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2017年10月23日 07:01:30
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景德镇市妇幼保健院做四维彩超的医院Science and Technolgy科技Citizen astronomy全民天文学A new world in your bedroom卧室里的新天地Amateur astronomers join the ranks of the planet hunters业余天文学家加入;猎星人;行列IN AN age of professionals, the ability of amateur scientists to make meaningful contributions has almost vanished.当今世界,专业人士主导天下,业余科学家想要做出积极贡献却心有余而力不足。Almost, but not quite.不足,绝非完全丧失。The internet allows professionals to make their data available for analysis by anyone, and some are happy to take advantage of the free labour this promises.在互联网的帮助下,专业人士们可以向任何人提供数据用于研究,其中不乏欢迎这种通过分享数据而获得免费劳力办法的人。This approach has proved particularly fruitful in astronomy, a science with a long history of amateur contributions.这种方法被实在天文学领域内极富成效。业余爱好者对天文学的贡献有着漫长的历史。Armchair astronomers have aly helped classify galaxies seen by Hubble, the main orbiting telescope of Americas space agency, NASA.已有没有严谨研究经验的天文学爱好者帮助将哈勃望远镜观察到的星系分类。哈勃望远镜是美国宇航局(NASA)主要的轨道望远镜。They have also looked for interesting asteroids, and kept an eye out for solar storms.业余天文学家们也已参与寻找有趣的小行星和观测太阳风暴。The latest project to involve them, called Planet Hunters, allows amateurs to search for extrasolar planets-those that orbit stars other than the sun.最新的;猎星人;计划号召业余爱好者们参与搜寻太阳系外行星——绕除太阳外的其他恒星运行的行星。It was set up by a group at the universities of Oxford and Yale, and links 40,000 participants with data gathered by Kepler, another NASA space telescope that is specifically designed to hunt for planets.此项目由哈佛大学和耶鲁大学的一个团体发起,向40000名参与者提供开普勒望远镜获取的数据。开普勒望远镜是NASA的另外一架太空望远镜,专门用于寻找行星。On September 26th the group announced, in a paper posted to arXiv, an online database, that its participants had discovered two probable exoplanets, one a Jupiter-like gas giant, and the other, possibly, a smaller, rocky world about twice the diameter of Earth.该组织于9月26日在一篇发表在 arXiv(一个在线数据库)上的论文里宣布,其成员发现了两颗极有可能的外部行星,一颗是与木星类似的气体巨行星,另外一颗可能是体积较小、直径约为地球两倍的岩石星体。Kepler works by monitoring the thousands of stars in its field of view for tiny changes in brightness.开普勒望远镜的工作原理是监测其视野内成千上万个恒星的亮度的微小变化。Mostly, these are natural fluctuations, but particularly sharp and regular changes might signify a planet passing in front of a star.大部分情况下,这些变化都是自然波动,但是一旦有急剧变化或者规律性变动,可能是行星在恒星前经过的标志。The raw data are sent to computers on Earth, converted into graphical form and made available to the Planet Hunters.原始数据将被传输到地球的计算机上,转化成图表,向猎星人开发。After logging onto the projects website, its users are given a brightness graph from a random star and asked to mark anything of interest.猎星人在登录该项目网站后将随机获得一张亮度图表,可根据兴趣进行任何标注。If several people flag the same star, the result is checked against the computer-derived results produced by the main Kepler team.如果多人标注了同一颗恒星,将与专门处理开普勒观测数据的计算机结果比对。Promising candidates are then checked again by ground-based telescopes.有可能存在的候选行星将由地面望远镜进一步确认。That allows Planet Hunters participants both to act as a benchmark for the star-detection algorithms and to discover planets the computers have missed, says Chris Lintott, an astronomer at Oxford who helps to run the project.来自剑桥大学的天文学家Chris Lintott说,这样,猎星人不仅能为恒星探测算法提供检验标准,还能发现计算机漏掉的行星。What people lack in speed (the computers have aly notched up over 1,200 candidate planets since Kepler was launched) they make up for in judgment.Chris Lintott帮助该项目的运行。人们在速度上的劣势在判断力上得到弥补(自开普勒望远镜启动以来,计算机已经发现超过1200颗候选行星)。Some stars being watched have very variable brightness. That is confusing for computers, but for human eyes is less of a problem.一些观测中的恒星亮度变化较大,这对于计算机来说难以把握,但是对于人眼却不成问题。And input from the human planet hunters is used to refine the algorithms, improving their performance.而且,猎星人输入的数据可以用来校正计算机算法,从而优化计算机性能。Planet Hunters grew out of Galaxy Zoo, which was set up in 2007 to help researchers classify galaxies spotted by Hubble-just the sort of fuzzy task that machines struggle with but humans excel at.猎星人计划的灵感来源于星系动物园计划。星系动物园计划成立于2007年,旨在帮助科研人员将哈勃望远镜观测到的星系分类——正是那种机器无法胜任而对于人类轻而易举的麻烦活。Galaxy Zoo spawned the Zooniverse, a collection of science projects that harness the power of amateurs.星系动物园计划孵化了动物宇宙计划——一批借助业余爱好者力量的科学计划。Although astronomical projects still dominate, other sciences are starting to adopt the idea.尽管主要应用于天文学计划,其他学科也开始采用这一想法。One Zooniverse project aims to reconstruct weather records from old Navy logs; another is helping to transcribe a cache of Egyptian papyri dating from the 1st century AD.动物宇宙的一个项目计划重现古老航海日志里的气象记录,另外一个项目计划抄录可追溯到公元1世纪的埃及纸莎草卷。Dr Lintott and his colleagues have asked researchers in other fields to submit more ideas, and hope to announce the shortlist in a few weeks time.Lintott士和他的同事们已经呼吁其他领域的科研人员们提供更多的想法,有望于几星期后公布最终入选名单。 /201210/205821景德镇中医院中度宫颈靡烂能治疗吗Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息,欢迎收看今天的Sci-tech Today。We are talking about a breakthrough in the battle against heart disease. Harvard and MIT scientists have developed a new technology that requires no surgery: its called Nanoburrs. And Dr. Brindha Muniappan joins us live from the Museum of Science in Boston and tells us about it. Thanks for being here.今天我们要聊的是心脏病抢救的新突破。哈佛和麻省理工的科学家们研发出一种不用开刀手术的治疗方法:Nanoburrs。老子波士顿科学馆的Brindha Muniappan士将向我们做详细介绍。Thanks Beth. Its nice to be here.谢谢Beth,很高兴来到这里。So explain to us a little bit about what a Nanoburr is?那么,请向我们解释一下Nanoburr是什么?Sure. So a nanoburr is a nanoparticle. So very very tiny particle we cant see with our naked eyes on such a small scale. But these particles have been designed to sort of be like burrs you might find out in nature. So if you are out on a walk for example, maybe youve aly encountered some of these burrs stuck to your socks or maybe to your pet. These nanoparticles were designed just like these burrs to stick but to a specific place in our body to damaged heart vessels.好的。nanoburr其实是纳米粒子,一种非常非常小用肉眼无法看到的微小分子。这些分子就像大自然中的细小毛一样。举个例子,如果你出门散步,也许就会有一些细小毛刺粘到你的袜子或是你的宠物身上。纳米粒子就像是这种毛刺,但是粘到了人类身体一个特殊的部位,引发心血管的病变。And how are they able to do that?这些纳米粒子是如何做到的呢?Well, the team of researchers that you mentioned earlier designed the nanoparticles to have a very special protein coding the outside of them. And that protein really just wants to bind to another protein thats only exposed when heart vessels are damaged.之前你提到过的研究小组的成员将这种纳米颗粒设计为含有一种特殊编码的蛋白质。而这种蛋白质只依附于另一种只存在心血管损伤处的蛋白质。And so, I have got a little demonstration here. If you imagine that this tube is like a blood vessel, the clear area is a normal tissue and the white area is a site of damage. We would inject the nanoburr and it will bind only to the site of damage. You can do that with multiple nanoburrs. There they stick only to the site of damage. And thats the high technology here.我在这里能展示出来。如果你想象这根管道是一根血管,透明部分是正常组织,白色部分是受损组织。我们注射的纳米粒子会附在受损的白色区域。我们放入多个纳米粒子,都会附在白色区域,这就是它的高科技所在之处。So once the nanoburr attaches to that tissue, how does it help improve the condition of the heart?一旦纳米粒子附着在受损区域,它是如何修复心血管的呢?Well, the inside of the nanoburr contains medicine. So once the burr is bond to the site of damage, it can very slowly release medicine to treat the site of damage. And thats another improvement of this particular technology: the ability to very slowly release the medicine over 12-14 days.在Nanoburr中包含有药物。一旦毛刺附在受伤的血管部位,它就能慢慢释放出来药物来治疗伤处。这项技术的另一个特殊之处就是释放速度可以很缓慢,慢至12到14天。So how is this improvement over conventional treatments for blocked or damaged arteries?那么,这一发明如何能取代传统方法治疗血栓和血管损伤?Well, in one way, as I mentioned, there is a slow release of drug. But also, these nanoburrs dont have to be surgically implanted, they can just be injected. And there is a little bit more of an advantage, there is a possibility of using this technology for treating other diseases, including cancer or severe inflammation.我刚才提到了一点,就是药物的缓慢释放。还有一点就是Nanoburrs不用外科手术植入,直接注射即可。还有另一个优点,那就是这项技术还能应用于治疗其他疾病,包括癌症或者严重的炎症。So a team of scientists at Harvard and MIT developed the technology. Where is it and its availability to patients?一只由哈佛和麻省理工科学家组成的小组研发这项技术。而,这项技术对换着来说可行吗?Well, this technology unfortunately is still in very early stages. Scientists have done some initial tests in rats in their laboratory.They are hoping to do a bit more tests in animals. Maybe within about five years, they might be able to do some small clinical tests in human patients.不幸的是,这项技术还处于起步阶段。科学家们已经在实验室用老鼠做一些基础实验。他们希望能在动物身上做更多的实验。也许在五年内,他们可以再人类患者身上做一些临床试验。So it sounds like the idea of this isnt just to treat a heart that has aly undergone something like a heart attack but more to prevent it from happening?因此,这项技术不仅是治疗得过心脏病的患者,更是预防心脏明的技术?Well, it certainly might be used before a heart attack, but it could also be used in conjunction with current treatments like stents that are currently used to keep open a previously blocked artery. So its possible that there are multiple uses for this technology.这项技术能用于预防心脏病,但也能同心脏架,一种使血栓过的心血管保持通畅的治疗方式相结合。Alright, Dr. Brindha Muniappan, thanks so much for joining us. Thank you, Beth.好的,谢谢你,Brindha Muniappan士。谢谢,Beth。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/183438Business商业报道Japans hiring practices日本招聘Hello world世界,你好Japanese firms are waking up to the merits of hiring globe-trotting recruits 日本开始意识到全球范围内雇佣人才的好处了RYOSUKE KOBAYASHI is the only Japanese undergraduate in his year at Harvard University.Ryosuke Kobayashi 是哈佛那一届唯一的的日本本科生。When he applied, he knew no one who could advise him on how to get in.当他提交申请的时候,没人给他提供指导意见。So this week, in a rickety wooden inn in Tokyo, sitting cross-legged on tatami mats with Apple Macs on their laps, he and fellow Harvard students conducted seminars for Japanese high-school students on subjects ranging from anime to Thomas Hobbes.因此这个星期,在东京一间不稳固的木屋酒店里,他和几位哈佛同学盘腿坐在榻榻米上,腿上放着苹果Macs笔记本电脑,为日本高中生举办了一个研讨会,从日本动画谈到托马斯 霍布斯。He was not encouraging students to go to America, he insists, just offering them an alternative to uchimuki, or the culture of looking inward, which pervades Japan.他并不是怂恿学生去美国上学,他坚称道,而是给他们提供uchimuki——或者说,日本盛行的内向型文化—以外的另一种选择。For example, in 1997 there were roughly equal numbers of Japanese, Korean and Chinese students at Harvard, including postgraduates.比如,在1997年,哈佛的日本、韩国、中国的学生几乎一样多,Now there are five times as many Chinese as Japanese, and three times as many Koreans.但现在,中国学生是日本学生的五倍,是韩国学生的三倍。The story is similar at other foreign universities.其它国家的大学也一样。Meanwhile, Japanese firms have lost ground to their Chinese and South Korean rivals.同时,日本企业也被中国和韩国企业比下去了。Some say this is no coincidence.有人说这不是巧合。Yasuyuki Nambu, the boss of Pasona, a Tokyo-based recruitment consultancy, says Japanese universities churn out students for old-fashioned businesses, rather than fast-growing global ones such as IT and retail.Pasona的老总Yasuyuki Nambu认为日本大学培养出大量从事过时行业的学生,而不是从事全球性的增长势头强大的行业,比如IT或者零售。Japan Inc needs more creative thinkers and linguists. So several firms are courting young Japanese who have been abroad.日本公司需要更多有创见的思想家和语言家。因此几大企业正觊觎着留学归来的日本学生。Jobs fairs for those who have studied abroad are suddenly popular.所以,针对那些曾出国留学的工作招聘会突然流行起来了。Mynavi, the sponsor of one, says the number of participating firms soared by almost 50% since last year, to 188.主办人之一Mynavi说从去年开始,参与的企业数量增长了近50%,达到188家。Keidanren, Japans big-business lobby, has promised to hold a special jobs exchange for students returning from abroad next summer, tacitly admitting that Japans traditional hiring schedule hobbles them:Keidanren,日本经济团体联合会,已经承诺明年夏天为海归派特别举办一个工作交流会,并默认了日本传统的招聘方式阻碍他们前途了:people are recruited in Japan to start work in April, which is during the academic year in America and Europe.被聘用的人四月份才开始工作,那时正是欧美的开学节。The University of Tokyo, Japans best, is mulling starting in September instead, to fit in with the rest of the world.日本最好的大学,东京大学,正考虑加入世界大家庭,也换成九月份开学。In other countries there has long been a market for footloose talent.其它国家自由流动的人才一直都有市场。But in Japan students usually have just one shot at securing a steady first-time job: in their third year at university.但在日本,通常学生只有一次机会谋求第一份稳定的工作,即大学三年级的时候。If they are abroad, they miss it, and may have to study an extra year in Japan to earn their chance.如果他们出国留学了,他们将失去这个机会,并且可能要在日本再上一年学才可以得到第二次机会。That has discouraged people from studying abroad.这就降低了人们出国留学的的欲望。And corporate culture in Japan has tended to favour those who follow the rules: training is done “on-the-job”, which implies little respect for what was learned at college.此外,日本的企业文化业也青睐于那些按规矩办事的人:训练是在工作中完成的,这就意味着他们不大尊重大学期间学到的知识。Pasona reckons the change has accelerated since March, when Japan was hit by an earthquake that disrupted the nations supply chains and power plants.Pasona估计三月份开始——日本遭遇的地震扰乱了国家供应链,破坏了发电厂——变化更加明显了。The population is ageing and shrinking; to avoid shrinking with it, Japanese firms must expand overseas. Recent months have seen a surge of foreign mergers and acquisitions.日本人口更趋老龄化了,并逐年减少。为了避免跟着一起衰落,日本企业必须从海外扩张。最近几个月日本的海外并购更多了。But while hiring trends may have started to reflect this shift, corporate culture has not.聘用趋势可能开始发生变化,但企业文化却毫无改变的迹象。Hierarchy and pay remain rigid in many Japanese firms–you do what you are told and get what you are given.日本企业依旧存在严格的等级制度以及付传统—做好分内之事,然后领工资。Well-travelled recruits may not like this. And if they dont, they can go elsewhere.而见多识广的新人可能不吃这一套。如果他们不接受,那自有其它地方可去。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230798景德镇中医院做流产需要多少钱

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