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江西省治疗输卵管通而不畅好的医院

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Cosmic superhero Stephen Hawking never ceases to amaze his admirers. At the age of 72 he is the world’s most celebrated scientist and the ultimate symbol of triumph over adversity, as he celebrates five decades of intellectual achievement while living with motor neurone disease, which kills most patients within two or three years.“宇宙之王”斯蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)从未停止让他的崇拜者惊叹。72岁高龄的他不仅是在世最著名的科学家,而且是战胜逆境的终极象征。50年来,他在患有运动神经元疾病(MND)情况下取得了非凡学术成就,而这种疾病的患者大多在两、三年内死亡。This week Professor Hawking enjoyed the limelight at the London premiere of the latest film about his life, The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne. Last week he showed off a new communications system designed by Intel, which enables him to write and speak more efficiently — in his famous American android voice — by registering tiny movements of his cheek muscles.最近,霍金教授在《万物理论》(The Theory of Everything)伦敦首映式上成为公众瞩目的中心,这是最新一部刻画霍金生平的电影,由埃迪#8226;雷德梅尼(Eddie Redmayne)主演。更早些时候,他展示了由英特尔(Intel)设计的新通讯系统,通过捕捉他脸颊肌肉的微小抽动,这一系统使他能够更高效地写作和讲话——用他那著名的美国机器人的声音。At the same time Prof Hawking stirred up controversywith his views on artificial intelligence, which “could be a real danger in the not too distant future”, he told the Financial Times by email. “The risk is that computers develop intelligence and take over. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.”同时,霍金对人工智能的看法激起了争议。他在发给英国《金融时报》的电子邮件中说,人工智能“可能在不太遥远的将来给人类带来真正的危险”。“风险在于电脑开发并掌控智能。人类受到缓慢生物进化的限制,可能无法与之竞争,并被取代。”Lord Rees, astronomer royal and fellow cosmologist, first met Prof Hawking in 1964 when both were graduate students at Cambridge university. “He was aly unsteady on his feet and spoke with great difficulty,” recalls Lord Rees. “I learnt that he might not live long enough even to finish his PhD.英国皇家天文学家、宇宙学家里斯勋爵(Lord Rees)第一次见到霍金是在1964年,那时两人都是剑桥大学的研究生。“他已经无法站稳,而且说话也非常困难,”里斯勋爵回忆说。“我意识到他可能活不了多长时间,甚至可能无法完成他的士学位。”“Astronomers are used to large numbers,” he adds. “But few numbers could be as large as the odds I’d have given, back in 1964 when Stephen received his ‘death sentence’, against ever celebrating this uniquely inspiring crescendo of achievement sustained now for more than 50 years.”他说:“霍金早在1964年就接到了‘死亡判决书’,而他还可以庆祝这一至今逾50年、不断发挥独特的鼓舞人心作用的辉煌成就,放在当年我会认为出现这一结果的几率无比之小。”Prof Hawking’s scientific reputation rests on his work on the relationship between gravity, space and time. “He has done as much to advance our understanding of gravity as anyone since Einstein,” says Lord Rees.霍金在科学领域的声誉建立在他对重力、空间和时间关系的研究上。“他是继爱因斯坦之后,在加深我们对重力的理解方面贡献最大的人,”里斯勋爵说。His most celebrated research concerns black holes, concentrations of matter so dense even light cannot escape their gravitational pull. Prof Hawking showed black holes are not just a bizarre theoretical construct but also play an important role in the development of the universe. His eureka moment came in the early 1970s, when he realised that black holes would not be completely black but would emit what became known as “Hawking radiation”, a key concept in mathematical physics.他最著名的研究成果与黑洞有关。黑洞是超高密度的天体,连光都逃不过他们的引力。霍金告诉人们,黑洞不仅是一种奇怪的理论建构,而且在宇宙的进化中发挥着重要作用。他的“尤里卡时刻”在上世纪70年代初降临,当时他认识到黑洞并不完全是黑的,而是会发射出被称做“霍金辐射“的能量,这个词后来也成为数学物理领域的一个重要概念。Although his subsequent work has not had such a strong scientific impact, he has continued to publish research papers on quantum cosmology, tackling questions such as what happened before the birth of our universe. His later output is doubly remarkable in a mathematical subject where most researchers peak at an early age.虽然霍金之后的研究没再产生那么大的科学影响,但他不断地发表关于量子宇宙学的研究论文,力图解答诸如宇宙诞生前发生了什么之类的问题。他后来在一个数学课题上取得了卓越成果,而在这一领域,大多数研究者在年轻时就达到了顶峰。He became a celebrity in 1988 with the publication of his first popular book, the bestselling A Brief History of Time. Ten further books have appeared, including four written for children with his daughter, Lucy. “The concept of an imprisoned mind roaming the cosmos plainly gripped people’s imagination,” Lord Rees says.霍金在1988年因其第一本畅销书《时间简史》(A Brief History of Time)成为名人。之后,他又出版了10本书,其中4本是为儿童以及他的女儿露西(Lucy)所写。“一颗身体被禁锢的心灵在宇宙中漫游的想法显然激发了人们的想象,”里斯勋爵说。Prof Hawking enjoys his fame, happily filling lecture rooms from London’s Royal Albert Hall to the White House. He has featured in Star Trek, The Simpsons and many other television shows. Several films have been made about him, including a notable portrayal by Benedict Cumberbatch in 2004.霍金享受他的声誉,他高兴地发表演讲,从伦敦的皇家阿尔伯特音乐厅(Royal Albert Hall)到白宫的演讲厅都挤满了他的听众。他在《星际迷航》(Star Trek)、《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)和其他许多电视节目中出演过。已有多部关于霍金的电影问世,其中包括本尼迪克特#8226;康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch)在2004年塑造的著名形象。The best account of Prof Hawking’s early life is his memoir, My Brief History,published last year. He grew up just north of London, the son of Oxford graduates. After three laid-back undergraduate years, also at Oxford, serious work began as a Cambridge postgrad. His illness started at that point, too.对霍金早年生活最好的记录是他的回忆录——去年出版的《我的简史》(My Brief History)。他在伦敦北部长大,父母都是牛津大学毕业生。他同样在牛津念大学,度过3年悠闲的本科时光之后,他成为一名剑桥硕士生并开始了严肃的研究工作。他的病情也是在那时开始发展的。The Theory of Everything focuses on Prof Hawking’s marriage to Jane Wilde, who looked after him and their three children with extraordinary devotion for more than 25 years. They broke up under the strain of 24-hour medical care — and in 1995 he married Elaine Mason, one of his nurses. That, too, ended in divorce and since 2006 he has depended on a team of helpers — and the best medical technology available.新片《万物理论》着重刻画了霍金与简#8226;怀尔德(Jane Wilde)的婚姻,后者为照顾霍金和他们的3个孩子做出了超过25年的非凡奉献。但在24小时医疗护理的压力下,他们离婚了。1995年,霍金与照看他的护士之一伊莱恩#8226;梅森(Elaine Mason)结婚,但这段婚姻也以离婚收场。自2006年以来,霍金一直依靠一个助手团队和当今最先进的医疗技术生活。Prof Hawking retains a strong sense of fun and adventure, though respiratory problems are curtailing his ability to travel and in particular to fly.霍金依然对和冒险保持强烈的兴趣,尽管呼吸道问题限制了他旅行,特别是坐飞机。“He is a fantastic symbol for people living with motor neurone disease,” says Belinda Cupid, research director of the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association, with his role in the 2012 London Paralympics opening ceremony particularly inspiring. “As patron of our charity, he is very generous with his time.” Why Prof Hawking has lived so much longer than other MND patients remains a medical mystery, however.英国运动神经元疾病协会研究部主任贝琳达#8226;丘比特谈到霍金在2012年伦敦残奥会开幕式上特别鼓舞人心的作用时说:“他对患有运动神经元疾病的人来说是一个神奇的象征。”“作为我们慈善机构的赞助人,他付出了很多时间。”但是,为什么霍金可以比其他运动神经元疾病患者多活如此之久仍是个医学谜题。In the past 15 years Intel engineers have looked after his communications needs. “They have redesigned my software and incorporated new word prediction algorithms that allow me to write faster,” he says. “Through my computer I can write, talk, scientific papers, make Skype phone calls and search on the internet. Recently I decided to join Facebook .”在过去15年中,英特尔的工程师一直在关注他的通讯需求。“他们重新设计了我的软件,并加装了新的单词预测算法,让我可以写得更快,”霍金说。“通过我的电脑,我能够书写、讲话、阅读科学论文、拨打Skype电话以及在互联网上进行搜索。最近,我决定加入Facebook。”Important as Prof Hawking’s own research has been, his role as a beacon inspiring young people to study maths and physics may be even more influential in the long run, says Professor David Wands, director of Portsmouth university’s cosmology institute: “The iconic figure of Hawking the celebrity is impossible to disentangle from his profound contribution as a scientist.”朴茨茅斯大学宇宙学研究所所长大卫#8226;万兹(David Wands)教授说,与霍金教授自己所做的研究同样重要的是,从长远来看,他作为鼓舞年轻人学习数学和物理的一盏明灯可能会发挥更大的影响。“霍金作为一个名人的偶像形象不可能脱离他作为一个科学家的巨大贡献。” /201412/349711。

US security services and cyber security specialists are scouring China’s latest five-year plan for clues to which US companies might become the next targets of Chinese hacking attacks.美国安全部门和网络安全专家正在细读中国最新的五年规划,从中寻找哪些美国企业可能成为中国下一批黑客攻击目标的线索。China’s last five-year plan highlighted energy, healthcare, steel and other sectors as focuses of its major initiatives from 2011 to 2015.中国的上一个五年规划将2011年至2015年期间的发展重点确定为能源、医疗、钢铁等行业。In the same period, companies such as health insurer Anthem, US Steel, Westinghouse Electric and medical device group Medtronic suffered what are believed by Washington officials to be state-sponsored hacks by China.在此期间,医疗保险公司Anthem、美国钢铁公司(US Steel)、西屋电气(Westinghouse Electric)、以及医疗器械集团美敦力(Medtronic)遭到了美国官员认为有中国政府撑腰的黑客攻击。“To China, gaining knowledge about seed technology or medical devices are matters of national security,” an FBI official said. “So it’s not seen as stealing the way we see it. That’s why everything is fair game to them and why companies active in sectors mentioned in the five-year plans have to be extra vigilant.”“对中国来说,获取关于种子技术或医疗器械的知识是国家安全问题,”美国联邦调查局(FBI)一名官员表示,“因此,此类行为不被视为我们所认为的偷窃。这就是为什么在他们看来一切都是合理目标,为什么活跃于五年规划所提到的行业的企业必须格外警惕。”The latest plan covering 2016 to 2020 focuses on modernising the military and improving green technology, including defence stealth technology, renewable energy and innovation .最新的五年规划涵盖2016年至2020年,侧重于军事现代化和改进绿色技术,包括军用隐形技术、可再生能源和创新。“There’s a direct connection between the sectors highlighted in China’s five-year plans and the businesses that suffer breaches in the US,” said Peter LaMontagne, chief executive of big data analytics group Novetta and a US diplomat in Beijing during the 1990s. “If it’s a priority for China, it should be a priority for US companies to protect themselves.”“中国五年规划所提到的行业与美国遭遇攻击的企业之间存在直接关联,”大数据分析公司Novetta首席执行官、上世纪90年代曾为美国驻北京外交官的彼得·拉蒙塔涅(Peter LaMontagne)表示,“如果这是中国的优先事项,那就应该是美国企业自我保护的优先事项。”China still relies on adapting technology and best practices from overseas for development. Beijing’s new plan will launch during one of the slowest periods of growth in decades, which might encourage more cyber espionage, security experts say.中国在发展方面仍然依靠借鉴海外的技术和最佳实践。安全专家们表示,北京方面的新规划将在几十年来经济增长最慢的时期之一投入实施,这可能会鼓励更多的网络间谍活动。Tom Kellermann, chief cyber security officer for Trend Micro, said the sectors that have been targeted by China have been severely hurt because companies benefiting from the breaches have been able to copy or improve products based on stolen data and then undercut US rivals in pricing.趋势科技公司(Trend Micro)首席网络安全官汤姆·凯勒曼(Tom Kellermann)表示,此前被中国瞄准的行业遭受了严重损害,因为获益于这些黑客攻击的中国企业能够在被窃数据的基础上仿制或改进产品,然后再定价上胜过美国竞争对手。 /201511/412692。

SAN FRANCISCO — TODAY, we’re filing a lawsuit against the National Security Agency to protect the rights of the 500 million people who use Wikipedia every month. We’re doing so because a fundamental pillar of democracy is at stake: the free exchange of knowledge and ideas.旧金山——今天,我们对国家安全局(National Security Agency)发起诉讼,以保护每月使用维基百科(Wikipedia)的5亿用户的权利。我们这么做是因为此事危及民主的根基,也就是知识和思想的自由交流。Our lawsuit says that the N.S.A.’s mass surveillance of Internet traffic on American soil — often called “upstream” surveillance — violates the Fourth Amendment, which protects the right to privacy, as well as the First Amendment, which protects the freedoms of expression and association. We also argue that this agency activity exceeds the authority granted by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that Congress amended in 2008.我们的起诉书指出,国家安全局对美国境内网络数据往来实施的大规模监控项目——通常被称为“上游”监控——违反了宪法第四修正案保护隐私权的规定,以及第一修正案保护言论及集会自由的规定。我们还认为,该机构的行动越过了国会2008年修订的《外国情报监视法案》(Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act)授予他们的权力。Most people search and Wikipedia anonymously, since you don’t need an account to view its tens of millions of articles in hundreds of languages. Every month, at least 75,000 volunteers in the ed States and around the world contribute their time and passion to writing those articles and keeping the site going — and growing.大多数人都是匿名在维基百科中搜索和阅读,因为要想查看维基百科中以数百种语言汇编的数千万条条目,用户是不需要有账号的。在美国乃至世界范围内,每月至少有7.5万名志愿者奉献自己的时间和热情,编写条目,使网站保持运转——并不断发展。On our servers, run by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, those volunteers discuss their work on everything from Tiananmen Square to gay rights in Uganda. Many of them prefer to work anonymously, especially those who work on controversial issues or who live in countries with repressive governments.我们的务器由非营利组织维基媒体基金会(Wikimedia Foundation)运营,这些志愿者通过它讨论自己的工作,话题涉及从天安门广场到乌干达同性恋权利问题等各个领域。其中很多人倾向于匿名工作,特别是那些研究有争议问题的志愿者,或者生活在极权统治国家的志愿者。These volunteers should be able to do their work without having to worry that the ed States government is monitoring what they and write. Unfortunately, their anonymity is far from certain because, using upstream surveillance, the N.S.A. intercepts and searches virtually all of the international text-based traffic that flows across the Internet “backbone” inside the ed States. This is the network of fiber-optic cables and junctions that connect Wikipedia with its global community of ers and editors.这些志愿者本应自如地开展工作,无需担心美国政府对他们阅读、编写的内容进行监控。遗憾的是,他们的匿名性根本得不到保障,因为国家安全局利用上游监控拦截并搜寻几乎所有经由美国“骨干网”传输的、基于文本的国际流量。而这个骨干网,正是连接维基百科与全球读者及编辑群体的光纤和枢纽网络。As a result, whenever someone overseas views or edits a Wikipedia page, it’s likely that the N.S.A. is tracking that activity — including the content of what was or typed, as well as other information that can be linked to the person’s physical location and possible identity. These activities are sensitive and private: They can reveal everything from a person’s political and religious beliefs to sexual orientation and medical conditions.结果,海外用户无论什么时候查看或编辑维基百科页面,国家安全局都有可能追踪其活动——包括阅读或输入的内容,以及其他涉及个人实际位置及潜在身份的信息。这些活动非常敏感和私密:它们可以透露一切信息,从个人的政治及宗教信仰,到性取向和健康状况。The notion that the N.S.A. is monitoring Wikipedia’s users is not, unfortunately, a stretch of the imagination. One of the documents revealed by the whistle-blower Edward J. Snowden specifically identified Wikipedia as a target for surveillance, alongside several other major websites like CNN.com, Gmail and Facebook. The leaked slide from a classified PowerPoint presentation declared that monitoring these sites could allow N.S.A. analysts to learn “nearly everything a typical user does on the Internet.”不幸的是,有关国家安全局监控维基百科用户的想法,并非凭空臆想。告密者爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)披露的一份文件明确指出,维基百科以及CNN.com、Gmail、Facebook等几家主要网站是监控的目标。一张被曝光的机密PowerPoint幻灯片显示,对这些网站的监控让安全局分析师可以了解“一个普通用户在网上的几乎所有活动”。The harm to Wikimedia and the hundreds of millions of people who visit our websites is clear: Pervasive surveillance has a chilling effect. It stifles freedom of expression and the free exchange of knowledge that Wikimedia was designed to enable.这对维基百科及数亿访问我们网站的用户的伤害是显而易见的:无处不在的监控产生了寒蝉效应。这压制了言论自由和知识交流自由,而维基百科旨在使人们可以行使这些权利。During the 2011 Arab uprisings, Wikipedia users collaborated to create articles that helped educate the world about what was happening. Continuing cooperation between American and Egyptian intelligence services is well established; the director of Egypt’s main spy agency under President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi boasted in 2013 that he was “in constant contact” with the Central Intelligence Agency.在2011年阿拉伯之春运动爆发期间,维基百科的用户开展合作,创建条目,帮助世界了解正在发生的事情。美国与埃及两国情报机构的持续合作得到了确认;阿卜杜勒-法塔赫·塞西(Abdel Fattah el-Sisi)政府主要情报机构的负责人在2013年夸耀称,他与中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency)“一直保持联系”。So imagine, now, a Wikipedia user in Egypt who wants to edit a page about government opposition or discuss it with fellow editors. If that user knows the N.S.A. is routinely combing through her contributions to Wikipedia, and possibly sharing information with her government, she will surely be less likely to add her knowledge or have that conversation, for fear of reprisal.现在想象一下,埃及有一名维基百科用户想要编辑一个有关政府反对派的页面,或与其他编辑进行讨论。如果这名用户知道美国国家安全局定期搜查她为维基百科贡献的内容,还可能与自己的政府分享信息,肯定会不愿意贡献内容或进行那样的对话,因为她会担心遭到报复。And then imagine this decision playing out in the minds of thousands of would-be contributors in other countries. That represents a loss for everyone who uses Wikipedia and the Internet — not just fellow editors, but hundreds of millions of ers in the ed States and around the world.然后再试想其他国家也有数以千计想要贡献内容的用户做出了这种决定。这对使用维基百科和网络的人来说是一种损失——不仅仅是编辑们,还有美国及世界各地的数亿读者。In the lawsuit we’re filing with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union, we’re joining as a fellow plaintiff a broad coalition of human rights, civil society, legal, media and information organizations. Their work, like ours, requires them to engage in sensitive Internet communications with people outside the ed States.我们在美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)的帮助下提起诉讼,我们像其他组织一样,作为原告加入了一个由人权组织、公民社会组织、法律、媒体及信息组织组成的广泛联盟。与我们一样,他们的工作需要与境外人士进行涉及敏感信息的网络交流。That is why we’re asking the court to order an end to the N.S.A.’s dragnet surveillance of Internet traffic.这就是为什么我们要求法院下令,终止国家安全局全面监控网络数据往来的项目。Privacy is an essential right. It makes freedom of expression possible, and sustains freedom of inquiry and association. It empowers us to , write and communicate in confidence, without fear of persecution. Knowledge flourishes where privacy is protected.隐私权是一项基本权利。它是言论自由的先决条件,为质询及集会自由提供持。它使我们有权秘密地阅读、撰写和交流,不用担心遭受迫害。 /201503/364988。