩固,军事力量也有所增强。But the reform annoyed the present interests of the bureaucrats and the landlords and was against seriously by them.由于这次改革触犯了大官僚地主的一些眼前利益,遭到他们的强烈反对。In 1582, Zhang Juzheng died and the reform was stopped at the same time. But the way to collect tax in silver was maintained.1582年,张居正逝世,改革也随之终止,但用银两收税的办法却保留了下来。 /201603/428560连云港人民医院有男科么 Pakistan#39;s president has denounced St Valentine#39;s Day, saying the festival has no connection with Pakistani culture and should be avoided. His remarks came after a district in north-western Pakistan banned Valentine#39;s Day celebrations.近日,巴基斯坦总统公开抨击情人节,称这一节日和巴基斯坦文化毫无关系,应该被禁止。他的这一言论是在巴基斯坦西北部某地区禁止情人节后发出的。Valentine#39;s Day is popular in many cities in Pakistan, but religious groups have denounced it as decadent.在巴基斯坦的很多城市,情人节很盛行,但是一些宗教团体则称,这是一种衰败的现象。Earlier this week, the local government in Kohat, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, told police officers to stop shops from selling Valentine#39;s Day cards and items. Kohat district is run by a religious political party and borders Pakistan#39;s conservative tribal areas.在本周的早些时候,开伯尔·普赫图赫瓦省的科哈特地区的当地政府,要求警察禁止商店出售情人节卡片和相关物品。科哈特地区是由宗教政治党派领导的,该地区与巴基斯坦保守部落地区接壤。Meanwhile, the Peshawar local council also passed a resolution to ban celebrations of what it called a ;useless; day.与此同时,白沙瓦地方议会也通过一项决议,禁止庆祝这所谓的“毫无用处”的一天。Kohat district administrator Maulana Niaz Muhammad told the B Urdu: ;Valentine#39;s Day has no legal grounds, and secondly it is against our religion, therefore it was banned.; While giving cards and flowers was not in itself a bad thing, linking this to a specific day was not appropriate, Mr Muhammad said. He added that he felt such practices could encourage obscene behavior.科哈特地区的行政官毛拉纳·尼亚兹·穆罕默德告诉B乌尔都频道:首先,情人节不合法,其次,它和我们的宗教相违背,因此被禁止了。” 穆罕默德表示,尽管赠送卡片和鲜花本身是件好事,但把它和特定的节日相联系就不合适了。随后他还补充道,他认为这些行为会鼓励人们做出下流的作为。In past years, conservative social groups, who view the day as a festival of immorality detrimental to traditional marriage, have declared the day to be ;shameless;.在过去几年里,保守社会团体一直将这一节日视作对传统婚姻的道德损害,他们宣称这个节日是“无耻的”。In neighbouring India, Valentine#39;s Day also garners opposition, usually from Hindu conservatives who say it is alien to Indian culture and - as argued by Pakistani Muslims - contrary to traditions such as arranged marriages.在邻国印度,情人节也备受反对,印度教保守派常说该节日是“外来物”,就好像巴基斯坦穆斯林说它有反包办婚姻的传统一样。 /201602/426359We associate items with cultures or eras because it helps our brains categorize information. We hear the word ;pyramid,; and we instantly associate it with ancient Egypt, despite the numerous non-Egyptian pyramids in the world. Many of these associations are incorrect. Some things we strongly associate with the modern world are actually quite older.我们常常将身边的事物与本族的文化或者我们现在所处的年代联系到一起,因为这样的联系可以帮助我们的大脑将接收到的信息分门别类。比如,当我们听到;金字塔;这个词时,尽管世界上大多数金字塔并不属于埃及,我们的大脑也会下意识地将金字塔与古埃及联系起来。由此可见,很多类似于这样的联系是不准确的。像是那些我们认为和现代生活密不可分的事物,其实在很早以前就存在了。10.Rap Battles10.说唱对决Rappers in early 1980s New York might get most of the credit for this type of lyrical performance, but the practice is actually much older and comes from Scotland. It is called flyting and it was practiced by makaris (Scottish poets) during the 15th and 16th centuries. In this contest, two poets would engage in an exchange of verbal abuse, oftentimes in verse, and the winner was usually decided by the audience. The winner would then enjoy a large cup of mead or beer and more often than not would invite the loser to drink as well.大部分人认为说唱这种特殊的词汇表演技巧起源于那些在19世纪80年代早期出现的纽约说唱家(Rappers)。但事实上,早在这段时间以前,苏格兰就已经有了这样的词汇表演技巧。他们将这个词汇比赛似的表演叫做flyting。Flyting最早出现在15世纪和16世纪,是由一个叫做马卡瑞斯的苏格兰诗人发明的。比赛规则为:两名参赛的诗人在比赛过程中对骂,然后由观众们来决定最终的获胜者。获胜者在比赛结束后会豪饮一杯蜂蜜酒或者啤酒以示庆祝,但是他们不会邀请战败者来共同庆祝。At one point, flyting was so popular in Scotland that the obscenities and vulgarities were overlooked, though they were otherwise not permitted in public. Flytes would usually take place in large rooms like feasting halls, but the most skilled poets would engage in flyting at the royal courts. King James IV was known to be a big fan of flyting, as well as James V.Unfortunately, not many flytes from those times have survived. The most memorable one took place at the aforementioned court of James IV. It is known as ;The Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedy; and took place between Walter Kennedy and William Dunbar.那个时期的Flyting在苏格兰十分受欢迎,因为在比赛时可以尽情使用那些在公共场合不允许使用的粗俗和下流的词语。比赛通常会在宴会大厅里举行,不过那些知识最渊的诗人的比赛通常会在宫廷内举行。詹姆斯四世与詹姆斯五世都十分热衷于这项比赛。遗憾的是,这项比赛并没有流传到现在。最盛大的一场比赛是在詹姆四世的宫廷里举行的。这场比赛被称为;肯尼迪与邓巴的争论;,参赛者就是著名诗人沃特肯尼迪和威廉·邓巴。9.Dentures9.假牙Dentures#39; long history is not particularly surprising. George Washington, for example, was a famous wearer of dentures (although none of his were made of wood, despite the myth). However, dentures go back much further than that. To the time of the Etruscan civilization, in fact, located in modern Italy between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C.假牙拥有悠久的历史这件事应该在人们意料之中。乔治·华盛顿就是一个著名的假牙佩戴者(大家都说他的假牙是木头做的,尽管事实并不是这样)。但事实上假牙的出现要追溯到公元前8世纪到公元前4世纪的伊特鲁里亚(现为意大利)文明时期。A lot of evidence suggests that the Etruscans were the first to create false teeth as early as 700 B.C. Ancient skulls have been discovered with gold bands inside them, and in Marzabotto, a skull was found with an artificial tooth still attached using gold wire. Apart from dentures, individual crowns have also been discovered, made for molars and canines.Their dentistry skills were surprisingly advanced, and the dentures they made were quite similar to those still in use centuries later, even in the time of the aforementioned Washington. They were made using either animal or human teeth, which were fixed onto a gold band with metal pins and then secured in place inside the mouth.许多据表明伊特鲁里亚人早在公元前700年就发明了假牙。远古时期的人类头骨化石里就有金子做的类似于绑带一样的用来固定假牙的东西,并且在玛扎多发现的人类头骨里也有用金线固定的人造牙齿。除了假牙以外,人们还发现了一顶用臼齿和犬齿制作的王冠。他们的牙科学的先进程度令人咋舌,并且他们制造的假牙与几个世纪之后所使用的假牙别无二致,包括前面提到的华盛顿的假牙也是一样。这些假牙的制作材料不是人牙就是兽牙,然后这些假牙再被用金子做的绑带和金属的小钉子固定在人们的口腔内。8.Newspapers8.报纸For a publication to classify as a newspaper, it must publish up-to-date information covering a range of topics at regular intervals and be reasonably accessible to the public. Some would say that a newspaper also has to be printed, which means that they couldn#39;t have existed prior to the printing press. However, if we overlook that small detail, then newspapers go back a lot farther. Ancient Rome and China both had handwritten news sheets presented to the public on a regular basis detailing current events and other important happenings.如果有一种出版物被称作报纸,那么它在出版时不仅要刊登那些最新的并且涵盖了日常生活各个方面的消息,还要与公众有某种程度的联系。谈到报纸出现的时间,有人会说报纸毕竟也是被印刷出来的,意思就是说报纸的出现必然要晚于印刷术的出现。然而,如果我们忽略掉这个小细节,那么我们就会知道报纸出现的时间实际上比印刷术出现的时间更早一些。古时候的罗马和中国都有每天在特定的时间发表的手写的报纸,并且报道的内容通常都是一些琐事或者其他一些重要的大事。In Rome, it was known as Acta Diurna and is considered to be the first daily gazette, even if it wasn#39;t even written on paper (it was carved in stone or metal). At first, it only covered legal proceedings and the results of trials. As its popularity grew, it expanded to also include politics, military campaigns, births, deaths, and executions.In China, the earliest forms of newspapers were known as tipao (also Di Bao). They were imperial bulletins published during the Tang Dynasty. During the Kaiyuan era, they were replaced with Kaiyuan Za Bao, an official publication handwritten on silk and distributed mostly to imperial officials.在罗马,一个名叫;罗马公报;的报纸被看作当时的第一份日报,尽管报纸的内容并不是书写在纸上的(是被镌刻在石头或金属上的)。一开始,罗马公报的内容仅仅包括法律审判的过程和案件审判的结果。但当它渐渐开始变得受欢迎后,内容便逐渐扩充到了时政、军事、人们的出生与死亡以及官方执行的日常任务。在中国,我们知道的最早的报纸是邸报。唐朝时期,邸报相当于是皇家公告。然后在开元年间,邸报被开元早报所取代。开元早报是手写在丝绸上的官方出版物,大部分被分发给臣子。7.Toothbrushes7.牙刷Early dental techniques were of course a lot more primitive. In fact, the first ;toothbrushes; were nothing but sticks with frayed ends that were rubbed against the teeth. While these weren#39;t particularly efficient, they at least gave the user refreshing breath. Such ;chew sticks; were found in ancient China, Egypt, and even Babylonia, dating back to 3,000 B.C.古代的牙科在技术上比起现在自然是粗糙了不少。事实上,世界上第一把牙刷仅仅就是一根木棍,并且这根木棍的某一端可以用来擦牙齿。尽管这样的牙刷并不是特别有效,但至少也给予了刷牙者一个清新的口腔。这种像;磨牙棒;一样的东西在公元前3000年的中国、埃及以及巴比伦就出现了。Something similar to a modern toothbrush didn#39;t appear until the 15th century in China. It was made out of bone or bamboo and had natural bristles made out of the hairs of a hog#39;s neck. Also around that time, China started trading with Europe, so the design was brought there before long. However, Europeans found the hog hairs too rigid and preferred to replace them with softer horse hairs. While the design of the toothbrush would be updated from time to time, it really didn#39;t turn into the modern brush we know today until the beginning of the 20th century, when Wallace Carothers invented nylon for DuPont. Up until that point animal hairs kept being used for the bristles.一直到了15世纪,中国人才发明出了与现代的牙刷相似的牙刷。这样的牙刷是由骨或者竹子以及猪脖子上的鬃毛做成的。同样是在这个时期,中国与欧洲开始进行贸易活动,因此在这样的牙刷在被发明后不久就流传到了欧洲。但是欧洲人认为猪的鬃毛太硬了,所以他们用较柔软的马毛代替了猪的鬃毛。尽管牙刷的设计在这之后也不断地更新,我们今天使用的牙刷也是到了20世纪初期才逐渐成形的。当时华莱士-卡罗瑟斯为杜邦公司发明了尼龙材料,而在这之前牙刷的刷毛都是由动物的毛做成的。6.Welfare6.社会福利Ancient Rome had quite a few programs in place to provide its citizens with subsidized food. At first, this was not an obligation yet was still quite common when either the government or wealthy individuals wanted to gain favor with the public. They would make donations of corn to the people, known as frumentatio. In 123 B.C., however, a tribune by the name of Gaius Gracchus introduced Lex Frumentaria. Through this law, each citizen of Rome was entitled to an amount of wheat each month available at a reasonable price (somewhere around half the market price). This was only available to fathers of families but was not restricted only to poor Romans.古罗马在很早以前就有许多为市民提供补贴食物的活动。最开始,这并不是一项政府或者某一个有钱人想要从公众身上得到好处的普遍的义务。他们直接将粮食送给公众,这样的行为被称作frumentatio。在公元前123年,一个叫做盖约·格拉古的民权保护者出台了新粮食分配政策。通过这项条例,罗马的每个公民每个月都可以得到以公道的价钱(一般都是市场价的一半)售卖的定量小麦。但是对于半价售卖的小麦,有劳动力的家庭,其购买的数量会受到限制,而贫穷的罗马人购买半价小麦的数量是不受限的。Roman emperors also had various approaches when it came to dealing with the poor. It was not uncommon for emperors back then to give money to each Roman to celebrate a certain event (usually a military victory). One emperor who instituted new welfare programs was Trajan. While he increased the number of citizens who could receive free grain from the state, he also introduced alimenta, a publicly funded institution that benefited poor children.罗马帝王也有很多补助贫困公民的政策。但是让罗马帝王回到那种一到庆祝某个重大事件(比如战争的凯旋)就随意分发钱财的时代自然也是不太现实的。因而罗马帝王图拉真出台了一个新的福利政策:他增加了可以免费得到粮食的公民的数量,并且他还创立了一个名叫alimenta的公众基金机构来资助贫穷的儿童。翻译:赵雨晴 来源:前十网 /201510/402675新浦区浦西社区卫生服务中心治疗包皮包茎多少钱

连云港九龙能治疗肾虚吗In the late Western Jin, these northern minorities were at odds with each other. Some upper-class people of these minorities took advantage of this conflict to realize their own political ambitions. They successively established their own governments in which the noble marshals would take the supreme position.西晋末年,北方民族关系日趋紧张,一些少数民族的上层分子利用各族人民反抗西晋的斗争,以实现自己的政治欲望,纷纷建立由少数民族统帅占最高统治地位的割据政权。In the last years of theu Disturbances of the Eight KingsM, many kings were defeated and killed. The strength of royal families was weakened. Besides the uprisings of the refugees and immigrants, the noble class people of minorities also poured the oil on the fire and made themselves into the rebels, among them Liu Yuan and Shi Le were the most eager ones.“八王之乱”后期,参战诸王相继败死,西晋皇室衰弱,在各地流民不断起义时,内迁的少数民族上层分子也相继起兵反晋,其中刘渊、石勒起兵最早。Liu Yuan, also named Yuan Hai, son of a Xiongnu noble Liu Bao, was a well educated person and had profound empathy in Chinese culture.刘渊,字元海,匈奴贵族刘豹之子,汉化程度很深。When Li Te and Zhang Chang held rebel against the Western Jin and the royal Kings were busy in killing each other, he was elected the Da Chanyu (King of Xiongnu tribes).当李特、张昌先后举兵反晋,宗室诸王混战于北方之际,匈奴贵族共推刘渊为大单于。In 304, he launched a campaign to overthrow the Jin government and soon his armies expanded as much as 50000. Establishing capital at Lishi (now Lishi in Shanxi province). Liu Yuan assumed himself King of Han and the Han and other minorities were all his subjects.304年(永兴元年),刘渊开始起兵。很快发展到五万人,定都于离石(山西离石),建国号“汉”,自称汉王,胡、汉各族很多人归附他。Shi Le, sold as family servant, was Jie minority and attended the uprising while Liu Yuan called as King of Han.石勒出身羯族,曾被卖为家奴,刘渊称汉王时,他参加起义。In 308, Liu Yuan declared himself emperor and move the capital to Pingyang (southwest of now Linfen city, Shanxi) and waged his army to attack Luoyang.308年(永嘉二年),刘渊称帝,迁都平阳(今山西临汾县),接着派大军进攻洛阳。In 310, Liu Yuan died, his son Liu Cong killed his brother and secured the throne.310年,刘渊死,其子刘聪杀兄自立为帝。In the following year, Shi Le destroyed as much as 100,000 Jin army men in Ku county, in April (now luyi county, Henan) which turned out to be a heavy strike to Jin.次年四月,石勒在苦县(河南鹿 邑)消灭十余万晋军,晋军元气大伤。In June of 311, Liu Cong sent troops to conquer the Western Jin capital Luoyang and captured Emperor Huai.六月,刘聪大军攻下洛阳,俘获晋怀帝。Now the Western Jin existed in name only.西晋名存实亡。Because this incident took place in the 5th year of Yongjia (311) of Emperor Huai, it was known as “the Yongjia Disturbance”.因为此事发生在怀帝永嘉五年(311 ),史称“永嘉之乱”。During the disturbance, the northern people flocked to the south to escape the war, so this incident is also called “the Southward AAovement of Yongjia”.北方百姓为躲避战乱,大量南迁,又称“永嘉南渡”。In 316, the Xiongnu army entered Chang’ an, captured Emperor Min of Jin and ended the Western Jin Dynasty.公元316年,匈奴兵攻人长安,俘了晋愍帝,西晋至此灭亡。The Western Jin Dynasty lasted 51 years, accommodated four emperors encompassing three generations. It was the only unified government and also the first dynasty collapsed by minorities force in Chinese history during the period between the Wei, the Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties.西晋享国51年,历三代四帝,是魏晋南北朝历史上唯一统一的政权,也是中国历史上第一个被外族消灭的王朝。Afterwards, the imperial of China was left in chaos of wars in more than two hundred years.此后,中国进入了一个长达200余年的战乱时期。 /201512/415735连云港哪里有可以做包皮手术 Donald Trump blasts companies like Ford and Apple for manufacturing products outside the ed States. He even threatened to stop eating Oreo cookies after he learned some production was moving to Mexico.近日,唐纳德·特朗普向福特、苹果等公司“开炮”,指责其生产工厂设于美国境外。此前,他甚至宣称要抵制奥利奥饼干,因为卡夫公司(即奥利奥生产商)将部分工厂迁往墨西哥。But Trump does the same thing. Many of his products are made outside the ed States. Most Donald J. Trump ties are made in China. Some Donald J. Trump suits are also made in China.不过,特朗普随即遭到“打脸”。原来,其公司旗下产品也大多在美国境外生产。特朗普名下的领带与西,多半产自中国。Donald J. Trump signature men#39;s dress shirts are made in China, Bangladesh or ;imported,; meaning they were made abroad.另外,其名下的礼衬衫也产自中国、孟加拉国等国。换句话说,全是“洋货”。And it#39;s not just Donald#39;s products. Harvard professor and trade expert Robert Lawrence analyzed over 800 items in the Ivanka Trump fashion line. There are shoes, dresses, purses and scarves. All are ;imported.;正所谓,有其父,必有其女。唐纳德之女伊万卡亦有同名时尚品牌。不过,哈佛大学教授、外贸专家罗伯特·劳伦斯称,取样分析的800余件伊万卡产品皆为“进口货”,鞋子、裙子、钱包、围巾,“无一幸免”。The top five countries that America imports clothing from are China (by far the leader), India, Vietnam, Pakistan and Mexico.目前,向美国出口装最多的五大国家分别是(名次由高至低):中国、印度、越南、巴基斯坦和墨西哥。;In a recent debate Marco Rubio mentioned ties. But the ties made in China are just the tip of the iceberg,; says Lawrence, who served on President Bill Clinton#39;s Council of Economic Advisers.劳伦斯在比尔·克林顿执政期间,曾任总统经济顾问。他表示:“马尔科·卢比奥在近期辩论中提到了领带问题。其实,领带只占中国对美国出口商品的冰山一角。”Lawrence found that none of Ivanka Trump#39;s clothing line appears to be made exclusively in the ed States and 354 items are listed as made in China.劳伦斯进而指出,伊万卡·特朗普名下的装产品都不是正宗的美国货,其中354件产自中国。Trump doesn#39;t dispute this.特朗普对此并未否认。;I talk about my ties in speeches. I#39;m open. I say my ties many times are made in China,; Trump told CNN#39;s Jake Tapper in July.去年七月,他在接受CNN主播杰克·塔珀采访时表示:“我演讲时好几次都提到过领带,也没什么好隐瞒的。没错,我的领带就是中国产的。”;It#39;s very hard to have apparel made in this country,; Trump said.“让美国成为制衣大国不太现实,”特朗普说。The issue is getting renewed scrutiny as Trump becomes the clear Republican front runner for president and has made trade a key 2016 campaign theme.不过,作为当下最热门的共和党总统参选人,这个问题近来又成为大家关注的焦点,毕竟,贸易问题是他竞选活动的重中之重。;I want to see the day in the not too distant future where Apple makes it phones in this country,; Trump said recently at a campaign stop in Portland, Maine.近期,特朗普在缅因州波特兰的一场竞选演讲中称:“我希望在不远的将来,人们能够用上美国产的苹果手机。”Trump says he will ;make the greatest trade deals we#39;ve ever made in our country.;他还表示,自己会“为美国争取有史以来最大的外贸利益。”He wants to put a tax on Chinese and Mexican goods like clothing coming into the ed States to level the playing field and bring back middle class jobs. He#39;s said the tax could be as high as 35 or 45%.他表示,会对从中国和墨西哥进口的装等商品增收关税,以促进贸易平衡,为中产阶级提供更多工作。此关税力度预计高达35%或45%。Economists warn this would ignite a trade war and could cause a recession. China and Mexico and possibly other nations would respond by putting taxes on U.S. goods and services. It would also make a lot of everyday items more expensive for Americans.然而,经济学家警告称,此举或会引发贸易大战,甚至导致经济衰退。中墨两国,乃至其他国家也会对美国商品加征关税作为回击。而美国民众则将面临日常用品大幅提价的窘境。Even just a 25% tariff would likely cause the two-piece Trump suit to jump in price from about 0 to 8.比如,若对原价150美元的特朗普西两件套征收25%的关税,意味着顾客要多付38美元。;The realist in me says: is he really going to do those things if he gets in office?; mulls Bob Doll, chief stock strategist at Nuveen Asset Management.努文资产管理公司首席股票策略师鲍勃·多尔坦言:“我心中理智的声音一直在问自己:特朗普若入主白宫,真的会照着性子办事吗?” /201603/430596徐圩新区男科挂号

连云港市妇保医院不孕不育多少钱Ming Dynasty明朝Fall of the Ming Dynasty明朝的灭亡The fall of the Ming Dynasty was a protracted affair, its roots beginning as early as 1600 with the emergence of the Manchu under Nurhaci.明朝的灭亡是一件长期的事情,它的覆灭早在1600年努尔哈赤统治的满族出现后就埋下了祸根。Under the brilliant commander, Yuan Chonghuan, the Ming were able to repeatedly fight off the Manchus, notably in 1623 (where Nurhaci himself was killed by a much smaller force commanded by Yuan.) and in 1628.在杰出的将领袁崇焕的带领下,明朝得以不断击退满族人,其中最著名的是1623年(努尔哈赤被比自己兵力少得多的袁军所杀)以及1628年。But the tragic killing of General Yuan in 1630 by the futile Ming emperor began to change things around ; the succeeding general proved unable to eliminate the Manchu threat.然而自从1630年袁江军被无能的明朝皇帝杀害后,一切都变了;继任的将军无法减少满族人的威胁。Earlier, however, in Yuan’s command he had securely fortified the Shanhai Pass, thus blocking the Manchus from crossing the pass to attack Liaodong Peninsula.早先,袁崇焕曾下令加固山海关的安全防御并因此阻挡了满族人入关攻打辽东半岛。Unable to attack the heart of Ming directly, the Manchu instead bided their time, developing their own artillery and gathering allies.因为无法直接攻打明朝的中心,满族人等候着,加强他们自己的炮兵并召集盟军。They were able to enlist Ming government officials and generals as their strategic advisors.他们能够招募明朝的官员和将领作为他们的军事参谋。Large part of the Ming Army mutinied to the Manchu banner.明朝军队的大部分人马向满族人倒戈。In 1633 they completed a conquest of Inner Mongolia, resulting in a large scale recruitment of Mongol troops under the Manchu banner and the securing of an additional route into the Ming heartland.1633年,满人征了内蒙古,因此将蒙古的大部分兵力收归自己麾下,这是入侵明朝中心的另一个保障。By 1636 the Manchu ruler Huangtaiji was confident enough to proclaim the Imperial Qing Dynasty at Shenyang, which had fallen to the Manchu in 1621, taking the Imperial title Chongde.到1636年时,满族的领袖皇太极已经足够有自信在沈阳(1621年被满族政府)建立大清帝国,立年号为崇德。The end of 1637 saw the defeat and conquest of Ming’s traditional ally Korea by a 100 000 strong Manchu army, and the Korean renunciation of the Ming Dynasty.1637年年末见了明朝的传统盟友韩国被拥有100000人马的强大的满军打败和政征,最终韩国与明朝脱离了关系。On May 26, 1644, Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng.1644年5月26日,北京陷入由李自成领导的反叛军手中。Seizing their chance, the Manchus crossed the Great Wall after Ming border general Wu Sangui opened the gates at Shanhai Pass, and quickly overthrew Li’s short-lived Shun Dynasty.满族人抓住这个机会,在明朝将领吴三桂打开山海关的大门后进入了长城,很快就推翻了李自成建立的短命的顺王朝。Despite the loss of Beijing (whose weakness as an Imperial capital had been foreseen by Zhu Yuanzhang) and the death of the Emperor, Ming power was by no means destroyed.因为北京失守(朱元璋曾预见北京作为国都的弱点)和皇帝的驾崩,明朝毫无疑问地灭亡了。Nanjing, Fujian, Guangdong, Shanxi and Yunnan could all have been and were in fact strongholds of Ming resistance.南京、福建、广东和山西是明朝时期的要塞,然而中央政权的沦陷导致了许多明朝伪政权的出现,它们无法共存。However, the loss of central authority saw multiple pretenders for the Ming throne, unable to work together.这些政权被清军各个击破,直到1662年,永历皇帝朱由榔去世后,明朝复兴的最后一丝希望破灭了。Each bastion of resistance was individually defeated by the Qing until 1662, when the last real hopes of a Ming revival died with the Yongli emperor, Zhu Youlang.尽管明朝战败,到中华民国成立以前仍然有许多小规模的反清复明运动。Despite the Ming defeat, smaller loyalist movements continued till the proclamation of the Republic Of China. /201512/412255 连云港去哪里治疗淋病好宁海浦东浦西新东新南路南新海花果山街道治疗阳痿多少钱



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