九江学院附属医院西院子宫肌瘤新华网
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An estimated 1500 Chinese die in explosions and rock slides.大约有1500名中国工人死于爆炸和岩石塌方Hung Leiwo survives.洪雷沃得以幸存His son will be the first Chinese-American to graduate an engineering from the University of California at Berkeley.他的儿子成了第一位毕业于加州大学伯克利分校工程专业的美籍华人Once through the mountains,track laying accelerates from 10 inches to 6 miles a day.打通了山脉之后火车轨道的铺设速度大大加快,从每天10英寸提高到每天6英里Each spike is struck 3 times.10 spikes to a rail.400 rails a mile.每个道钉钉3下,每节铁轨10个道钉,每英里有400节铁轨21 Million hammer swings complete the railroad.需要挥舞2100万下榔头铁路才能完工May 10th, 1869.A one word message arrives by telegraph:;Done;.1869年5月10日,电报传来一条只有一个词的消息:完工A six-month journey across the continent is cut to 6 days.从前横穿大陆要6个月,现在缩减为6天The folks would once had to risk everything in a wagon train.从前人们得押上全副身家才能加入西进的马车队That is eliminated.You can now can get on the railroad and travel from Boston to Sacramento.如今再也用不上了,你现在可以坐上火车,从波士顿一直坐到萨克拉门托Thats a revolution.这就是革命The Internet of the area, the transcontinental railroad, changes everything it touches,triggering a mass migration to the Great Plains贯穿大陆的铁路网改变了沿途的一切给大平原带来了大量的移民 The Great Plains conquered by steel and steam.蒸汽火车征了整个大平原The transcontinental railroad ths a thin line of civilization through the wilderness.横贯大陆的铁路为沿途的荒芜地区带来了文明People follow. In just one year, 40,000 settlers move to Nebraska,fanning out across the frontier in wagon trains.随之而来的是人口,仅仅一年里40000移民奔向内布拉斯加州,他们乘坐的马车奔向内陆的四面八方When in the mid-19th century to the late 19th century,they went out and settled some hostile territory known to mankind.从19世纪中叶到19世纪末,他们离开家乡定居在一些不适合人类居住的恶劣环境The Great Plain where I grew up.These were true pioneers.我就是在大平原长大的,他们是真正的先驱The government accelerates the process with the greatest land giveaway in history.政府慷慨的土地给予政策又加速了这一进程Anyone with a filing fee can claim free land.任何人只要花10美元的登记费就可以得到免费的土地A quarter are single women and ex-slaves.其中四分之一是单身女性和昔日的奴隶When you see the desperate scramble in these rickety wagon trains,you realize that promise of America was land.当你看到绝望的人们争相挤上颠簸的四轮马车,你会意识到美国的未来寄托在土地之上These are people who never in a million years would be a able own land in New York.就算再过一百万年这些人也不可能在纽约州拥有土地 /201211/209621

TEXT:This is how wars start. Come on, lets have it! Private Hugh Montgomery is hit with a club. An African-American, Crispus Attucks, dies instantly. Everybody, run! When the smoke clears, four more are dead. How Boston reacts will change the course of history. Silversmith and political radical Paul Revere captures the moment British soldiers kill five colonists in the streets of Boston.His engraving will fuel the fires of revolution as outrage sps across the 13 colonies. Unhappy Boston see thy sons deplore, thy hallowed walks besmeared with guiltless gore, whilst faithless Preston and his savage bands, with murderous rancor, stretch their bloody hands. The most formidable army in the world firing on an un armed crowd. An explosive image with a title that says it all: ;The Bloody Massacre.; There was the old joke, ;You give me a picture, Ill give you a war.; Those who wanted to stir things up and to make a statement and maybe even lead a revolution, it made them able to rally others to their side.News sps fast. The colonists are avid ers, a legacy from the first Bible-ing Puritans in Plymouth. Boston has the first weekly newspaper. There are now more than 40 papers across the colonies. And the new postmaster general, Benjamin Franklin has introduced a revolutionary postal-delivery system. Night riders cut the delivery time in half. The communications network connecting the colonies is one of the best in the world. And the British have no idea.They hope the news can be contained. Before news reaches England, most of America knows about the Boston Massacre. Its a very American spirit of an idea, this idea that everybody should have access to knowledge. Its very much like that pioneering idea, e verybody should be able to make their way in the world. A printer in Connecticut can the exact same story as a farmer in North Carolina. December 1773. ;The Boston Gazette; breaks another story, that will fan the flames of rebellion. 译文:战斗是这样开始的。士兵休·蒙哥马利被打了一棒,非裔美国人克里斯珀斯·阿塔克斯当场死亡。硝烟散尽时,又死了四个人。波士顿如何回应将改变历史的发展进程。 既是银匠又是政治激进分子的保罗·里维尔,雕出了英国士兵在波士顿街头杀死五个殖民地人的画面,他的雕刻将加速革命的爆发,愤怒之火迅速在13个殖民地之间蔓延开来。波城愤怒子民叹圣街竟遭血污玷,贼子帮凶多残忍,恶爪锋利乱伤人。世界上最强大的军队对着一群手无寸铁的人疯狂扫射,这幅震惊世人的画有个一目了然的标题--波士顿惨案。 迈克尔·R·彭[纽约市市长]:“有一个古老的笑话,给我一幅画,我还你一场战争。那些想挑起事端,表明立场甚至可能领导革命的人,通过这样能团结很多人站在他们那一边。消息迅速传播开了,移民们都是热心的读者,源自最初普利茅斯清教徒读圣经的传统。 波士顿有美国的第一份周刊,当时此地已经有了40多家报刊机构,加上新的邮政署署长--本杰明·富兰克林。已经建立起了一个革命性的邮政递送系统,连夜递送可以节省一半的时间,将各个殖民地联系到一起的联系网,是当时世界上最好的,英国当局对此一无所知,他们希望这个消息能够被压下来。在消息传到英国之前,绝大多数的美国人都已经知道了波士顿惨案。 吉米·威尔士[维基百科创始人之一]:“这充分体现了一种美国精神,那就是每个人都有权利去获取真相。这很像那个开创性的想法,即每一个人应该能够开创属于自己的路。无论是康涅狄格的印刷工人还是北卡罗来纳的农民都能读到同样的消息。1773年12月,《波士顿公报》曝出了另一件事,这将助长叛乱的火焰愤怒和不满的情绪日益高涨。《美国简史》系本纪录片历史背景背景知识:波士顿倾茶事件(上)《印花税法》废除后,英国政府与殖民地的和谐关系暂时恢复,但英国并没有利用这一时机实时调整其殖民政策,也没采取其他容易为殖民地居民所接受的方式筹集经费。他们只是高高在上,认为英国议会能代表整个大英帝国,有权拘束每一块土地和其领土上的每一个臣民。双方的利益矛盾并没能缓解多少,新一轮的冲突与擦再次发生。  (一)《唐森德税法》与;波士顿惨案;  1767年1月,英国议会在财政大臣查尔斯·唐森德的建议下,通过了一个新的税收法案,这个法案以建议者的名字命名为《唐森德税法》,法案规定:;英国的土地税由20%减至15%,由此产生的40万英镑差额,需要从殖民地所征的税收中得到部分弥补。;法案规定对从英国输入北美殖民地的颜料、铅、玻璃、茶叶、纸张等征收进口税;在波士顿设立海关税务司总署;税收人员可以到船舱、私人住宅、店铺、货栈搜查违禁品。  和《印花税法》一样,《唐森德税法》再次遭到殖民地居民的强烈反对,波士顿地区出现了激烈的抗议示威活动。1767年9月,波士顿城镇会议通过决议,号召殖民地人民不进口、不消费英国货,自己生产衣、家具、车辆、钟表和其他消费品,以摆脱英国的控制。图:波士顿惨案  在轰轰烈烈的抵制英货运动中,英国经济再次遭到重大打击。波士顿和费城的进口货物量减少了一半,纽约的进口货减少了83%。殖民地人民用手工纺织的土布代替英国的纺织品,用深红色的叶子泡茶叶,以殖民地自制的纸张代替英国的纸张,房屋不刷英国进口的油漆,时髦的花边也不见了,家庭产品成了自立光荣的标志。  为压制北美殖民地此起彼伏的抗议活动,英国向殖民地地区派遣了大量的军队。英军当时有两个团的兵力驻扎波士顿以防止走私,他们日夜在城里巡逻,但由于军纪不严,严重滋扰当地居民的日常生活。英国部队还允许士兵业余打工挣钱,结果使不少城市工人失业,英国士兵与城市居民的关系日益恶化。  1770年3月5日,驻扎在波士顿的英军以保护执行关税条例的英国官员为由,向进行抗议的一群当地民众开,结果打死四人,伤六人,这就是美国历史上著名的;波士顿惨案;。惨案的发生再次激起了人民反英情绪的高涨,约5万人参加了葬礼游行。在群众的压力下,总督下令从波士顿撤军,杀群众的士兵受到审讯。发生波士顿惨案的同一天,英国政府为缓和抵制英货的经济压力,废除了《唐森德税法》规定的关税,但保留对茶叶征收进口税,以维护英国议会有权向殖民地征税的原则。为反抗英国殖民者的高压统治,在当地绅士塞缪尔·亚当斯(Samuel Adams)的领导下,波士顿市镇会议的选民成立了第一个通讯委员会。通讯委员会的主要任务是通过信函传递,扩大宣传和互通情报,在马萨诸塞民众中间统一反英活动。3个月内,马萨诸塞很快就成立了80个通讯委员会,新英格兰的其他殖民地也加入了这一运动。最后,除宾夕法尼亚和北卡罗莱纳外,各殖民地至少有一个通讯委员会。到1773年,所有通讯委员会建立了联系。通讯委员会推动独立斗争统一行动,为第一届大陆会议的召开作了组织上的准备。(精下期继续...)

当海洋生物学家查尔斯·安得森在马尔代夫生活和工作期间,他注意到在每年的特定时候,大量的蜻蜓就会突然出现。他讲述了他是如何仔细跟踪一种名叫全球点水蜻蜓的很不起眼的蜻蜓的行迹,却不料发现它是世界上所有昆虫中迁徙旅程最长的。201204/179424

Today in History: Friday, November 02, 2012历史上的今天:2012年11月2日,周五On Nov. 2, 1948, President Harry S. Truman narrowly won re-election over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey.1948年11月2日,杜鲁门总统以微弱优势击败共和党候选人杜威获得连任。1783 Gen. George Washington issued his farewell address to the Army near Princeton, N.J.1783年,乔治·华盛顿将军美国新泽西州普林斯顿向军队发表告别演说。1795 James K. Polk, the 11th president of the ed States, was born in Mecklenburg County, N.C.1795年,美国第11届总统詹姆斯K.波尔克在北卡罗来纳州梅克伦堡县出生。1865 Warren G. Harding, the 29th president of the ed States, was born near Corsica, Ohio.1865年,美国第29届总统沃伦·哈丁在俄亥俄州科西嘉岛附近出生。1889 North Dakota and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th states.1889年,北达科塔州和南达科塔州成为美国的第39个和第40个州。1917 British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour expressed support for a national home for the Jews of Palestine in what became known as the Balfour Declaration.1917年,英国外交大臣阿瑟·巴尔弗表示持巴勒斯坦建立犹太人之家,这就是众所周知的《贝尔福宣言》。1947 Howard Hughes piloted his huge wooden airplane, the Spruce Goose, on its only flight, which lasted about a minute over Long Beach Harbor in California.1947年,霍华德·休斯驾驶着巨大的木制飞机Spruce Goose进行它唯一的飞行,在加州长滩港持续了大约一分钟。1959 Charles Van Doren admitted to a House subcommittee that he had the questions and answers in advance of his appearances on the TV game show ;Twenty-One.;1959年,查理·范多伦向众议院一个委员会承认,在电视游戏节目《21》中提前获得了问题和。1963 South Vietnamese President Ngo Dihn Diem was assassinated in a military coup.1963年,南越总统Ngo Dihn Diem在一次军事政变中被暗杀。1976 Former Georgia Gov. Jimmy Carter defeated Republican incumbent Gerald R. Ford, becoming the first U.S. president from the Deep South since the Civil War.1976年,前乔治亚州州长吉米·卡特击败共和党现任总统杰拉尔德·福特成为内战以来第一个来自南方腹地的美国总统。1983 President Ronald Reagan signed a bill establishing a federal holiday on the third Monday of January in honor of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.1983年,里根总统签署了一项法案,在一月的第三个星期设定联邦假日,纪念民权领袖马丁·路德·金。2004 President George W. Bush was elected to a second term.2004年,乔治W.布什连任美国总统。 Afghanistans election commission proclaimed President Hamid Karzai the victor of the countrys tumultuous ballot, canceling a planned runoff.年,阿富汗的选举委员会宣布总统哈米德·卡尔扎伊获得投票胜利,取消了计划中的决胜选举。2010 Californians rejected a ballot measure that would have made their state the first to legalize marijuana for recreational use.2010年,加州拒绝了一份欲使其成为第一个大麻合法化州的投票议案。 /201211/207268


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