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来源:58爱问    发布时间:2017年10月19日 16:50:54    编辑:admin         

Whether you are suffering from another hosepipe ban in Nevada, or hitting deeper potholes in Chicago, global warming is affecting millions of Americans.无论是因内华达州再次出台的软管禁令(hosepipe ban,指禁止在水龙头上接橡胶软管为花园浇水、灌游泳池等——译者注)而倍感不便,还是在芝加哥街头撞上某个比往常更深的地陷坑,数百万美国人都体会到了全球变暖的影响。Evidence of its impact is steadily mounting – as is the US public’s awareness. Yet the will to take tough decisions is missing. Next month President Barack Obama’s administration will issue regulations to curb carbon emissions from US power plants. With Congress out of the picture, executive action is better than nothing. Yet unless the US can show it is serious about putting a price on carbon, it will have little chance of bringing the rest of the world along. The deadline is next year’s climate change summit in Paris. It is vital the US shores up its credentials before then.显示全球变暖影响的据还在不断累积,美国公众对这个问题的认知也在不断加深。不过,依然没有谁愿意来做出艰难的决定。巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)政府下月将推出限制美国电厂碳排放的规定。在国会(Congress)缺席的情况下,行政部门能采取一些行动聊胜于无。然而,除非美国能明自己对碳排放定价是认真的,否则美国几乎不可能带动世界其他地区效仿。最后期限是明年的巴黎气候变化峰会。美国赶在那个期限之前建立信誉至关重要。The developing world will undoubtedly suffer a bigger fallout from global warming than most of the west. Countries such as Bangladesh confront the spectre of submergence while China, India and others are directly threatened by the retreat of the Himalayan glaciers. With or without US leadership, it is in their interests to take action.全球变暖让发展中世界受到的影响,无疑比大部分西方世界受到的影响更大。孟加拉等国笼罩在被淹没的恐惧中,而中国、印度等国则直接受到喜马拉雅山冰川消融的威胁。无论有没有美国的领导,采取行动应对这一问题都符合这些国家的利益。Yet this week’s US climate change report underlines the growing price Americans are paying at home. The report shows that average US temperatures have risen by almost 2 degrees centigrade since 1895 with most of it taking place over the past four decades. The incidence of drought, big hurricanes and unusually heavy rainfall has soared.然而本周美国的气候变化报告凸显出,这一问题让美国人在本土付出的代价也越来越高了。报告显示,自1895年至今,美国的平均气温上升了近两摄氏度,其中大部分升幅发生在过去40年中。旱灾、飓风以及反常暴雨的发生频率也大大增加。So too has the price of dealing with the consequences. It cost more than bn to clean up after Hurricane Sandy in 2012 – a storm that nearly submerged large tracts of New York City. Now the US is spending billions more to upgrade its tidal barriers. Meanwhile, the cost of water in the drought-prone southwest keeps rising.救灾成本也大幅上涨。2012年的桑迪飓风(Hurricane Sandy)过后,清理成本超过了600亿美元。那场飓风让纽约市许多地区几乎被淹没了。如今美国正拿出数十亿美元来加固防浪堤。与此同时,在容易发生旱灾的美国西南部,水的成本不断上涨。Yet Washington still refuses to act on the principle that prevention is cheaper than cure. Part of its reluctance comes from the boiling frog syndrome. Most Americans accept that global warming is happening. Yet they chafe when confronted with the higher bills they would have to pay to avert it. In a recent Gallup poll, voters ranked tackling climate change last out of 15 priorities. In 2009, Mr Obama tried and failed to push through a cap and trade bill that would have put a price on carbon. Politics makes it futile for him to go through Congress again in the near future. His only options are to use the White House bully pulpit to galvanise public opinion and deploy his executive powers to raise the cost of fossil fuel consumption. He has plenty of scope to go further on both.尽管如此,华盛顿方面仍然拒绝按照预防比治疗更便宜的原则来采取行动。这种不情愿部分源于“温水中的青蛙”症候群。大多数美国人接受全球确实在变暖的观点。但当他们看到为避免全球变暖、自己必须付的更贵账单,他们就开始愤愤不平了。盖洛普(Gallup)最近的一项调查显示,在15个优先事项中,投票者将解决气候变化排在最末一位。2009年,奥巴马曾试图推动一项为碳排放定价的“限额和交易”法案,但他的努力失败了。眼下政局意味着,他近期再次向国会提交相关法案将会徒劳无功。他唯一的选择就是,利用白宫“头号讲坛”的地位来刺激民意,并运用他的行政权来提高消费化石燃料的成本。他在两方面都还有很大推进空间。Last month, the Supreme Court upheld the Environmental Protection Agency’s authority to regulate carbon as a pollutant. Next month the EPA will issue new rules limiting power plant emissions. It should follow up with curbs on refineries, cement plants and other polluters. Rule-based economics is certainly less efficient than market signalling. But if the framework is intelligent – and avoids picking technological winners – it can simulate many of the benefits of an actual carbon market.上月,美国最高法院的判决持了国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)将二氧化碳作为污染物来监管的权力。环保局下月将推出新规,限制电厂的碳排放。该局应该接着推出对精炼厂、水泥厂和其他污染者的限制。用法规来改变人们的经济决策,效果肯定比市场信号要差。但如果法规框架设计明智(而不是选择技术上较优的方案),那么法规可以模拟真实碳排放市场的许多优点。Mr Obama must also do a better job of educating the public. Unfortunately, US environmentalists are fixated with stopping the Keystone XL pipeline – a decision Mr Obama keeps postponing.奥巴马还必须更好地教育公众。遗憾的是,美国环保主义者一门心思关注于阻止拱心石XL输油管道项目(Keystone XL pipeline)的开工建设。奥巴马一直推迟就这一问题做出决定。In reality, Canadian oil sands will still arrive in the US by road and rail, and be exported to China and other markets. Mr Obama should approve the pipeline. But he should make it clear there will be an escalating cost to consumption of oil sands and other carbon-intensive fuels.事实上,加拿大的油砂仍将通过公路和铁路到达美国,也仍将向中国和其他市场出口。奥巴马应批准那个输油管道项目。但他也应明确表示,消费油砂和其他高碳排放燃料的成本将越来越高。The White House lacks the power to set up a carbon market in the US – and the authority to tell other countries to do so. But the more Mr Obama acts as though a carbon market is inevitable, the sooner it is likely to happen.白宫无权在美国建立碳排放交易市场,也无权指示好别的国家这么做。但奥巴马越是用行动表现得仿佛建立碳排放交易市场势在必行,这件事很可能就会越早成真。 /201405/296909。

“There are only two markets, ultraluxury and subsidized housing.” —Rafael Vinoly, architect of 432 Park Avenue“现在只有两个市场:超级豪宅市场和补贴房市场。”——公园大道432号建筑设计师拉斐尔o维诺利Along a stretch of New York City’s Park Avenue, between 56th and 57th Street, soars a tower so jaw-droppingly altitudinous that King Kong himself would likely think twice before scaling it.在纽约市公园大道上,第56号与第57号街道间,有一栋天大楼高耸入云,此楼之高,估计就连金刚也会望而却步。Its rooftop, roughly a quarter of a mile high, makes it the tallest building in New York and the highest residential tower in the western hemisphere.该楼屋顶层高约0.25英里(约402米),使得此楼成为纽约最高建筑,也是整个西半球最高的住宅楼。At 96 stories (1,396 feet), it has no company in the space it occupies atop Manhattan’s skyline. The Empire State Building tops out some 150 feet below that. Absent its spire, the newly built World Financial Center—itself a giant—is 28 feet shorter than this new cathedral to uber-wealth. 432 Park Avenue can be seen from all five boroughs of New York City, from inbound Metro-North trains coming in along the Harlem River, from the Meadowlands in New Jersey, and from several vantage points on Long Island. Its lone silhouette dominates the skyline from every angle. It demands your attention in a way that no residential building ever has.这座96层的大厦总高约1396英尺(约425米),在整个曼哈顿已是俯视群楼,比帝国大厦(Empire State Building)还要高出约150英尺。哪怕不算其尖顶,此栋超级豪宅也要高出新建的世界金融中心(World Financial Center)28英尺。从纽约市所有的5个区,你都能看到公园大道432号,不仅如此,你还能从沿着哈莱姆河驶入纽约的大都会北方铁路(Metro-North)列车上看到它,从新泽西州的Meadowlands看到它,从长岛(Long Island)的几个高点都能看到它。不论从哪个角度看,高耸入云的公园大道432号都带着几分遗世独立的味道。从来没有哪栋住宅楼像公园大道432号这样引人瞩目。The most remarkable thing about 432 Park, however, is not just its sheer size. It is the fact that, in a building so tall and imposing, with over 400,000 square feet of usable interior space, there are only 104 units for people to live in. 432 Park Avenue is, in short, a monument to the epic rise of the global super-wealthy. It is the house that historic inequality built.不过,公园大道432号最引人注目的,并非其大块头,而是在这栋内部使用面积高达40万平方英尺(约3.7万平方米)的高楼里,居然只有104套住宅。简言之,公园大道432号是全球超富阶层崛起的历史见物。它是史无前例的收入不平等现象堆出来的天大厦。Our story begins in 2009 with a little-known Los Angeles-based private equity firm called CIM. The firm’s three managing partners, a former Drexel Burnham banker and a pair of former Israeli paratroopers, quietly dropped in on Manhattan’s punch drunk post-financial crisis real estate market with money to spend. CIM moved quickly, writing checks to bail out some of the city’s most prestigious real estate families and firms, as projects were stalling and financing had all but dried up. The outsiders became Manhattan power players overnight.我们的故事始于2009年,当时有一家名为CIM的私募股权公司,该公司总部位于洛杉矶,此时尚名不见经传。金融危机后,公司三位管理合伙人,一位是前德崇(Drexel Burnham)家,还有两位是前以色列伞兵,他们带着钱悄悄来到遭受重创的曼哈顿房地产市场。CIM迅速开出票,救助纽约市最负盛名的房地产家族和企业,当时,许多项目已经暂停,资金几乎枯竭。这三位外乡客一夜之间成为曼哈顿的重量级人物。Strong relationships with investment organizations like Blackstone and Calpers put the west coast-based firm in a position to capitalize on a once-in-a-generation opportunity in a city where the incumbents were largely overleveraged from the prior boom. They acted as the bank behind the resurrection of several high-profile distressed properties, and allowed the original developers to stay involved with each deal as their partners.与黑石(Blackstone)和加州公务员退休基金(Calpers)等投资机构的过硬关系,使得这家位于美国西海岸的企业,能利用纽约市数十年难得一见的机遇,当时,纽约市的企业大都因之前的繁荣过度举债。CIM公司为多个备受瞩目、出现问题的房产项目提供资金,并允许原开发商作为CIM的合作伙伴继续参与项目。By 2011, CIM was everywhere. The economy was slowly improving, the financial firmament was beginning to thaw, and institutional investors were cutting checks again. It is in this recovering environment that a project as ambitious as 432 Park Avenue can even be dreamed of, let alone funded.到2011年,CIM已经无处不在。当时,经济正缓慢改善,金融界开始回暖,机构投资者又开始投资。正是在这种复苏的大环境下,公园大道432号这样雄心勃勃的项目才得以诞生,并获得资金。Harry Macklowe is one of the real estate industry’s most famous and colorful characters, with a massive portfolio of properties and projects to go along with his outsize personality. No stranger to gambles and calculated risks, Macklowe found himself in a bit of a squeeze in 2008, as the seams of the property market began to tear and the bills from New York’s decade of excess came due. A highly leveraged real estate transaction backed by a .8 billion loan from Deutsche Bank kept his name in the news, and his stake in several trophy properties, like the General Motors Building, were said to have been in jeopardy.哈里o麦克洛是房地产行业最著名、最有趣的人物之一。他个性十足,手头有众多房产和项目。麦克洛喜欢和冒险。2008年,随着房地产市场开始崩溃,纽约十年过度挥霍的后果开始显现,麦克洛发现自己处境有些不妙。一桩杠杆率极高、获得德意志(Deutsche Bank)58亿美元贷款的房地产交易,使得麦克洛成为新闻人物,而麦克洛在几处重要房产【比如通用汽车大厦(General Motors Building)】中的股份,据称已经岌岌可危。CIM stepped into the breach, providing financing for several of Macklowe’s troubled projects, and a partnership was born that would lead to the groundbreaking at 432 Park. By August 2011, their incredible plans for the tower—which would occupy the land where the Macklowe-owned Drake Hotel had been demolished—began to leak onto real estate news sites like Curbed and The New York Observer. The idea of a “fifth-act” survivor like Harry Macklowe partnering with a “mysterious” developer from out of town proved to be an irresistible storyline to the chattering classes.就在此时,CIM挺身而出,为麦克洛多个陷入困境的项目提供融资,双方就此建立合作关系,这才有了后来开创性的公园大道432号。到2011年8月,公园大道432号大厦的惊人计划——此项目将在拆毁的麦克洛名下德雷克酒店(Drake Hotel)原址上建造——开始在Curbed和《纽约观察家》(The New York Observer)等房地产新闻网站上出现。哈里o麦克洛这样的绝处逢生者,与“神秘”外来开发商合作的戏码,对爱侃侃而谈的人士而言,是极为诱人的故事情节。Within a year, we began to get a sense of what 432 Park Avenue would come to represent. First, we learned that the number of condo units built would be closer to 100 than the originally planned 140. Next came details about the building’s sales efforts. Notably, while Macklowe Properties had kept 432 Park Avenue’s units off of popular broker databases like StreetEasy and the Residential Listing Service (RLS), the firm was going full-throttle in its attempt to court the Russian oligarchy. A kind of traveling sales office was set up at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel on Moscow’s Tverskaya Street, where dozens of billionaires pass through the lobby each day.不到一年,我们就开始大概知道公园大道432号会是什么样。首先,我们了解到,建造的公寓数量将接近100套,而非原计划的140套。随后我们获悉了该建筑的By May 2013, Macklowe had announced that the top-floor penthouse was aly sold for an astonishing million. Half of the building’s apartments were under contract, with projections of billion in total sales. This February, Manhattan realtor Douglas Elliman was brought on as the exclusive co-sales agent to help move the rest of the units.销售工作细节。值得注意的是,麦克洛地产公司(Macklowe Properties)没有将It is widely believed that the building will only be one-quarter occupied at all times, even though it will be completely sold out. Keep in mind that these are pied-a-terres that begin at million each and include several full-floor parcels in the million range. More than anything else, this speaks to the insatiable appetite of the world’s greatly expanded billionaire class. Middle Eastern oil magnates, Chinese billionaires, Russian oligarchs, and the Latin American aristocracy all have one thing in common: More money than they know what to do with and a desperation to get as much of it out of their home countries as possible. New York real estate works very well as both a facilitator of this as well as a store of value.公园大道432号的公寓放上StreetEasy和住宅挂牌务系统(Residential Listing Service, RLS)等大受欢迎的经纪人数据库,而是大力吸引俄罗斯寡头。该公司在莫斯科特维尔大街的丽思卡尔顿酒店(Ritz-Carlton Hotel)设立了流动销售办事处,每天有数十名亿万富翁穿过该酒店大堂。As of this writing, there are currently plans for eight more ultra-luxe towers in and around Manhattan, in various stages of development. The explosion of wealth among ultra high net worth (UNHW) individuals around the world has made all of this possible. According to a new study from UBS and Wealth-X, there are 211,275 people in the world who could be considered ultra high net worth, with assets totaling north of million. The approximate amount of wealth controlled by this group is estimated at just under trillion. And while the number of UHNW people grew by 6% since 2013, their assets grew by 7%.到2013年5月,麦克洛宣布,顶层阁楼已经售出,售价高达9500万美元。半数公寓已经签约,总销售额预计高达30亿美元。今年二月,曼哈顿房地产经纪商道格拉斯艾丽曼(Douglas Elliman)成为独家联合销售代理商,帮助销售剩下的公寓。But these figures obscure an even more important trend taking root among the UHNW rankings: People with over a billion dollars in assets (there are 2,325 of them) saw their wealth increase by 12% year over year, while those at the bottom of the group—the 91,000 people with assets between million and million—realized a comparatively smaller 7% bump in wealth. Those at the top of the top are seeing their fortunes grow twice as fast as those at the bottom of the top. And the number of UHNW individuals who fall in the 0 million to billion category saw their ranks swell by 20% this year to over 1,200 people. The bottom line is that the richer you are, the faster you’re getting even richer.人们普遍认为,尽管所有公寓将全部售罄,但该大楼的入住率将始终保持在25%。请记住,这些临时住所每套起价700万美元,还有几套公寓占据了一整层,售价高达约7500万美元。这是全球亿万富豪阶层大大扩充的绝佳例。中东石油巨头、中国亿万富翁、俄罗斯寡头,以及拉丁美洲贵族,都有一个共同点:钱多得不知道该怎么花,而且都拼命将钱转移到海外。纽约房产既可以帮助他们实现上述愿望,又能作为储值手段。This explains why a city like New York can build dozens of ultra-luxury residential towers and continue to sell out. In New York alone, it is estimated that there are 8,655 full-time residents who would be categorized as ultra-high net worth, the most of any city in the world. Wealth-X finds that the average UHNW individual owns 2.7 properties and that 8% of their wealth is invested in real estate. Logically speaking, as their wealth grows, so too does their capacity to own and invest in an increasing amount of high-end housing.截至笔者撰稿时,曼哈顿及其周边地区计划新增八栋超豪华大楼,相关项目进展情况不一。全世界超高净值(UNHW)人群的财富激增,使得这一切成为可能。瑞银(UBS)和Wealth-X进行的一项新研究显示,全球有21.1275万人是资产总额超过3000万美元的超高净值人士。该人群控制的财富总额估计仅略低于30万亿美元。2013年以来,超高净值人士的数量增加了6%,其资产增长了7%。This coming spring, the few dozen occupants of 432 Park Avenue, North America’s third-tallest building, will begin to move in. They will furnish their palatial apartments against a global backdrop of deflationary fears, central banks in perpetual crisis mode, massive unemployment, and stubbornly stagnating wage growth for 99% of the world’s population.不过,上述数字掩盖了超高净值人群中一个更重要的趋势:资产超过10亿美元的人士(约2325人),财富年增长12%,而处于超高净值人群底层的9.1万人,其资产为3000万至4900万美元,财富增幅不到7%,相对较小。那些顶级富豪的财富增长速度,为底层富豪的两倍。今年,资产为7.5亿至10亿美元的超高净值人士,人数增加了20%,超过了1200人。总之,越是有钱人,财富增长越快。In previous generations, when towers of this scale were erected, they were monuments to working. 432 Park, unlike the Chrysler Building, the World Financial Center, and the Empire State Building, is a monument to owning.纽约这样的城市,能建造数十栋超豪华住宅楼,而且栋栋售罄,原因即在此。仅在纽约,估计有8655名常住居民为超高净值人士,在全球城市中独占鳌头。Wealth-X发现,超高净值人士人均拥有2.7套房产,其8%的财富投资于房地产。按理说,随着其财富的增长,他们将有能力持有并投资于更多的高档住宅。In the Medieval era, towers were erected to separate royalty and feudal overlords from the rest of the population during times of plague and suffering. It was an effective barrier, both physical and symbolic. A 1,400-foot skyscraper, in America’s most populous city, in which fewer than 100 people will reside, is perhaps the perfect present-day parallel to such behavior. The ascendance of 432 Park Avenue to its now-dominant place in the skyline says more about the state of our world than a thousand Thomas Pikettys typing on a thousand keyboards ever could.北美第三高楼——公园大道432号的数十位住户将于2015年春季开始入住。在可能出现通缩、各国央行处于长期危机模式、大量失业以及全球99%的人口工资增长停滞的大背景下,公园大道432号的住户们将开始装修其富丽堂皇的公寓。 /201411/344888。

If there is an energy transition away from fossil fuels under way, it has so far moved painfully slowly.如果远离化石燃料的能源转型正在进行中的话,那么迄今转型进展极其缓慢。The share of renewables and nuclear power in the world’s energy mix rose to a new high of 13.7 per cent last year, according to the latest BP Statistical Review of World Energy. That might sound encouraging, until you consider that it was 13.1 per cent in 1995.英国石油公司(BP)最新一版《世界能源统计年鉴》(Statistical Review of World Energy)显示,去年,可再生能源及核能在世界能源结构中的占比上升至13.7%的新高。这听起来或许令人振奋,直到你想起1995年该比例为13.1%。The projection from the International Energy Agency that by 2030 renewable energy could become the world’s largest source of electricity is a sign of its potential, but the slow pace of the shift away from fossil fuels is evidence of their compelling advantages in terms of cost and convenience.国际能源署(IEA)预测,到2030年可再生能源或将成为世界上最大的电力来源,这显示出了其未来的潜力,但从化石燃料转移的缓慢步伐,也表明了化石燃料在成本和便利上令人难以抗拒的优势。Tackling the threat of catastrophic climate change cannot rely on wind and solar power alone but requires multiple changes, including a shift within fossil fuels away from coal towards gas. China, the world’s largest energy user with 23 per cent of global use last year, will be critical in deciding whether those changes are made.为了应对灾难性气候变化的威胁,仅依靠风力和太阳能发电是不够的,而是需要多种改变,包括在化石燃料内部从煤炭转向天然气。中国作为世界上最大的能源消耗国(去年其能源使用量占全球的23%),在这些改变能否发生上将起到重要决定作用。There were positive signs last year in that global carbon dioxide emissions grew at one of the slowest rates in the past 15 years, according to BP, and China was a principal reason. Its emissions grew by just 0.9 per cent, well below the 10-year annual average of 9 per cent.BP表示,去年出现了积极迹象——全球二氧化碳排放量的增速为过去15年最低之一,而中国正是主要原因。中国二氧化碳排放量仅增长0.9%,远低于过去10年平均9%的增速。The slowdown in China’s economy and its shift away from construction and heavy manufacturing meant energy consumption grew by just 2.6 per cent, its slowest rate since 1998. At the same time, new nuclear plants and hydroelectric dams came on line, and hydro power generation was helped by higher rainfall. As a result, BP estimates China’s consumption of coal, the highest -emitting fuel, rose by just 0.1 per cent.中国经济增长放缓,以及经济重心从建筑业及重工业转移,使其能源消耗量增长仅为2.6%,达到自1998年以来的最慢增速。与此同时,新的核电站及水电站投产,而更高的降雨量则推动了水力发电。因此,BP预计中国的煤炭(碳排量最高的能源)消耗量增长仅为0.1%。A report last week from Fergus Green and Lord Nicholas Stern of the London School of Economics argued that China’s coal consumption had hit a plateau and “on the balance of possibilities” was on a declining trend. They said the country’s greenhouse gas emissions could peak in 2020-25, earlier than the government’s 2030 objective, and fall “at a rapid rate” thereafter.伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)的弗格斯#8226;格林(Fergus Green)及尼古拉斯#8226;斯特恩爵士(Lord Nicholas Stern)在上周公布的一份报告中认为,中国的煤炭消耗量已经达到平稳阶段,“综合各种可能考虑”正处于下降趋势。他们称,中国的温室气体排放量或将在2020-25年达到顶峰,早于政府制定的2030年的目标,并将在此后“快速”下降。That outcome is uncertain. With gross domestic product per capita about one quarter that of the US, China still has plenty of scope for further industrialisation. Alongside heavy investment in renewable and nuclear power, it is still building new coal plants, last year adding 36 gigawatts of capacity to the grid.这种结果是不确定的。在人均国内生产总值(GDP)约为美国的1/4的情况下,中国仍有大量空间推进工业化。在大举投资可再生能源及核能的同时,中国仍然在建设新的燃煤电厂,去年新增了36千兆瓦装机容量。To reach the reductions in coal use that Mr Green and Lord Stern suggest are possible, China will need rapid growth not just in non-fossil fuels but also in natural gas, which creates only about half the carbon dioxide of coal when burnt for power. About 4 per cent of China’s power generation capacity is gas-fired today, but the government has set a target that use of the fuel should roughly double by 2020 to 10 per cent of energy consumption, from 5.6 per cent last year.为了达到格林和斯特恩爵士认为可能的煤炭使用削减目标,中国不仅需要迅速增加对非化石燃料的使用,还需要增加使用天然气(燃烧发电时产生的二氧化碳仅为煤炭的一半左右)。如今中国约4%的发电装机容量来自于燃气发电,但政府已经制定了目标,要求到2020年天然气的使用在能源消耗中的比例应该增加近一倍,由去年的5.6%上升至10%。China’s moves to expand its gas supplies, both domestic and imported, have often met with suspicion in the US and the EU. Its efforts to exploit its vast shale gas reserves, supported by the US administration, have raised concerns about giving Chinese companies a boost in international competition. Import deals such as the agreements reached with Russia last year have been seen as attempts to extend geopolitical influence.中国为扩大国内及进口天然气供应所采取的举措,时常会招致美国和欧盟(EU)的怀疑。中国开采其庞大页岩气储量的努力(得到了美国当局的持),引起了人们对提升中国企业国际竞争力的担忧。诸如去年中俄天然气供应协议在内的进口协议,被视为中国欲扩大地缘政治影响力的努力。If the threat of global warming is to be kept acceptably low, however, curbing China’s coal consumption is the single most important step to take.然而,如果全球变暖的威胁要维持在可接受的低水平,控制中国的煤炭消耗量便是要采取的最重要的一步。Other countries should be supportive of China’s attempts to increase its gas supplies. In the long run, it will be in all of our interests.其他国家应该持中国为增加天然气供应所付出的努力。从长远来看,这将符合所有人的利益。 /201506/381556。

A recent survey has revealed that China is considered to be the most #39;industrious#39; nation in the world, according to research from Monster Worldwide, in collaboration with Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung (GfK), a German global market research institute。国际就业咨询公司“巨兽”与德国市场调研公司捷孚凯集团合作的一项国际调查显示,中国人是全世界最勤奋的民族。The survey — with more than 8,000 respondents from Canada, France, Germany, India, Netherlands, ed Kingdom and ed States — gauged economic and labor-related competitive spirit by drilling down into “industriousness,” which describes the level to which a country was “hard-working, innovative and constantly creating new ideas/products,” according to the survey。接受该项调查的是来自加拿大、法国、德国、意大利、印度、荷兰、英国和美国的共8000人,调查研究了各国经济和与工作相关的竞争精神,深度探讨了“勤奋度”,这里的衡量指标指的是一个国家整体“勤奋工作、具有创新思维并持续不断创造新点子/新产品”的水平。According to the international survey, Chinese employees are the most industrious people in the world, followed by workers from Germany and the US. Employees from France are considered to be the laziest people in the world。该项调查得出中国人在全球范围内最勤奋,接下来是德国人、美国人。法国人则被认为是世界上最懒的民族。German employees responded confidently to the survey placing themselves first in the pecking order of global industriousness. French employees, on the other hand, seem to be aware of their limitations, and many of those surveyed placed France in last place。德国受访者对德国的竞争力很有信心,认为本国人民在全球勤奋度方面排名领先。另一方面,法国受访者则似乎意识到自己国家的问题,不少法国受访者都把法国排在了最后。German newspaper, Handelsblatt, reported that Chinese employees work on average 44.6 hours per week, while the German employees average about 33.5 hours of work per week。德国《商报》报道称中国员工每周平均工作44.6个小时,而德国员工每周平均工作时间为33.5个小时。And although China has more public holidays than Germany, Chinese employees have only ten days of paid leave on average, while German employees have 25 days。而且虽然中国的公众假期比德国多,中国员工平均只有10天的带薪休假,德国员工则有25天带薪假期。Industriousness Rankings全球人民勤奋度排名:China 中国Germany 德国ed States 美国Canada 加拿大India 印度ed Kingdom 英国Netherlands 荷兰France 法国 /201507/386963。

The shutdown of Asia’s largest maize refiner has left thousands of corn farmers in north-eastern China unpaid, adding to the unintended consequences of China’s policy of artificially propping up corn prices.亚洲最大玉米深加工企业大成生化科技(Global Bio-Chem Technology)陷入停产,令中国东北数千名种植玉米的农民粮款被拖欠,这是中国人为抬高玉米价格的政策的又一个意外后果。China this month cut the price at which its state reserves buy corn, but maintained the minimum price well above international market prices. Inflated Chinese prices have caused state reserves to bloat and attracted unprecedented imports while destroying margins for corn processors, feed companies and other private agricultural firms that are the mainstay of the rural economy.中国本月下调了国家临时存储玉米收购价格,但所维持的最低收购价仍远高于国际市场价格。中国玉米价格被抬高已造成国家储备膨胀,并吸引了空前大量的进口,同时让玉米深加工企业、饲料企业以及其他对农村经济起到柱作用的民营农企不复盈利。Global Bio-Chem Technology, the third-largest corn refiner in the world, has suspended all operations, Chinese media reported at the weekend, after announcements by the company that some of its lossmaking production lines had been halted. Calls to Global Bio-Chem went unanswered and the local government declined to comment.大成生化科技是全球第三大玉米深加工企业,据中国媒体上周末报道,大成现已暂停所有业务,此前该公司发布公告称部分生产线因亏损已停产。大成生化科技的电话无人应答,当地政府也拒绝就此发表。Farmers have protested in Changchun, the capital of Jilin province and heart of China’s corn belt, claiming the company’s shutdown has left them with unpaid bills. In one protest last month dozens of farmers knelt in front of the municipal government offices.农民们在吉林省会长春(中国玉米种植带的中心)举行了抗议,称大成的停产导致他们粮款被拖欠。在上个月的一次抗议活动中,几十名农民在长春市政府门前长跪不起。“We tried to find the boss but couldn’t find him. Many people in my village sold to them,” said farmer Lian Haikuan from Jilin’s Nongan County, who began petitioning authorities after bills went unpaid for two years. Mr Liao said he sold corn to Global Bio-Chem on credit because the company promised above-market prices.吉林省农安县农民连海宽(音译)说:“我们想找到老板,可找不到他。我们村很多人都把粮卖给了他们。”连海宽的账款被拖欠了两年,此后他开始不断上访。他说自己之所以将玉米赊销给大成生化科技,是因为该公司允诺的价格高于市场价。“The government pays no attention to the people! I may as well go home and plant sweet potato!” one distraught corn farmer with three years’ unpaid bills wrote in an online post.一名粮款被拖欠了三年、心急如焚的玉米农在网上发帖写道:“当官不为民做主,不如回家卖红薯!”China’s minimum price policy is designed to maintain stable incomes for farmers and guarantee national food security by ensuring they plant corn even if prices dip. But the market distortions created by the minimum price have left policymakers with a dilemma, since abandoning the policy could cause prices to crash.中国的最低价格政策原本是为了维持农民的稳定收入,并通过确保即便玉米价格下跌农民也会种植玉米,来保障国家粮食安全。但最低价格导致市场扭曲,令政策制定者陷入进退两难的境地,因为放弃该政策可能导致价格崩溃。Hong Kong-listed Global Bio-Chem said in its annual report last week that it had suspended production of lysine, an ingredient used to feed pigs and chickens, as state-set corn prices stayed high while its sales prices fell sharply.大成生化科技在香港上市,上周该公司在其中期报告中表示,因国家规定的玉米价格居高不下,而赖氨酸销售价格大幅下跌,该公司已暂停生产这种猪和鸡饲料添加剂。It had also stopped refining corn into a chemical feedstock, as falling oil prices made its product uncompetitive. It also makes corn sweeteners and corn starch, which it said had been rendered unprofitable by high corn prices.大成生化科技还停止了生物化工醇的生产,因为油价下跌令它的产品丧失了竞争力。该公司还制造玉米甜味剂和玉米变性淀粉,但该公司表示,由于玉米价格过高,这些产品已无利可图。High raw materials costs have impeded Chinese corn refiners’ ability to export lysine. The Chinese industry accounts for about 80 per cent of global lysine production and about a third of its consumption. Domestic demand has dropped as poorer margins on pork-rearing and outbreaks of bird flu led farmers to cull animals. Lucy Hornby原料成本过高拖累了中国玉米深加工企业出口赖氨酸的能力。中国玉米深加工行业占全球赖氨酸生产的约80%,占赖氨酸消费的约三分之一。由于养猪利润变薄,加上禽流感爆发导致农户选择性宰杀活禽,中国国内对赖氨酸的需求已下降。 /201510/401936。