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景德镇第二人民医院不孕不育费用江西中医院附属医院在线妇科免费咨询Each week in Bookends, two writers take on questions about the world of books. This week, Thomas Mallon and Ayana Mathis on authors whose life stories should be told.每周的书挡专栏(Bookends)都会有两位作家谈论有关书籍的话题。这周托马斯·马隆(Thomas Mallon)和阿雅娜·马蒂斯(Ayana Mathis)讨论哪位作家值得立传。By Thomas Mallon托马斯·马隆:Any biography requires raw material, and archivally, Tom Wolfe seems to be a man in full.任何传记都需要素材,而从素材的角度讲,汤姆·沃尔夫(Tom Wolfe)简直是无所不有。Back in September The New York Times carried news about a coming biography of Jonathan Franzen. The item surprised some ers because of the writer’s relative youth and mostly quiet personal life. A public rebuke from Oprah is not nothing, but that alone won’t make for a biography “crowded with incident,” as Lady Bracknell would put it.去年9月,《纽约时报》曾报道乔纳森·弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)的传记即将面世。这本书让一些读者吃惊不已,因为这位作家相对年轻,个人生活大体上也平淡无奇。尽管欧普拉对本书的批评非同小可,但仅此也不足以让这本传记如同王尔德《诚实的重要性》剧中人物布拉克奈尔夫人所说的那样,“争议不断。”A more likely living candidate for the full life-and-works treatment might be Tom Wolfe, still young in his subjects and style, but at 84 getting up there in years. True, one could say, as with Franzen, that this writer has put most of his exclamation points onto the page, not off it. A biographer of Wolfe will be reporting on an unscarifying boyhood; a late but long marriage; apparently amiable children; a domestic tranquillity that has supported immersive research and long intervals between hefty volumes. Even so, several aspects of the author’s long career make him ripe for scrutiny beyond the modest critical studies he’s prompted up to now.另外一位尚健在,而且其生平和作品或许值得大书特书的作家是汤姆·沃尔夫。他的写作主题和风格仍旧矫健,但84岁的他已经不年轻了。也许我们可以说,他如同弗兰岑一样,人生最可圈可点之处在于他的作品,而不是个人生活。沃尔夫的传记作家会写到如下这些:不显山不露水的少年时代;晚婚但白头偕老;与子女们关系融洽;家庭和谐,令他能够全身心投入于研究写作,并且花长时间酝酿鸿篇巨制。尽管如此,他漫长写作生涯的某些方面仍够提供了丰富的素材,能够让传记作家突破目前关于沃尔夫的平淡的批评研究,进行更深层次的探讨。Wolfe has been both in sync with his times — a key figure in the New Journalism that became the dominant mode of chronicling them — as well as a figure apart: His conservative inclinations alone distinguish him from most American writers of his generation. Well into midcareer he shifted away from nonfiction, glossing his first novel, “The Bonfire of the Vanities” (1987), with a thumping manifesto titled “Stalking the Billion-Footed Beast” (1989). That essay planted Wolfe’s flag on the social and realist turf he believed the novel had long since foolishly abandoned. He had made enemies before — an essay called “Tiny Mummies!,” back in 1965, appalled stalwarts at The New Yorker — and his bumptious, commercially successful move toward fiction renewed his foes’ animus and increased their ranks. I remember John Updike flashing me a relieved smile the night Wolfe’s second novel lost the National Book Award in 1998; two years later Wolfe numbered Updike one of the “Three Stooges” who had failed to appreciate him. It’s hard to have a biography without misbehavior; it’s almost impossible to have one without feuds.一方面,沃尔夫与他所处的时代步调一致——他是“新新闻主义”的核心人物之一,后者也成为他记录自己的时代的首要风格;另一方面,他又特立独行。单是他的保守倾向就令他与同时代的多数美国作家格格不入。在写作生涯中后期,他从非虚构作品转向虚构,继首部小说《虚荣的篝火》(The Bonfire of the Vanities, 1987)之后,又在《潜随10亿只脚的动物》(Stalking the Billion-Footed Beast ,1989)一文中发出掷地有声的宣言。这篇随笔让沃尔夫跻身于社会和现实主义阵营,他则在此文中批评美国小说界早已愚蠢地背弃了现实主义传统。沃尔夫此前已经树敌不少——他早在1965年发表的一篇题为《袖珍木乃伊!》(Tiny Mummies!)的文章已经令《纽约客》杂志的大腕作家们震怒不已。而他大张旗鼓进军小说,并且在商业上颇为成功,再次激起这种敌视情绪,并且让更多的人加入了批评他的阵营。我还记得在1998年,当沃尔夫的第二部小说在角逐“国家图书奖”功亏一篑之际,约翰·厄普代克(John Updike)向我展露了如释重负的微笑;两年之后,沃尔夫则还以颜色,称厄普代克为有眼无珠、未能欣赏他的作品的“三个傻瓜”之一。如果没有出格言行,很难写出一本传记;而如果没有宿怨,就干脆不可能有传记。The editor of this life story will be hoping people want to buy it. Fortunately, Wolfe has the kind of public branding and recognition (the white suits haven’t hurt) that one associates more with the oft-televised writers born in the mid-1920s, less than a decade before he was — Vidal, Capote, Mailer, Baldwin, Buckley; excellent biographical subjects all. Wolfe has fans: I can recall a Washington arts function some years ago at which a Supreme Court justice waited to greet the novelist almost as if he were a costumed superhero who’d arrived on the floor of Comic Con. Few writers have cemented phrases into the national lingo, but Wolfe has done that with several: “radical chic,” “pushing the envelope,” “social X-rays,” “masters of the universe.”这部传记的编辑会希望读者对它趋之若鹜。幸运的是,沃尔夫与那些经常出现在电视上、生于1920年代中期的著名作家——包括戈尔·维达(Gore Vidal)、杜鲁门·卡波蒂(Truman Capote)、诺曼·梅勒(Norman Mailer)、詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)和威廉·F·巴克利(William F Buckley)等人,他们都是绝佳的传主——具有类似的公众品牌和知名度(他标志性的白色西装也增色不少)。沃尔夫有大批拥趸:我记得多年前在华盛顿一个文艺界聚会上,一位最高法院法官等待迎接他,就好像动漫粉丝们在国际动漫展上迎接身穿制的超级英雄一样。没有几位作家能像他一样把文学语言引入全民的日常会话,比如radical chic(“与激进派人物交往的时尚”)、pushing the envelope(“挑战极限”)、social X-rays(“社交X光”)、masters of the universe(“时空的主宰”)等等。Any biography requires raw material, and archivally Wolfe seems to be a man in full. The New York Public Library has lately paid more than million for a collection of the writer’s papers said to contain, along with notebooks and manuscripts, over 10,000 letters. The senders and recipients prove Wolfe a busy, connected creature, a figure in the sort of social tapestry he considers to be the novel’s real business.任何传记都需要素材,而从素材的角度讲,汤姆·沃尔夫简直是无所不有。最近,纽约公共图书馆以200多万美元购入了一批他的文件,据称包括笔记本、手稿和一万多封信件。信件的收发人显示沃尔夫的社交生活异常活跃丰富,就是他自己的小说热衷于描写的那种社交人物。I greet the announcement of new fiction by lower-key, ultimately greater artists — let’s say William Trevor or Alice Munro — with a different, if no less keen, sort of pleasure. But I feel no urgent desire for a biography of either one of them. They’ve earned their privacy through a kind of exquisite circumscription, the deep, career-long exploration of individual psychologies in remote precincts. Wolfe, by contrast, has looked for life above the fold and at high decibel levels — on the frantic trading floor, in clamorous courthouses, amid the roar of rockets and racecars. It makes sense for his own life to wind up as a chronicle with an index.每当那些低调但又不失伟大的作家——例如威廉·特里弗(William Trevor)和爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)有新著问世,我都会颇为欣慰,但这是一种不同的愉悦感:如果有人为上述两位作家立传,我可没什么兴趣读。他们早已通过微妙的自我定位,通过多年来在陌生领域的对个人心理的深刻探索,赢得了他们的隐私权。而沃尔夫则不同,他热衷于描写名利场,在那些万众瞩目的喧嚣场景中探究人生——混乱忙碌的股票交易大厅、人声鼎沸的法庭,噪音震耳欲聋的火箭发射场和赛车场等等。所以,他自己的人生成为一部精心编撰的历史,也不足为奇。Thomas Mallon’s eight novels include “Henry and Clara,” “Bandbox,” “Fellow Travelers” and “Watergate,” a finalist for the PEN/Faulkner Award. He has also published nonfiction about plagiarism (“Stolen Words”), diaries (“A Book of One’s Own”), letters (“Yours Ever”) and the Kennedy assassination (“Mrs. Paine’s Garage”), as well as two books of essays. His work appears in The New Yorker, The Atlantic Monthly and other publications. A recipient of the Vursell prize of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, for distinguished prose style, he is currently professor of English at George Washington University.托玛斯·马隆的八部小说包括《亨利与克拉拉》(Henry and Clara)《同途旅人》(Fellow Travelers)和《水门》(Watergate),后者入围国际笔会/福克纳奖最终候选名单。他的非虚构作品还包括关于抄袭的文章《被盗的文字》(Stolen Words),日记《自己的一本书》(A Book of One’s Own)和关于刺杀肯尼迪事件的文章《佩恩夫人的车库》(Mrs. Paine’s Garage),另外还有两本散文合集。他的作品曾发表在《纽约客》、《大西洋月刊》等期刊上。他曾获得美国艺术暨文学学会表彰优秀散文风格的Vursell奖。他目前在乔治·华盛顿大学担任英文教授。 By Ayana Mathis阿雅娜·马蒂斯:Albert Murray was a man of great accomplishments and not nearly the renown he ought to have had.阿尔伯特·穆瑞(Albert Murray)的卓越成就和他的名气不成正比。You may not have heard of Albert Murray. You might not own any of his 12 books or have sat in on any of his lectures at Columbia or Emory University. You may have entirely missed the life and work of an inimitable novelist, cultural critic, and jazz and blues scholar — I certainly did.你可能没有听说过阿尔伯特·穆瑞;他的12本著作,你可能一本也没有买过;他在哥伦比亚和埃默里大学的讲座,你可能一次也没去听。你可能完全错过了一位独特的小说家、文化家、爵士乐和蓝调研究者的生活和作品——就跟我一样。Albert Murray died at 97 on Aug. 18, 2013. He was a man of great accomplishments and not nearly the renown he ought to have had. Which isn’t to say he was obscure; the people who knew Murray loved him. They loved him so much that his memorial service was held at Jazz at Lincoln Center, which he helped found alongside Wynton Marsalis and Stanley Crouch. Judith Jamison, the former artistic director of the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, was there, along with Crouch and Henry Louis Gates Jr. Not to mention the publishing luminaries Sonny Mehta and Erroll McDonald. And, in the jazz-funeral style Murray deserved, Marsalis ended the memorial by marching his band out of the auditorium playing “Didn’t He Ramble.”阿尔伯特·穆瑞于2013年8月去世,享年97岁。他成就卓越,却并没有与之匹配的名声。这倒并不是说他默默无名——认识他的人都非常喜欢他。出于对他的喜爱,亲朋好友们在林肯中心的爵士厅为他举办了追悼会。而这一演出场所是穆瑞和温顿·马沙利斯(Wynton Marsalis,小号演奏家,林肯中心爵士乐团艺术总监——译注)还有斯坦利·克劳奇(Stanley Crouch,诗人、爵士乐评家)一起促成创建的。出席追悼会的有“阿尔文·艾丽美国现代舞团”的前艺术总监朱迪斯·杰米森(Judith Jamison)、克劳奇和小亨利·路易斯·盖茨(Henry Louis Gates Jr.,哈佛大学教授,美国黑人问题研究专家—译注),当然还有索尼·梅塔(Sonny Mehta)和艾洛尔·麦克唐纳德(Erroll McDonald)这样的出版界名流。 追悼会由马沙利斯带领他的乐队演奏着《他到处游逛》(Didn’t He Ramble)走出演奏大厅而收场。穆瑞的一生完全配得上这个爵士味十足的追悼会。Here is a crash course in Murray: He was the author of a memoir, four novels, several books about the blues that are at once scholarly and down-homey, and a few volumes of cultural criticism. Ah, yes, and a collection of poetry that includes a poem about William Faulkner I’d dare anyone to top. Ralph Ellison was a dear friend of his. The painter Romare Bearden was a friend, too. Murray and Bearden entered into an artistic collaboration that yielded Bearden’s series “The Block,” inspired by the view from Murray’s balcony in Harlem. Murray hung out with James Baldwin in Paris in the 1950s. He was the co-writer of Count Basie’s autobiography. The National Book Critics Circle gave him a lifetime achievement award in 1997. Duke Ellington called him “the unsquarest man I know.” During his college days, he spent a night at Ma Rainey’s house; in his memoir, “South to a Very Old Place,” he describes sleeping in her “red-velvet-draped, tenderloin-gothic, incense-sultry sickroom.”穆瑞的生平简介如下:他写了一部回忆录,四部小说,几部关于蓝调音乐的既富于学术价值而又平易近人的著作,还有几本文化的作品。对了,他还出版过一本诗集,里面有一首关于威廉·福克纳(William Faulkner)的诗,我敢打赌没有任何人能够超越。拉尔夫·埃里森(Ralph Ellison, 美国当代黑人作家)和画家罗米尔·比尔登(Romare Bearden)都是他的好朋友。 穆瑞在哈莱姆住处的阳台景观是比尔登《街区》系列的灵感来源——这可以说是两位好友之间的一次艺术合作。穆瑞在50年代的巴黎还和詹姆斯·鲍德温过从甚密。他是“贝西伯爵”(William James ;Count; Basie 爵士音乐家——译注)自传的合著者。美国国家书评圈在1997年授予他终身成就奖。艾灵顿公爵说他是“我所认识的人中最特立独行的”。上大学的时候,穆瑞在芮妮大妈(Ma Rainey, 美国蓝调歌手,被誉为“蓝调之母”——译注)的家中度过一晚。在他的回忆录《向南重游旧地》(South to a Very Old Place)中,他描述了睡在她“红丝绒窗帘遮挡,弥漫着厚重香薰的病房,这哥特风格房间有着牛里脊般的质感”。Murray didn’t publish his first book until he was in his 50s, and then he spent the rest of his life making up for lost time. That first book, “The Omni-Americans,” argued for a wider conception of American identity that acknowledged the centrality and profundity of black culture. Murray maintained that America is so mingled as to be “a mulatto culture” (a startling reappropriation of the term). His ideas struck some as too integrationist and earned Murray more than a few enemies. But as Henry Louis Gates Jr. points out in “King of Cats,” his 1996 New Yorker profile of Murray, “in Murray’s hands, integration wasn’t an act of accommodation but an act of introjection.”穆瑞直到50多岁才出版了他的第一本书。这之后他著作不断,像是在弥补之前的沉寂。在这第一本书《综合美国人》(The Omni-Americans)中,穆瑞提出,美国身份的概念应该更加宽泛,这一概念应该正视黑人文化的中心地位和深度。穆瑞坚称美国种族混杂,是一个“黑白混血文化”(穆瑞令人吃惊地重新使用了“黑白混血文化”这一说法)。他的观点在一些人看来过于强调融合,从而为他招致了不少敌人。而小亨利·路易·盖茨在1996年为《纽约客》撰写的题为《猫王》的穆瑞人物特写中指出,“在穆瑞笔下,融合并不是适应外界,而是一种不自觉地把外面的东西拿来为我所用的过程。”Visionary though he was, Murray wasn’t right about everything — and certainly his polemics against the likes of Richard Wright and James Baldwin rightfully stuck in more than a few craws — but his work reveals a nuanced and agile thinker, and his prose is transcendent. When it comes to the blues, Murray’s expertise is undeniable. With characteristic brio, his seminal “Stomping the Blues” explores that music as the African-American idiom through which the spirit, mood and variety of black experience finds expression.尽管颇有远见,穆瑞并不总是正确的。他与理查德·怀特(Richard Wright)、詹姆斯·鲍德温(James Baldwin)和其他一些人的论战触怒了不少人,而对此他并不能为自己开脱。但是他的作品细致入微,思维敏捷。他的文字也极为精妙。在谈论蓝调音乐时,谁都不能否认穆瑞的专业知识。在他影响深远的《顿足蓝调》(Stomping the Blues)中,穆瑞以特有的生动笔触探讨了蓝调音乐和“顿足”这一美国黑人俚语之间的关系,而两者都充分表达了黑人生活的神髓和多样性。I’ve saved my favorite for last: Murray’s first novel, “Train Whistle Guitar,” an autobiographical coming-of-age story set in his native Alabama. His style was heavily influenced by the language of the South and by the jazz and blues he loved. His sentences dive and soar, they vibrate with word play and hum with lyricism.我把我最喜爱的留到了最后。穆瑞的第一本小说《火车,口哨,吉他》(Train Whistle Guitar)是一步自传性质的成长小说。故事发生在他的家乡阿拉巴马州。他的文风很大程度上受到了美国南方语言和他所喜爱的爵士乐和蓝调的影响。他的句子跌宕起伏,充满了文字游戏,读起来就像歌词那样韵律有致。Murray had a phrase he used often in his work: “the also and the also.” He used this as shorthand for the relatedness of things, and the complexities — and challenges — in that relatedness. He used it to evoke the multivalence of cultural memory, of blues and jazz music and of American identity itself. Murray seems more relevant now than ever. If this isn’t a moment in which we could all benefit from an encounter with a little “also and also,” I don’t know what is.在他的作品中,穆瑞常用“诸如此类”这一短语来概括事物之间的关联性,以及关联性之中的复杂和质疑。他用这一短语来描述文化记忆,蓝调和爵士乐以及美国身份本身的多种意义。这样看来,穆瑞的思想在现在意义尤其相关。在这个时节点,我们所有人都能从穆瑞的“诸如此类”之中获利。Ayana Mathis is a graduate of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop and a recipient of the 2014-15 New York Public Library’s Cullman Center Fellowship. “The Twelve Tribes of Hattie,” her first novel, was a New York Times Bestseller, a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, one of NPR’s Best Books of 2013 and was chosen by Oprah Winfrey as the second selection for Oprah’s Book Club 2.0. Ayana taught Creative Writing at The Writer’s Foundry MFA Program at St. Joseph’s College, Brooklyn. She is an Assistant Professor of English and Creative Writing at the Iowa Writers’ Workshop.阿雅娜·马蒂斯毕业于艾奥瓦大学作家坊,获得过2014-2015年纽约公共图书馆Cullman中心奖金。她的第一部小说《海蒂的12个部落》(The Twelve Tribes of Hattie)曾登上《纽约时报》畅销书榜单,获得《纽约时报》年度优秀图书奖,美国公共广播电台2013最佳图书奖,并登上欧普拉·温弗雷(Oprah Winfrey)的“欧普拉图书俱乐部2.0”图书榜单。她在布鲁克林圣约瑟夫学院作家培训MFA班教授创意写作,并担任艾奥瓦大学作家坊的英文与创意写作副教授。 /201502/359419南昌/市第二医院取环需要多少钱 Early this summer, data analysts found an interesting trend in the analysis of Alibaba#39;s bra sales: women who bought bigger sizes spend more money. Alibaba#39;s analysts divided bra consumers into four categories according to their online spending power. They found that 65% of women who bought B cup belong to ;low online spending power; category, while most of women who bought C cup or bigger sizes have ;medium; online spending power or above.夏初,数据分析师在分析阿里巴巴[微]内衣销量的时候发现一个有趣的趋势:购买内衣罩杯越大的女性花的钱越多。阿里巴巴分析师将内衣消费者按其购买能力分成了四类,他们发现65%的B罩杯女性都属于“购买能力低”这一类,而C及以上罩杯的女性大部分购买能力都是“中等”或以上。The reason might be that those who bought B cup are young women with low purchasing power. And this is just one piece of information sorted out from millions of orders each day on Alibaba#39;s e-commerce payment platform.原因可能是买B罩杯的都是购买能力较弱的年轻女性。而这仅仅是阿里巴巴从其电子商务付平台每日上千万订单里面梳理出来的一条信息而已。In the ;double eleven; shopping spree, Alibaba#39;s sales volume reached the peak of 2.85 million per minute, and the transaction volume of Nov. 11 reached 9.3 billion dollars. This day tested the Alibaba#39;s data mining capabilities. Its Vice Chairman Cai Chongxin told the reporter in Hangzhou – where Alibaba#39;s headquarters is based in, ;We only saw the tip of the iceberg. These data can make the operation more efficient, our customers more satisfied, but the utilization of these data is less than five percent. ;双十一阿里巴巴高峰期的交易量达到每分钟两百八十五万,一天下来的成交量达到了九十三亿美元。这一天检验了阿里巴巴的数据挖掘能力。阿里巴巴副董事长蔡崇信在杭州——阿里巴巴的大本营——对本报记者说:“我们现在看到的只是冰山一角。利用这些数据可以让运营更高效,让我们的顾客更满意,但我们现在的利用率还不到5%。”On the whole day of November 11, Alibaba#39;s data analysis team and operational managers were paying close attention to and analyzing in real time the transaction data to ensure communication and coordination between customers and their logistics partners and normal supply and delivery. And data collected on that day is also of great use in the long run. Managers were also concerned about customers’ choice of payment methods, to see if they were using smart phones for ordering. Alibaba is accused of losing ground to its rival Tencent in the mobile platform. So it has been in hot pursuit, and plans to make Alipay listing.双十一一整天下来,阿里巴巴的数据分析团队和运营经理都密切关注和实时分析网站上的交易数据,以保与客户和物流合作伙伴沟通协调好,确保供应和交货正常进行。而且双十一收集的数据长远来看也大有用处。管理者也关注顾客选择的付方式,看他们是否使用智能手机下单。阿里巴巴被指在移动平台方面不及对手腾讯,所以一直在猛追,并计划要让付宝上市。According to a report of industry research firm Gartner in 2013, Alibaba, like Japan#39;s Rakuten and Amazon, are using predictive data analysis, and only less than 5% of e-commerce companies are engaged in this work. China#39;s middle class is growing, but the study of this group is far from enough, so China is expected to be one of the most important data markets.根据高德纳咨询公司一份2013年的报告显示,阿里巴巴和亚马逊及日本乐天市场一样,都使用预测性数据分析,而电子商务公司里从事这项工作的不及5%。中国的中产阶级正在不断壮大,但对这个群体的研究还相对不够,所以中国有望成为世界最重要的数据市场之一。But sometimes the data make people confused. Jingdong found that sales of IPHONE5 were nine to ten times higher than usual on ;double eleven;. Gartner did not know why. In 2012, Alibaba was surprised to find that the day#39;s top-selling product in the western inland Xinjiang turned out to be bikini (boyfriends and husbands buy bikini drop hints that they will take their partners out on vacation).但是数据有时候也让人想不明白。京东发现双十一那天IPHONE5的销量比往常高了九到十倍。高德纳也不知道是什么缘故。2012年,阿里巴巴惊奇地发现,双十一在西部内陆新疆销量最高的竟然是比基尼(男朋友和老公购买比基尼暗示对象会带他们出去度假)。 /201411/3430433.The ed States Entered World War II After Pearl Harbor3.美国因为珍珠港事件参加二战While it is true that the ed States did not officially declare war on the Japanese—and by extension all of the Axis powers—until the bombing of Pearl Harbor, it had aly been far from a neutral nation, and US actions essentially forced a Pearl Harbor scenario to play out. The Japanese were reliant on the ed States for most of their oil, but they had gone to war against China, an ally of the ed States.珍珠港事件爆发前,美国并未向日本正式宣战,也没对轴心国宣战。珍珠港事件爆发,迫使美国不再中立,它的行动皆因珍珠港事件而起。日本原本依赖美国提供给其大部分石油,但又去攻击中国——美国的同盟国。President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered a freeze of Japanese assets because he was starting to worry about the possibility of war. Japanese traders would have to get licenses to export oil, a move that was meant to hurt them but not cause enough friction for war. Unfortunately, the man President Roosevelt put in charge of licensing decided that no one should be granted any licenses at all. He believed that the Japanese wouldn#39;t dare attack the ed States and wanted to cut off their resources. This led to the attack; the Japanese government knew that with the loss in resources, they had to move fast to gain new fuel sources, and they also had to cripple US naval capabilities.富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福总统(Franklin Delano Roosevelt)因担忧战争可能爆发,下令冻结日本资产。日本贸易商在取得许可后,方能输出石油——这一举措,在某种程度上有损日本利益,但不至于引起战争。不幸的是,罗斯福总统又决定限制件,使得没人能得到许可。他自信地认为,日本不敢袭击美国,又想停止对他们的资源供应。这便是事件的导火索。日本政府清楚自己失去了资源,明白自己必须加紧步伐去得到新能源,且势必要让美国海军吃吃苦头!There were also the many moves to fight the Axis powers behind the scenes, before they had even become the Axis powers formally. Roosevelt worked first to remove the Neutrality Act so that he could sell weapons to Allies, then he worked to pass the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the US to lend or give arms to countries who would agree to pay for their use at a later date.事实上,当时并未正式确定轴心国,美国却已有反抗轴心国的众多举措。罗斯福总统首先放弃中立,这为他向同盟国出售武器大开方便之门,之后又使租借法案通过,允许美国向其他国家借出或给予军事持,前提是这些国家必须承诺将来要付酬劳。There was also a controversial deal worked out by Roosevelt over the heads of Congress to give the British 50 old destroyers in exchange for some naval bases. These actions caused the Axis powers to state in their formal declaration that they would protect each other from attacks by the Americans—clearly our interference was aly on their radar. While it was hard to convince the American public to go to war again after its demoralizing participation in World War I, the US was aly fighting a shadow war against the Axis powers for years before Pearl Harbor.且罗斯福总统也做出了一个颇有争议的举措,他无视国会为英国提供50艘驱逐舰以换取西半球8个基地。这些举动使得轴心国发布正式声明,宣称必须互相保护,以免受美国攻击——很明显我们的干扰他们一清二楚。尽管很难劝一战过后士气低落的美国民众再次参战,美国对轴心国的战争,早在珍珠港事件之前便已展开,只是无形罢了。2.The Scottish Wore Kilts While Fighting The English2.苏格兰士兵着短裙对战英格兰The movie Braveheart has entrenched in our minds the idea of the medieval Scottish fighting the British while wearing colorful tartan kilts. In fact, most people likely believed this before the release of the popular film, as it has long been a popular way to denote Scottish heritage or lineage in cinema and other media—just have the men wear tartan kilts. While historians have known for a while that the tartan kilt thing wasn#39;t very accurate (along with many other inaccuracies in Braveheart), in recent years they have done more to explain the misconception.电影《勇敢的心》使得中世纪苏格兰人穿着颜色各异的格子呢短裙对战英格兰的形象,在大众心中根深蒂固。事实上,男人着裙装,是影视及其他媒体描述苏格兰风情特色的流行做法,可能大多数人在这部电影放映之前,就已经对此有所耳闻了。历史学家考得知,苏格兰士兵着格子呢短裙参加战斗,并非完全符合史实(《勇敢的心》中也有其他许多对苏格兰民俗的错误演绎)。近几年来,他们为消除人们对苏格兰文化的误解做了很多努力。One historian in particular, Fergus Cannan (who claims to be related to Robert the Bruce himself), spent years going through old records and came to the conclusion that the uniform worn by the medieval Scottish warriors was different than imagined. They wore tunics, which might be vaguely reminiscent of kilts but are an entirely different item of clothing. These tunics were not tartan, but dyed bright yellow, often with the use of urine. For better protection, a sleeveless vest made of leather would be worn over the top, and they usually also wore a leather belt around the waist. According to some records, the style was known as the “yellow war shirt” and was still remembered and respected hundreds of years after its popular use.尤其是历史学家费格斯·坎南(Fergus Cannan)(他自称与罗伯特和布鲁斯有亲缘关系),他花费了几年时间查找古籍资料并得出结论:中世纪苏格兰士兵所着战袍与大众所想并不一致。士兵所着束腰外衣,可能会让人联想起短裙,但两者款式却完全不同。制作这些束腰外衣的原材料并非格子呢,通常是用尿液染成嫩黄色的布料。士兵们在最外层会套件皮革制成的无袖背心,以作防护之用,此外,他们还系着皮质腰带。一些资料将这种装束风格称为黄色战袍,几百年后的今天仍备受推崇。1.The Bombing Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Was Unprecedented1.广岛和长崎的原子弹爆炸绝无仅有The bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki near the end of World War II was the first time nuclear bombs were dropped on civilian populations with the intent to annihilate. The question of whether these atomic bombs should have been used at all has been debated in academic and political circles ever since. Some proponents argue that such massive destruction is never justified, no matter what the aim is. Other people argue that if nothing had been done to frighten the Japanese into surrender, they would have fought to the last man; the body count on both sides would have been unthinkable. It#39;s hard to say what is morally right in this case, but bombing civilians certainly isn#39;t a choice most people would ever want to have to make.第二次世界大战末期,日本广岛(Hiroshima)和长崎(Nagasaki)的原子弹爆炸,是史上第一次以彻底摧毁为目的的核爆炸。此后,关于究竟该如何使用这些原子弹,学术界和政坛都进行了激烈辩论。一些持者认为无论什么原因,发生在哪里,如此严重的破坏都是不合理的。而其他人坚信,当时如果没有做点儿什么来吓吓日本人,迫使他们乖乖投降的话,他们会战斗到最后一个人,这么一来,战争双方的伤亡人数将多到无法想象。道德层面上来讲,我们很难说清怎样才是对的,但轰炸平民明显不是大多数人所喜闻乐见的。What isn#39;t often acknowledged is that both the Allies and the Axis powers were doing it far before the bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Now, most people would say that bombing civilians is wrong in most or all cases and that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was an unprecedented level of destruction in an extreme case to try to force the Japanese to surrender. However, not only had the ed States been bombing civilians before those events, but some of its previous bombing runs were even more destructive than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.大多数人不知道的是,早在广岛和长崎遭原子弹轰炸前,同盟国(Allies)和轴心国(the Axis)就开始研发原子弹了。现在大多数人会觉得,在大多数情况下,或者说不管在什么情况下,轰炸平民都是不对的,而广岛和长崎原子弹爆炸虽然造成了前所未有的的破坏,但却是在极端情况下为了迫使日本投降才做的决定。然而,美国在之前的战争中就曾向无辜百姓投弹轰炸,而且,有些爆炸所造成的破坏要远远大于广岛和长崎。Before the ed States bombed those two cities, it firebombed Tokyo not once, but twice with B-29 bombers. While it may not have been a single bomb, the destruction was horrendous. Roughly 100,000 people were killed in the first raid and 125,000 more in the second, and about 220 square kilometers (85 mi2) of city was effectively destroyed over the course of both raids. In comparison, the amount of land destroyed was about a quarter of that at Hiroshima, and the number of people killed was roughly 80,000. Nagasaki was a smaller city, so the bombing caused 45,000 casualties and an even smaller amount of destroyed city and land. This is not to say that what happened at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was not horrendous, but it was not the first time a bombing raid had caused such absurd destruction. Whether or not the use of the atomic bomb was warranted, the ed States was aly destroying scores of people and leveling cities without it.美国轰炸这两个城市之前就曾两次用B-29炸弹炮轰东京,投下的炮弹可能不止一个,造成的破坏令人触目惊心。第一次轰炸造成10万人死亡,第二次更甚,又造成12.5万人死亡,两次轰炸共计将220平方公里左右(85平方英里)的城区夷为平地。相比之下,广岛原子弹破坏面积是这两次袭击破坏面积的四分之一,爆炸当天罹难人数约为8万。长崎毕竟是个小城市,爆炸致使4.5万人死亡,相比东京要少,摧毁的城区和土地就更少了。这并不是说长崎和广岛的遭遇不令人心痛,而是说那并非第一次摧毁性的原子弹爆炸惨剧。不管原子弹的使用有没有得到授权许可,美国都确确实实杀害了大批无辜百姓,摧毁了大片城区土地。审校:瑶瑶Yvonne 校对:丸子 编辑:Freya然 /201507/387295江西省那里治输卵管堵塞

南昌/市不孕不育比较好的医院The art world shook on May 11th when apainting by Pablo Picasso was sold for 9m at a Christie#39;s sale in New York to anunidentified bidderamp;;the highest sum ever paid for an artwork at auction. But aSot eby#39;s auction on May 5th, also in New York, caused a bigger tremor At thatsale, bidders from mainland Ch ina agreed to pay a combined total of 6m for works by Vincent van Gogh, ClaudeMonet and another by asso. It was striking evidence of China emerging as anew source of demand for the European masters, and fits buyers#39; willingnessto bid handsomely.艺术世界在5月11号发生大地震,当时在纽约克里斯蒂拍卖会上毕加索的一幅画作被匿名买家以1.79亿美元购得;这是有史以来拍卖会上一件艺术品所拍出的最高价格。但是在5月5号也是在纽约举行的苏富比拍卖会上来自中国大陆的竞标者们以1.16亿美元购得梵高,莫奈以及另外一件毕加索的作品。这表明中国成为了欧洲大师作品的新买家,也 表明了中国的竞标者愿意花大价钱购买。Two of the successful bidders at Sotheby#39;swere movie moguls: Wang Zhongjun, the chairman of Huayi Bro rs Media, one ofChina#39;s largest film companies, who took Picasso#39;s ;Femme au Chignon dans unFauteuil; f .9m; andWang Jianlin, the chairman of Dalian Wanda, a property conglomerate, who boughtMonet#39;s ;B n aux Nymphos, les Rosiers; for .4m. Mr Wang was recently named as Asia#39;s richestman by Forbes ma ne. He aly has dozens of European works andmore than 1,000 Chinese ones. Guo Qingxiang, who advis im on his artpurchases, says the Wanda boss plans to exhibit the Western collection when itis large enoug苏富比的这次拍卖会上,有两名成功竞标者是电影大腕:华谊兄弟公司的主席王中军,这是中国最大的电影公司之一,他以2990万美元的价格买下了毕加索的《盘发髻女子坐像》;还有就是万达的王健林以2040万美元买下了莫奈的《睡莲池与玫瑰》。王健林已经拥有几十幅欧洲作品,还有1000多个中国作品。作为王健林的艺术品购买参谋,郭庆祥说王健林打算在拥有足够多艺术品后进行展览。The number of mainland Chinese bidding fornon-Chinese art at Sotheby#39;s auctions doubled from 2010 to 2014: some 650 ofthem paid a total of more than 0mfor non-Chinese pieces from Sotheby#39;s during that period. But Mr Guo is notalone in saying that Chinese buyers are sometimes unsophisticated. If sottovoce sniping is any measure of the maturity of an art market, maybe Chinahas aly arrived.2010年到2014年间,在苏富比拍卖会上竞拍非中国艺术品的大陆买家数量增加了一倍:在这期间所举办的苏富比拍卖会上,有650名大陆买家在非中国艺术品上总共花费了4.1亿美元。但是并非只有郭先生才认为中国买家有时候是未经世故的。如果低声诽谤是一个艺术市场成熟度的衡量标准的话,那么中国或许已经到了这个点。 /201505/376400南昌/检查输卵管粘连价格 南昌/查输卵管通而不畅多少钱

南昌/市中西医结合医院做不孕不育多少钱Every day there seems to be a new diet or weight loss regimeintroduced. Some of them work and others don#39;t. Here are some bizarre weight loss tricks that have actually been known to show positive results!似乎每天都会有新的饮食法或减肥法出炉,有些会奏效但有些却没用。这里要为大家介绍几种看起来有点怪异但着实有效的减肥妙招。 Pop Your Multivitamins Daily每天摄入多种维生素A study that focused on a set of 96 obese women, who took a calcium supplement, multivitamin or placebo for 26 weeks, revealed that the group that took the vitamin had significantly less body fat. This shows that we tend to eat more when our body craves for certain nutrients. Popping your multivitamin daily will help give your body what it needs. While it isn#39;t enough to rely solely on popping a vitamin to lose weight, it may reduce the quantity of food you consume to feel full.在一项针对96名肥胖女性的研究中,她们在26周内需要分别用补钙产品,摄入多维他,或使用安慰剂。结果显示,那组摄入多维他的女性体内脂肪明显减少。这说明当身体渴求营养时会吃的更多,而每天摄入多维他有助于身体摄取所需要的营养。不过,仅仅摄入维他命是不足以减肥的,它会使你摄入的食量减少,招致饥饿感。 /201411/342037 People with H.I.V. should be put on antiretroviral drugs as soon as they learn they are infected, federal health officials said Wednesday as they announced that they were halting the largest ever clinical trial of early treatment because its benefits were aly so clear.联邦卫生官员周三表示,艾滋病毒(HIV)携带者在得知自己被感染后,应尽快用抗逆转录病毒药物。他们同时宣布,将很快结束一项迄今为止规模最大的艾滋病早期治疗临床试验,因为该疗法的益处已经十分明显。The study was stopped more than a year early because preliminary data aly showed that those who got treatment immediately were 53 percent less likely to die during the trial, develop AIDS or a serious illness than those who waited.这项研究的结束时间比预期提前了一年多,因为初步数据已经明,在感染后立即接受治疗的感染者在试验期间死亡、发展成艾滋病或者严重疾病的概率,比推迟治疗的感染者低了53%。The study is strong evidence that early treatment saves more lives, the officials said. Fewer than 14 million of the estimated 35 million people infected with H.I.V. around the world are on treatment now, according to U.N.AIDS, the ed Nations AIDS-fighting agency. In the ed States, only about 450,000 of the estimated 1.2 million with H.I.V. are on treatment, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.这些官员称,这项研究有力地明了,尽早治疗可以挽救更多生命。根据联合国艾滋病规划署(UNAIDS)的数据,全世界约有3500万HIV携带者,其中有不到1400万人正在接受治疗。根据疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)的数据,美国约有120万HIV携带者,只有大约45万人在接受治疗。“This is another incentive to seek out testing and start therapy early, because you will benefit,” said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease, which sponsored the trial. “The sooner, the better.”“这是早检测和早治疗的另一个理由,因为你会从中受益,”国家过敏及传染性疾病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)所长安东尼·S·福奇(Anthony S. Fauci)士说。“越早越好。”该机构是这项试验的赞助方。Although the C.D.C. recommends immediate treatment, it said in November that only 37 percent of infected Americans had prescriptions for the drugs. The agency blamed a mix of factors, including H.I.V.-positive people missed by testing, those who had no health insurance and therefore did not see doctors or could not afford the drugs, and those whose doctors were unfamiliar with treatment guidelines.尽管CDC推荐HIV感染者确诊后立即接受治疗,该机构去年11月表示,在美国只有37%的感染者有药物处方。该机构将其归因于多种因素,比如HIV携带者没有进行检测,或者没有医保并因此不看医生或买不起药,还有一些病人的医生对治疗的指导原则不熟悉。“This is a defining moment for social justice,” said Michel Sidibé, executive director of U.N.AIDS. “People will be scared, saying, ‘Oh, it will be a big number.’ But this puts an end to the false debate about whether to pay for treatment.”“这是社会公正的一个决定性时刻,”联合国艾滋病规划署的执行主任米歇尔·西迪贝(Michel Sidibé)说。“人们会被吓到,说,‘噢,这会是很大一笔钱。’但这就终结了是否应该花钱治疗的错误争论。”Many AIDS researchers and advocates have long argued — based on their own observations and smaller studies — that treatment should start immediately. The trial stopped Wednesday is the first major clinical trial to produce evidence that patients would live longer and be healthier if they did so.长期以来,许多艾滋病研究人员和倡导者一直强调——根据他们自己的观察和较小规模的研究——治疗应该尽早开始。周三结束的这项实验是第一个明了感染者在接受治疗之后可以活得更长、更健康的大型临床试验。“This is fantastic,” said Dr. Susan P. Buchbinder, director of H.I.V. prevention research for the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Her department began recommending immediate treatment in 2010 and new infections in that city have dropped substantially since then. “The evidence for this has been building for quite some time, but now it’s clear that people should be offered treatment right away and told why it’s beneficial.”“这太棒了,”旧金山公共卫生局艾滋病病毒预防研究主任苏珊·P·布赫宾德(Susan P. Buchbinder)士说。她的机构在2010年开始建议感染者在确诊后立即接受治疗,此后这座城市的新感染病例大幅减少。“相当长时间以来,持这种做法的据一直在积累,但现在已经是明确无疑了,那就是应该立刻为人们提供治疗,并告诉他们这样做的好处。”New York City has recommended immediate treatment since 2011, but has not yet achieved San Francisco’s success, partly because the latter is a smaller city in which many AIDS specialists have done their residencies together and learned the same treatment protocols.纽约市从2011年开始推荐艾滋病病毒携带者尽早治疗,但尚未取得旧金山那样的成功,部分原因是旧金山城市规模更小,许多艾滋病专家都是一起当住院医生的,因此所学习的治疗方案也一样。“Most doctors in NYC are starting HIV medications quickly for newly diagnosed patients,” said Dr. Demetre C. Daskalakis, the city health department’s assistant commissioner for H.I.V./AIDS prevention and control. “With this study, we’ve answered the question definitively: Treat HIV — it’s good for both personal and public health. The release of data from such a powerful source should erase any doubt.”“纽约市的许多医生正在开始为新诊断出来的患者提供药物治疗,”该市卫生局艾滋病毒/艾滋病预防和控制助理局长季米特里·C·扎斯卡拉基斯(Demetre C. Daskalakis)士说。“凭借这项研究,我们明确回答了这个问题:治疗艾滋病病毒——对个人和公共卫生都有好处。这样一个权威来源发布的数据应该可以消除所有疑虑。”Dr. Julio S. G. Montaner, a former president of the International AIDS Society who wrote a seminal 2006 paper in the Lancet arguing that universal antiretroviral treatment was the best way to curb the AIDS epidemic, said the study “confirms what we have been saying for years.”前国际艾滋病学会(International AIDS Society)会长朱利奥·S·G·蒙塔内尔(Julio S. G. Montaner)2006年在《柳叶刀》(Lancet)杂志上发表了一篇开创性的论文,称广泛使用抗逆转录病毒治疗是遏制艾滋病的最好办法。蒙塔内尔表示,上述研究“实了多年来的说法”。Immediate treatment not only benefits patients but prevents them from passing the disease on. Several other studies have shown that people taking their drugs regularly are more than 90 percent less likely to infect others, including spouses with whom they have regular unprotected sex.尽早治疗不仅对患者有利,还可以防止他们把病毒传播出去。另外的几项研究显示,定期用药物的人把病毒传染给其他人——包括经常与他们有无保护性行为的配偶——的可能性降低了90%。In the ed States, many patients hesitate to start taking drugs while they feel healthy because they have heard reports of harsh side effects. The early antiretroviral drugs prescribed in the mid-1990s often caused rashes, accumulation of belly fat and loss of feeling in the fingers and feet. But modern regimens — many based on tenofovir, which was approved in 2001 but took some years to be widely used — have far fewer side effects.在美国,许多患者在没有感觉不适的情况下不愿意药,原因是他们听说过关于药物的严重副作用的报道。上世纪90年代中期的早期抗逆转录病毒处方药通常会引发疹子、腹部脂肪堆积,手指和脚失去知觉。不过,现代的疗法——许多疗法主要依靠替诺福韦(Tenofovir),该药品2001年被通过,但几年后才普及起来——副作用要少得多。The Start trial — short for Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment — enrolled its first patients in 2009 but was publicly announced in 2011. When it was stopped, it had followed 4,685 H.I.V.-infected men and women in 35 countries.这项名为抗逆转录病毒治疗战略时机(Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment)的实验,于2009年招募了第一批患者,但直到2011年才对外公开。实验结束的时候,它已经追踪了35个国家的4685名男性和女性艾滋病病毒感染者。 /201505/377698赣州市立医院专家咨询南昌/市不孕不育检查项目哪家医院好

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