明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年03月22日 04:32:14
In todays Tech bytes, Google unveils more details about its move to television. Google TV which marries the TV and Internet will support apps like most smart phones. Users will also be able to change a channel using voice recognition technology. Google TV launches in the fall.欢迎收看今天的Tech bytes,谷歌对其出产的新款电视透露了更多细节。谷歌电视融合了电视与网络的功能,并且像智能手机一样持软件应用。用户还能通过声控技术遥控换台。谷歌电视将于今年秋天上市。Apple launches its first attempt at social networking last week. Ping shows you what music your friends like and what your favorite artists are doing. Apple says it will be making improvements, but for now the Wall Street Journals Kitty Brett is not impressed:上周,苹果公司首次展现了其在社交网站方面的野心。Ping会显示你朋友最喜欢的音乐,你最喜爱的明星动态。苹果公司称这一社交网站还将继续完善,但华尔街日报的Kitty Brett认为前景并不乐观。;I found a lot of problems out of the gate, basically they have the musical part down pad, but the social aspect of the social network is a little bit lacking.;“我发现苹果的社交网站有很多问题,虽然它有和pad相连的音乐专区,但它作为社交网站还缺乏社会性。”Kitty says one of the biggest problems is that you cant import your friends from Facebook. Her full of view is on the Wall Street Journals website.Kitty说,最大的一个问题在于,你不能将你的好友从facebook上迁移过来。Kitty还有其他观点都发表在华尔街日报上。Those are your Tech bytes, Im Vinita Nyer.这就是今天的Tech bytes,我是Vinita Nyer。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/194762

Fatherless Honeybees没有父亲的蜜蜂How male honeybees can be without fathers? The reason lies in what’s called a haploidiploid system of sex determination. Approximately one-fifth of the animal kingdom, including ants and wasps, use this system. What it boils down to is that males are the result of unfertilized eggs whereas females are born from fertilized eggs.雄蜂是如何在没有父亲的情况下生存的呢?其原因在于一种叫做haploidiploid的性别鉴定系统。包括蚂蚁王国及黄蜂帝国在内的约五分之一的动物王国都是采用这一性别鉴定系统。归根究底就是:雄性是由未受精卵繁育而来,而雌性则是由受精卵繁育而来的。But in bees there is an added complication since there is a gene that determines whether a bee will be male or female. It’s all in the numbers. Here’s how it works. 但是,这一系统在蜜蜂王国内使用会比较复杂。因为蜜蜂体内还有一个基因决定着蜜蜂的雌雄。这一切的关键在与数量。下面我们就来谈谈它是如何起作用的。A scientist isolated a gene called CSD, or Complimentary Sex Determiner. There are 19 different versions of this particular gene. It doesn’t matter which one of these 19 versions a male inherits from his mother; he’s going to be male because of the fact that he has only one of these CSD genes.科学家们从蜜蜂体内分离出一种基因,叫做性别决定基因(简称CSD)。一般说来,这种基因在蜜蜂体内会有19个版本。哪一个性别决定基因是遗传自女蜂王的并无所谓。关键的是,如果说蜜蜂体内只有一个性别决定基因的话,毫无疑问,它必定是只雄蜂。Accordingly, a female becomes a female because she has two CSD genes, except for one catch. And that catch is a bee in the bonnet of bee breeders.那么,有两个性别决定基因的就是雌性蜜蜂,但有一种蜜蜂是例外。那就是担任着繁殖下一代重任的女蜂王了。Honeybee breeders often inbreed their bees in order to ensure desired traits. However, when bees are inbred it’s possible for fertilized eggs to end up with two copies of the same version of the CSD gene. The result is that the fertilized eggs would normally develop into workers or a new queen, develop into sterilized males.蜜蜂一般都是近亲繁殖,以此确保下一代能具有一定的特性。然而,在进行近亲繁殖时,受精卵可能会拥有两个相同的性别决定基因的版本。自然而然的,这些受精卵会发育成为工蜂或是新一代的女蜂王,或是不育的雄蜂。Worker bees sense these sterile males when they’re still larvae, and they kill them. Before you know it, your honeybee colony has died out. The good news is that now that scientists understand more about how sex is determined among honeybees, they may discover solutions to this problem.当这些不育的雄蜂还处在幼虫期时,若是被工蜂所发现,那小命也就没了。在人们知道之前,这一蜂群已然消亡。在这里,科学家们还是带来了一个好消息:科学家们对蜜蜂的性别决定机制已有了一定的了解,他们很快就会找出解决这个问题的方法。期待ing…… /201301/219846

Science and Technology科技Solar heat for oil wells用于油井的太阳热能Mirrors in glasshouses…温室的反光镜…...…can be used to heat stones…...能用于加热石头THERE is a lot of energy from ancient sunshine stored in the oil that sits below the deserts of Oman.古代阳光的很多能量储存于埋藏在阿曼沙漠下的石油里。There is also a lot of sunshine hitting those deserts today.如今,还是有很多阳光照射在这些沙漠之上。A new wrinkle to an established technology should allow some of that current sunshine to be employed to get at more of the ancient stuff.不过,一项已确定的技术革新应该允许那部分如今的阳光能被用于从古老的原料中提取到更多东西。Using heat—in the form of steam—to liberate disobligingly thick and gunky oil which would otherwise stay in the ground is nothing new.运用热能---以蒸汽的形式---来释放(放出)不方便使用的浓厚而黏稠状的石油,否则这些石油会留在地下,这没什么新鲜的。Such enhanced-recovery techniques date back to the 1950s and 40% of Californias oil production now depends on steaming subterranean rocks in this way.这类提高的采收石油技术可以追溯到20世纪50年代。现如今,40%的加州石油产品就是以这种方式依赖热气腾腾的地下岩石生产而成。The steam, however, is made by burning other fossil fuels—normally natural gas—and because heating rock takes a lot of steam, making that steam takes a lot of money.然而,通过燃烧其它化石燃料来生产蒸汽---一般为天然气---而因为加热岩石需要很多蒸汽,所以生产蒸汽花费很大。It also adds to the oils climate footprint.它还增加石油的(气候变化)的碳排放量。The amount of gas used means that a barrel of Californian heavy oil gives the stuff from Canadas tar sands a run for its money in terms of associated greenhouse-gas emissions.根据相关的温室气体排放量,天然气的耗费量意味着每桶加州重油竭尽全力打败了加拿大沥青砂岩中提取的原油。GlassPoint, a small Californian company, thinks it can make steam for oil recovery more cleanly and cheaply by using sunshine to do the heating.加州的一家小公司---玻璃点太阳能公司认为,通过使用阳光来加热,它能为采油生产更清洁和更便宜的蒸汽。This sounds surprising.这听起来令人感到意外。Solar-thermal power stations, which employ mirrors to concentrate sunlight on boilers and thus raise steam to generate electricity by turning turbines, are far from cheap compared with gas-fired stations.太阳能热发电站利用反光镜将太阳光集中到锅炉上,因而提升蒸汽转动涡轮机来产电,与燃气站相比一点也不便宜。But solar-thermal electricity faces exacting challenges.然而,太阳能热发电面临严峻的挑战。To feed a turbine you need particularly pure steam, which can be a problem if you are in a desert.为了给涡轮机提供特别需要的纯蒸汽,如果在沙漠里的话,这可能是个问题。And to get the most out of the system you need the steam to be both very hot indeed and available in copious amounts.而且为了从这个系统中得到最多,确实需要非常高温的蒸汽而且要用的量很大。Oil wells, GlassPoints founders noticed, are far less demanding consumers in these respects. 玻璃点太阳能公司的创始人注意到,在这些方面,油井是要求少的多的消费者(消耗者)。The steam used can be comparatively dirty.Nor does it have to be infernally hot.相比之下,使用的蒸汽可以脏些,温度也不需要过高。And even a small amount of it, added to an existing gas-based recovery process, can make a useful contribution.而且,甚至添加少量的蒸汽到现有的以天然气为基础的采油过程也能产生作用。There are, though, disadvantages to having to work in an oilfield.虽然,如果必须在油田运用蒸汽的话,确实有些不利条件。People building solar-thermal power stations prefer sites low in dust.人们喜欢在粉尘量低的位置建造太阳能热发电站。Those serving the oil industry must go where the rigs are, however dusty and mucky the air.无论空气尘土多大,多么肮脏,为石油工业务的人们必须跟随钻井走。GlassPoint seems to have found a neat solution to this: it puts its mirrors indoors. Greenhouses are easy to buy, quick to erect and, thanks to off-the-shelf kit designed for the purpose, simple to keep clean, too.玻璃点太阳能公司似乎已经为此找到了一套干净利落的方案:把反光镜放在室内。由于为建温室目的而设计现成的成套用品,人们很容易购买到温室,很快就能建造起来,而且保持清洁也很简单。Moreover, sheltering the mirrors from the wind allows those mirrors to be a lot lighter, making them both cheap to build and ship, and easier to turn in order to follow the sun.此外,为保护反光镜免受风的侵蚀,准许这些反光镜重量要轻的多,使得它们既建造便宜也容易运输,而且为了跟进太阳而更容易转向。GlassPoints boss, Rod MacGregor, thinks that taking capital costs and the lifetime of the plant into account his firm can produce steam at .78 per million British thermal units (btu), which is .58 a gigajoule.玻璃点太阳能公司的老板罗德?麦格雷戈(Rod MacGregor)认为,考虑到工厂的资金成本和历史,他的公司能产生蒸汽每百万英(制)热单位(BTU)3.78美元,这是每千兆焦耳3.58美元。Steam from gas comes in at .79 per million btu.天然气加热的蒸汽达到每百万英(制)热单位(BTU)5.79美元。A pilot project in California, he says, has been producing steam as intended since the beginning of the year.他说,自年初以来,加州一个实验项目已经产生了预期的蒸汽。And the company has now signed a deal with Petroleum Development Oman for 7 megawatts of plant—a 16,000-square-metre greenhouse providing some 57 billion btu of steam a year.而且该公司现在已经与阿曼石油开发公司签署了7兆瓦工厂的协议---一个16000平方米的温室,每年大约提供570亿百万英(制)热单位(BTU)的蒸汽。If it pans out, the technology could sp fast.如果这个实验项目发展开来的话,那么这项技术可能会传播很快。Mr MacGregor expects Oman to be using 200 trillion btu of steam a year for oil recovery by 2015.麦格雷戈先生预计,到2015年为止,阿曼石油开发公司每年可以使用200万亿每百万英(制)热单位(BTU)蒸汽来开采石油。Not all of that steam could be solar, but a system which used high-pressure solar steam during the day and low-pressure gas-generated steam by night, to keep the pipes hot, might get 80% of its power from the sun.并非所有的蒸汽来自太阳能,而是来自一个系统。白天,这个系统使用高压太阳蒸汽,而晚上使用低压天然气产生的蒸汽,保持管道热乎,或许80%能量可从太阳光获得。That would free up a lot of gas for export—or for turning into petrochemicals.这将可以得到很多天然气用于出口---或用于转变成石油化学制品。Enhanced oil recovery currently uses a quite remarkable amount of energy: 1.7 quadrillion btu of gas around the world every year, according to GlassPoint.目前,提高石油开采使用相当大的能量:根据玻璃点太阳能公司所述,每年,世界各地需要使用1.7×1015每百万英(制)热单位(BTU)的天然气。Not all of that is in sunny places, but there are many deserts besides Omans that have oil beneath them.并不是所有天然气都在阳光充足的地方,但是,除了阿曼沙漠下面有石油外,许多沙漠下都有石油。The paradoxical possibility, then, is that solar-thermal technology might end up producing a lot more oil than electricity in the years to come.然而,自相矛盾的可能性是,在未来几年里,太阳能热技术最终可能生产许多石油,而不是电。 /201211/209591

  Science and Technology Avian malaria and climate change Bite the birds科技 禽虐与气候变化 鸟类受害Malaria among birds is becoming more prevalent鸟类中的疟疾感染越来越多MOSQUITOES, which carry malaria parasites, like the warm and wet conditions that are expected to become more common with climate change.携带疟原虫的蚊子喜欢温暖潮湿的环境,由于气候变化的影响这种环境可能会越来越普遍。This has led many to reason that malarial infections will increase.因此很多人推论,疟疾感染将会增加。Yet studies run into the unreliability of modelling future climatic effects and sometimes ignore changes in land use and health care.但是很多研究遇到了未来气候效应模型不可靠的问题,而且有时忽视了土地使用和健康保健方面的变化。However, a new analysis of the sp of avian malaria shows that for the birds, at least, there is a real worry.然而,一项新的对禽虐传播的分析显示,至少对于鸟类而言,真正令人担忧的状况已经出现。Laszlo Garamszegi, of the Do?ana Biological Station in Spain, studied patterns of malarial infections in birds to avoid confounding human factors in determining the epidemiology of a closely related parasite.在对一种有密切关系的寄生虫进行流行病学鉴定时,为避免混入人为因素,西班牙多尼亚纳生物站的喇撒?噶母赛棘研究了在鸟类中疟疾感染的模式。He looked at 43 previous studies that had carefully screened 3,000 bird species for malaria in different locations over the past 70 years.他察看了以前的43份研究。这些研究仔细鉴别了过去70年来在不同地区的3000中鸟类感染疟疾的情况。He found that an increase in global temperatures of 1°C was accompanied by a two-to threefold increase in the average prevalence of malaria in birds.他发现,全球气温每增加1°C,鸟类平均疟疾患病率随之增加两到三倍。The most dramatic increases took place during the past 20 years.最急剧地增加是发生在过去的20年间。Dr Garamszegis work, published in Global Change Biology, found that the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) showed a malaria prevalence that was less than 10% before 1990 when worldwide temperatures were cooler, but in recent years nearly 30% were infected.噶母赛棘士的论文发表在《全球变化生物学》杂志上,他发现,家雀(Passer domesticus)的疟疾患病率在1990年以前不到10%,那时全球气候比较凉爽,但是在最近的一些年里几乎30%被感染。The great tit (Parus major) presented a similarly worrying increase, with less than 3% infected with malaria before 1995 but closer to 15% in recent studies.大山雀(Parus major)的患病率有类似令人担忧的增加,1995年之前不到3%,而最近接近15%。The blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), a migrant bird common in Europe that breeds in gardens, once had virtually no avian malaria but a study in 1999 showed nearly 4% had the disease.黑头莺在欧洲一种常见的候鸟,它们生活在很多公园里,实际上它们曾经并没有禽虐感染,但是1999年的一项研究显示,几乎4%的黑头莺感染了这种疾病。The effects of warming on avian malaria were not universal. Birds in Asia, North America and South America suffered much less change in their levels of infection during warm years than did birds dwelling in Africa and Europe.气候变暖对禽虐的影响并不普遍。亚洲、北美和南美的鸟类,在气候变暖的若干年里,其感染率的变化较小,而生活在非洲和欧洲的鸟类则受影响较大。Such trends may not have any relevance to the malaria parasites that infect humans.这种趋势与感染人类的疟原虫可能没有任何关系。But avian malaria is aly ravaging the native birds of Hawaii and it is now wreaking havoc in New Zealand, says Dr Garamszegi.但是禽虐已经毁掉了夏威夷的本地鸟类,它目前在新西兰正造成着巨大的破坏,噶母赛棘士说。Human beings may be able to mitigate the sp of malaria, but birds will need the help of conservationists if some species are to survive.人类也许已经使疟疾的传播减缓,但是如果某些鸟类要幸存下来,就需要环境保护主义者们的帮助。 /201212/214489

  Beware Of Text Neck!小心短信脖子Remember when the Blackberry was all the rage, and people worried about straining their thumbs typing on that tiny keyboard?还记得黑莓很流行的时候,人们担心在那个小小的键盘上拉紧拇指输入对手指不好吗?Well, now that the iPhone and other smart phones have taken center stage, theres another malady gaining traction text neck.嗯,既然苹果手机和其他智能手机已成为主流,另一种弊端出现了,就是会产生短信脖子。Seriously text neck, as in all that hunching over phones and tablets playing Angry Birds, causing muscles in the neck, shoulders, and even arms and hands to become strained. And all that strain can lead to chronic pain, because the joints and muscles of the neck and shoulders are not meant to be flexed for long periods.严肃地说,当人们低着头弓着身体玩着手机或者平板电脑里的游戏,比如愤怒的小鸟时,就会使得脖子上、肩膀甚至手臂上和手上的肌肉处于拉紧的状态。这些全部的拉紧会导致慢性疼痛,因为脖子,肩膀连接处和肌肉本应该处于很长的放松的状态的。There’s even been a study on the text neck phenomenon. It found that among 140 students or so surveyed, those who used tablets and smart phones at least three hours a day were more likely to experience neck and shoulder pain than those who used the devices less frequently.甚至还有一个关于短信脖子现象的研究。在被调查的140多个学生当中,相比那些不经常使用的人,那些每天至少玩三个小时平板电脑和智能手机人更有可能会脖子和肩膀疼。True, 140 students is a pretty small sample. But anecdotal evidence is legion. And chiropractors and orthopedic doctors have been advising people to avoid text neck by not hunching over their devices. Instead, try tucking your elbows into your side and holding the device up by your chest.事实上,140个学生是个很小的抽样检查。但是轶事据却是大量的。脊椎师和整形外科的医生已经建议人们为了避免短信脖子,用那些电子产品时尽量不要弓着脖子。试着在一边托着你的肘部拿着那些电子产品的高度要在胸部以上。And, of course, it’s important to take regular breaks from staring into your smart phone’s bottomless digital playground.当然,有规律地暂时从盯着你的智能手机的游戏无底洞式的画面转移,休息一下很重要。There’s even a text neck app that alerts you when you’re hunching over your device and reminds you to straighten up.甚至有防止短信脖子应用出现了,当你弓着脖子盯着电子设备时,提醒你要伸直脖子。 /201206/186647。

  As Irene travelled north to the Canadian border, she continued to inflict damage, leaving destruction in her wake. Heavy rains falling on aly sodden ground, led to widesp flooding and damage in the northeast. It will be a long time before these communities return to normal life.飓风艾琳北上越过加拿大边境时,灾难仍在持续。飓风扫过,满目疮痍。暴雨倾泻在满是积水的地上,在东海岸造成大面积洪灾。让这些社区恢复到原样还需很长时间。;Around the State, there has been very significant damage. I understand that more than 260 roads are closed. There are numerous bridges that have been knocked out. Theres one confirmed fatality and theres a search going on for four people in the southern part of the State.;“肆掠的飓风已经造成了重大灾害。目前了解到,有超过260条公路被迫关闭,大量桥梁轰然倒塌。确认已造成1人死亡,4人失踪,目前搜救队仍在西部地区紧张寻找失踪人口下落。”Up and down Americas east coast, people assess the damage. Irene has been a deadly storm, destroying property and infrastructure and leaving millions without power. But the predicted catastrophe never fully materialized. New York, one of those cities, that escaped the worst. Despite a total public transport shut-down and evacuations, an inconvenient Monday commute and the ongoing cleanup, now the real concerns as Americas most populous city recovers from a near miss.美国东海岸上上下下的居民都在评估灾难带来的损失。致命风暴艾琳摧毁了房屋,基础设施,造成断电,使上百万人口无电可用。然而灾祸是永远预测不了的。其中一个受灾城市——纽约躲过了这一劫。除了公共交通完全瘫痪,人口疏散,工作日上下班不方便和清理工作外,最关键的是美国这个最受欢迎的城市侥幸脱险。;Its going to take time to recover from a storm of this magnitude. The effects are still being felt across much of the country, including in New England and States like Vermont where theres been an enormous amount of flooding.;“从如此巨大的飓风中恢复还需一段时日。全国大对数地区,包括新英格兰州,佛蒙特州等遭遇到巨大洪灾的州仍然受到影响。”The damage caused by this storm will cost billions to put right. Irene may not have been as devastating as feared but her impact will be felt for some time to come.将灾区恢复正常将花费数十亿美元。飓风艾琳的毁灭性也许不那么令人胆寒,但未来一段时间会感受到她带来的压力。Hannah Thomas-Peter, Sky News, New York.汉娜·托马斯·彼得,天空新闻,纽约。201206/186818

  ;THAT city will, in the course of time, become the granary of the world, the emporium of commerce, the seat of manufactures, the focus of great monied operations,; predicted DeWitt Clinton, governor of New York in 1824. He was speaking about the effects of the Erie Canal, which connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River. Originally derided as ;Clintonrsquo;s folly;, the canal helped to open up the west, allowing New York to benefit enormously from an explosion of trade. Within 15 years of the opening, New York was the busiest port in America, moving more than Boston, Baltimore and New Orleans combined. The plan to open an applied sciences university campus in New York City, reckons Seth Pinsky, who heads New Yorkrsquo;s Economic Development Corporation, is an ;Erie Canal moment;.德维特bull;克林顿,纽约当时的统治者,在1824年谈及连接五大湖区和哈德孙河的伊利运河时曾预言;城市经过时间的洗礼,将成为世界的粮仓,商业中心,制造业园区,吸引大型盈利项目的关注。;起初此言论被嘲笑是;克林顿式的愚蠢;,然而西部地区因运河而实现开放,纽约因激增的贸易往来而迅速地发展起来。运河开通后的15年间,纽约成为美国最繁忙的港口,吞吐量超过波士顿、巴尔的及新奥尔良的总量。纽约市经济发展局局长宾斯基预计在纽约市兴建一所应用科技大学将造就一个;伊利运河时刻;。The cityrsquo;s embrace of high-tech has aly begun. Tech clusters have emerged in Manhattanrsquo;s Flatiron District and Brooklynrsquo;s Dumbo, home to firms like STELLAService and Etsy. Venture-capital firms and angel investors have been looking at New York more seriously than they once did. Henry Blodget, of Business Insider, notes ;the financing ecosystem has also gotten very well developed, from late-stage private equity right down to angel investing.; Some .2 billion was invested by venture-capital firms in New York in 2010. The Big Apple even overtook Massachusetts in venture-capital funding for internet and tech start-ups, making it second only to Silicon Valley. And in the third quarter of last year, it surpassed it in venture capital in all categories. Between 2005 and 2010 employment in New Yorkrsquo;s high-tech sector grew by nearly 30%. Google alone has about 1,200 engineers in the city.纽约早已对高科技产生青睐。各种科技型企业涌入曼哈顿的Flatiron区及布鲁克林的Dumbo区,从家庭式企业到公司如STELLAService 和Etsy。风险投资公司和天使投资人在纽约格外认真地寻找着机会。《商业内幕》的亨利bull;布拉吉说道金融体系在这里已发展得十分完善不论是从后期的私募股权投资还是天使投资。;2010年纽约风险投资公司的投资额约为12亿美元。大苹果城在对互联网及科技新兴企业的风险投资方面甚至超越马萨诸塞州,而仅次于硅谷。去年的第三季度中,各行业的风险投资均超出原有的资本量。2005年至2010年间纽约高科技行业的就业率增长近30%。单谷歌一家就拥有1200名工程师。Much of this growth has been organic, but there has been some help from City Hall. Since 2002 the city has set up more than 40 projects to help the biotech sector and helped create a network of incubators supporting start-ups in that area. It also established a m municipal entrepreneurial fund, the first of its kind outside Silicon Valley. A year ago Michael Bloomberg, a tech entrepreneur before he became New Yorkrsquo;s mayor, called on universities to pitch plans to develop and operate a new tech campus in New York in exchange for access to city-owned land and up to 0m in public money.这其中很多是内生性增长,但仍有一部分得益于市政厅的持。自2002年纽约已设立超过40起项目以促进生物行业的发展并构建企业孵化网路扶持创业企业。不仅如此,纽约还设立了除硅谷外首家2200万美元的城市创业基金。一年前,曾是一位商人的纽约市长迈克尔bull;彭,号召大学为纽约成立一所新的科技大学集思广益,并将市属土地及高达1亿美元的公共资金作为奖励。New York received seven proposals from 17 top institutions, including Stanford University which did so much to create Silicon Valley. Almost 6,000 companies, including Google, Hewlett-Packard and LinkedIn, trace their beginnings to Stanford. But Stanford withdrew from the competition last month, days before the mayor announced the winning proposal, which came from Cornell, an Ivy League university, and its partner Technion, an Israeli technology institute. The latter is considered to be one of the driving forces in Israelrsquo;s tech industry. It helped turn Israel from a country of orchards to one of semiconductors. Some 4,000 start-up companies are located around its campus.纽约收到来自17所名校的7份项目建议书,其中包括为硅谷的建立做出极大贡献的斯坦福大学。将近6000家公司的创立都可追溯到斯坦福大学,如谷歌及惠普以及LinkedIn。但是就在上个月,就在市长宣布中标的建议书出自作为常春藤名校联盟中的一员,康奈尔大学及其搭档Technion;;一家以色列的科研中心的前几日,斯坦福大学退出了竞争。Technion被认为是以色列科技产业的推动力之一。它促使以色列从水果之国转变成半导体生产大国之一。校园附近凝聚着近4000家创业企业。201201/167776Business商业报道HPs grand vision惠普的远大宏景Aping IBM效仿IBMHP needs to transform itself if it is to avoid becoming obsolete若想避免被淘汰,惠普需要自我更新WHEN the board of HP, the worlds largest computer-maker, unveiled plans to restructure, it expected the companys shares to suffer; but not to crash by 20%.当全球最大的计算机制造商—惠普—的董事会公开了其改组计划之后,它预计公司的股份会下跌,但没想到会下跌20%。HPs bosses thought investors would love their plan to spin off the firms low-margin personal-computer business, but be wary of their plan to buy Autonomy, a British software-maker, for a handsome .3 billion.惠普的股东们以为这个让惠普低毛利的个人电脑得以大赚一笔的计划会受到投资人的喜爱;而103亿美元高额收购Autonomy的计划则会使投资人踌躇不前。In fact, they hated both ideas. On August 19th, the day after the announcement, they wiped billion off HPs market value.事实上,投资人对这两个计划都没兴趣。惠普对外宣称其计划的第二天,8月19日,惠普的市值下降了120亿美元。One problem was that the announcement left unclear what HP wanted to do with its PC unit and why exactly it intends to pay so much for Autonomy. Another factor was that many of the firms shareholders are short-termists, who were scared away by lowered revenue and profit forecasts.一方面,这此宣告并没有明确讲明惠普对其个人电脑有何打算,也没有说明它为什么要以如此高额来收购Autonomy;另一方面,惠普的很多股东都是短期投资人,他们被低收入以及低利率前景吓到了。But the big problem is that Léo Apotheker, HPs newish boss, is taking a huge gamble.但最大的问题在于惠普的新老板Léo Apotheker这次玩大的:He is trying to follow the example of IBM, by reducing HPs dependence on hardware and pushing up into software and services.他打算效仿IBM,减少惠普对硬件的依赖,而转向软件和务业务。To grasp what HP has in mind, one has to understand the two main currents in the IT industry.要弄清楚惠普脑袋里装的是什么,就要先知晓目前IT行业的两股主要潮流:First, nearly any new technology quickly becomes a commodity that is easily copied and hence not very profitable.第一,几乎所有的新技术都会一夜之间成为简单复制的商品,因此利润也有限。This is why IT firms are always trying to move up the stack into software and services, where margins are higher.这就是为什么IT公司总是想办法进军跻身利润更加丰厚的软件业和务业。Second, the biggest IT firms typically control what is known as a platform: a digital foundation on which others build their products, such as Microsofts Windows.第二,典型的大型IT企业会操控一个平台:一个他人会在上面创建电子产品的基础,如同微软的Windows。This allows them to capture a disproportionate share of the industrys profits.这使得它们得以获得份额不一地利润。HP seems to have ignored both currents, at least in the past decade. Carly Fiorina, its boss from 1999 to 2005, merged with Compaq, another computer-maker, in a deal worth billion.至少过去十年来,惠普似乎对两股潮流都视而不见。惠普1999年至2005年的总裁Carly Fiorina以250亿美元并购了另一家电脑制造商Compad。Mark Hurd, her successor, cut costs but was ousted in 2010 after a dust-up over sex and expenses before he could fix the firms strategy.Carly Fiorina的后继人Mark Hurd降低了出,但2010年,他还没完成惠普的战略计划之时,他就因陷入财政和性爱双重丑闻而被扫出局。That job now falls to Mr Apotheker.如今重任落在了Mr Apotheker肩上。The firms PC business is the worlds biggest, but is not as profitable as HPs other units.惠普的个人电脑业务规模居全球之首,但利润还是比不上惠普的其它业务。What is more, most buyers of HPs machines are consumers, whose demands shift faster and more whimsically than those of corporate customers.此外,惠普的大多数客户是消费者,相比那些企业客户,他们的口味变化既快又古怪。So HP intends to turn its PC business into a separate unit and then spin it off.因此,惠普想要将其个人电脑业务独立出来,并争取扩大利润。Buying Autonomy also helps HP to move onto higher-margin terrain: the British firms operating margins exceed 40%.收购Autonomy也帮惠普进军更大利润的领域:这个英国公司的盈利空间超过40%。But the main reason HP paid a 64% premium for its shares seems to be that it believes that Autonomys technology could be turned into a platform to help companies make sense of their ever-growing pile of data.但是惠普愿意购买64%的股份似乎是因为它相信Autonomy的技术可以转变为一个平台,这个平台有助于企业处理其日益增长的数据。This includes not only structured data, but also the unstructured kind, which now makes up more than 80% of the information that flows through a typical company.不仅包括结构化数据,还包括那些如今构成一个典型企业80%信息量的非结构化数据。Such a platform would allow firms to do some nifty things.这样一个平台使得企业做事更有效率。A retailer, for instance, might decide how much beer to stock based not just on previous sales records, but also on weather forecasts, party chatter on social media and schedules for sports matches.比如,一个零售商不仅可以之前的销售记录为依据,还可以天气预报、媒体上的党派言论以及体育项目的记事日程来决定啤酒的囤货量。All this sounds sensible.这一切听起来似乎都很明智。But establishing a new platform and ultimately becoming a firm that looks much like IBM is a tall order.但建立一个新的平台并最终成就一个类似IBM的企业并非易事。Many other firms are also jostling to become the main interpreter of corporate data.很多企业也在处理企业数据领域相争得你死我活。To reach its goal of having software generate 8-9% of its revenues by 2015, up from less than 3% today, HP will probably have to make further acquisitions.惠普的计划是在2015年之前使得软件盈利占其收入的8-9%,而今天软件为惠普带来的收入只占了3%,要完成这一目标,惠普可能要再并购其他企业。And its services business is mainly about keeping IT systems running, not about helping firms reinvent themselves.而惠普的务业主要着眼于保持IT系统正常运转,而不是重构企业本身。Given the difficulties, it is not surprising that many shareholders have bolted.考虑到这些困难,那么大多数股东打退堂鼓也就不足为奇了。But HP and its new boss should not be faulted for trying.但不应该谴责惠普及其新老总的尝试。They have little alternative, if they wish to avoid becoming a collection of commodity businesses.如果他们想要避免沦落为一个商品企业,那么他们就别无他选。Technology is a brutal business, says Mr Apotheker. If you dont innovate and reinvent yourself, you will become obsolete.技术行业是很残忍的, Apotheker说道,如果你不自我创新,那迟早会被淘汰。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231331Steve SquyresMartian odyssey has taken him from pole to pole,史蒂夫·斯奎尔斯的火星奥德已经将他带到了两极之间,visiting those places on earth that share at least some of the same charactersistics.参观地球上至少有一些相同特点这样的地方。They are extremely dry and extremely cold,那里极其干燥而且非常冷,all extremely dead. Death valley is one of his favorites.好像万物都已经死亡。死亡谷是他的最爱之一。This is actually a really important place, its a place we call Mars Hill.这实际上是一个非常重要的地方,我们称这个地方为火星的山。Ah, we first found this place about 20 years ago.啊, 大约20年前我们发现这个地方。In those day, the only successful landings that take place on Mars were the two Viking Landers,在那些日子中,唯一成功登陆火星的是两个维京号着陆器,and they landed in places that looked very much like this.它们登陆的地方,看上去就像这样。In order to plan for the current Mars mission,为了当前的火星任务计划,and they tested the camera, then other equipment.他们测试了摄像机,然后是其他设备。NASA needed a good Mars look like, they found it at the Mars Hill.NASA需要火星很不错的样子,于是他们就发现了火星山。To your eyes, the main way in which Mars would look different from this scene would be the color.对于我们的眼睛而言,火星主要会从颜色看上去而不同。The color of the sky and the color of the rocks and the color of the soil.天空的颜色,颜色的岩石和土壤的颜色。注:听力文本来源于普特 201204/178192


  Imagine a kitchen without pots, pans or even recipes. Its a concept that one of the worlds largestappliancemakers envisions for the future. The heart of the whole unit is an all-in-one kitchen surface, kitchen table and bar. The changeable work area with the cooker, table and pots adjusts its shape when directed by the user. To use it, the cook places ingredients on the surface which analyses them to come up with recipe suggestions. Then the user marks with the hand size of the area. The depth is adjusted by pressing the malleable surface. Once the surface fits the requirements, the user sets the time and temperature with the swipe of the hand. The table can also determine whether the ingredients are fresh.想象一下厨房如果没有锅碗瓢盆会是什么样子。这就是世界上最大家电制造商眼中的未来厨房。整套厨房设施的核心就在于全能料理台。用户使用时可直接调节工作区大小。为了应用方便,放置食材的台面可以显示菜单。然后,用户用手选定工作区,工作区深度由可延展的台面决定。当台面符合烹饪要求时,用户手动设定时间和温度。料理台甚至可以自动判断食材是否新鲜。We want to create a concept that allows for a morph-living, which means you can have a living space that can either be your living room, your social zone, your kitchen, your bedroom, whatever that sort of adapted itself to how you live your life and what different situations you are in.我们是想创造一种灵活的生活方式,也就是说营造一种生活空间,包括客厅,会客室,厨房,卧室。这些空间都会因为你的生活情况而改变。Some of the materials for the unit aly exists, such as the malleable ferrofluid, a material usually made up of about 5% magnetic solids, 10% flatant and 85% carrier.这类台面的材料已经诞生了,比如可塑性铁磁流体,这是一种由5%磁性固体,10%flatant材料和85%的架组成。One of the biggest challenges is of course that you are skipping a number of product interations because you are looking so far into space all the time. So its a number of product generations that you dont actually do so you are saying that, well done, take it quantumly and look at how are people gonna socialize. To do that, you are gonna have to release yourself from preconceived ideas what you can or what you cant in your own industry.很明显,现代人生活的最大挑战生活空间太小,我们总是忙于寻找足够的空间而忽视了各项事物相互之间的联系。所以,有很多产品你并没有用过,好了,从宏观的角度去看待人类的社会性。要实现这一点,我们公司首先要做到的就是合理地预见自己能和不能做到的事情。The company says for now, the concept is meant totriggerdiscussion, feed-back and ideas from designers and scientists. The company says it is doing a lot of trend in consumer research into how people would live and socialize in the future. According to research by the ed Nations, 74% of the worlds increasing population will be living in cities by 2050, making it necessary to rethink how space and energy is used and the environmental impact.这家公司表示,现在这一理念引发了设计师和科学家们的一系列想法和反馈。公司针对未来人类理想生存和生活状态。根据对美国人的调查,到2050为止,世界上74%的人口增长将会在城市,因此重新考虑空间和能源消耗和环境保护是十分重要的。Natalie Armstrong for Reuters.com.路透社消息,Natalie Armstrong报道。appliance家用电器triggervt. 引发 n.扳机The earthquake may trigger landslides or similar local surficial movements.地震会引起滑坡或类似的局部地表运动。He pulled the trigger and the bottle was shot to pieces.他扣动扳机,瓶子当即被打得粉碎。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/186653

  Science and Technology Palaeontology Remember the tooth科技 古生物学 牙齿的痕迹A link is made in an ancient ecosystem古代生态系统中的线索WHO ate whom in the food chains of the past is rarely clear.在古代谁以吃谁为生是不清楚的。Though it is obvious which species were predators and which prey, the subtle specialisations of feeding habit that allow many types of carnivore to co-exist are rarely preserved in the fossil record.尽管谁是捕食者和谁是猎物是很明显的,但是专门的微妙的捕食习惯,能让多种食肉动物能够共存的资料很少有保存完好的化石记录。Rarely, but not never.很少有记录不表示没有。That is why the recent discovery of a Jurassic ammonite with a sharks tooth embedded in its shell has excited palaeontologists.这就是为什么最近发现侏罗纪菊石,连同壳上面的鲨鱼牙齿让古生物学家非常兴奋。The ammonite in question, Orthaspidoceras, a species that thrived 155m years ago, was part of the collection of an amateur who did not realise the significance of what he had found.发现的鹦鹉螺是,一种叫Orthaspidoceras的生活在一亿五千五百万年前的生物,化石是由业余爱好者收藏的,他没有意识到他发现的化石的意义。Romain Vullo of the University of Rennes, however, did-and he has brought the discovery to the attention of the scientific world in the pages of Naturwissenschaften.法国雷恩大学的Romain Vullo却明白,而他在《自然科学》杂志上的几页论文吸引了科学界的注意。Ammonites were both predators and prey.鹦鹉螺既是捕食者也是猎物。They occupied a position in the Mesozoic oceans similar to that of modern squid.他们生活在中生代的海洋中,跟现代乌贼相似。Like squid, they were swimming tentacled molluscs-a group called the cephalopods.跟乌贼一样,鹦鹉螺是游动的有触须的软体动物,属于头足纲动物。Unlike squid, though, they had protective shells.不像乌贼,鹦鹉螺有保护壳。These shells were divided internally into gas-filled chambers.这些保护壳的里面有充满气体的分隔小室。The result had neutral buoyancy, allowing the animal to move (like squid) by jet propulsion.结果就是鹦鹉螺有浮力,让其像喷气发动机推进一样的运动,这点跟乌贼一样。Modern pearly nautiluses, whose relationship to ammonites is much debated, have a similar arrangement.现代珍珠一样的鹦鹉螺跟远古鹦鹉螺的亲缘关系尽管还有待验,但是现代鹦鹉螺也有类似的充气推进机制。What ammonites-or, at least, some of them-ate became clear earlier this year when an X-ray showed a small crustacean in the jaws of a species called Baculites.鹦鹉螺吃什么的问题今年有了,x光显示杆鹦鹉螺的咽喉中有小甲壳类动物的痕迹。But what ate ammonites has never been shown in such an unambiguous manner.但是什么吃鹦鹉螺从来没有像现在一样模棱两可。Some ammonite fossils have tooth marks that look as though they were made by huge reptilian predators called mosasaurs.一些鹦鹉螺化石上有牙印,看上去仿佛是巨大爬虫类捕食者比如沧龙留下的。Some appear to have been attacked by the beaks of other cephalopods.有些牙印似乎是被其他头足纲攻击的痕迹。And some seem to have been bitten by sharks.有些牙印似乎是鲨鱼留下的。On top of that, coprolites, as palaeontologists politely describe fossil faeces, have turned up with ammonite shells in them.最重要的是,对古生物学家礼貌地描述中的粪化石的研究表明,有些粪便中有鹦鹉螺的壳。Based on comparisons with modern evacua, these are probably from sharks.随着现代技术的发展,研究表明这些粪便来自于鲨鱼。But which sharks? Dr Vullos ammonite nails one culprit.但是哪种鲨鱼吃鹦鹉螺呢?Vullo士的化石标本确定了其中的一个罪魁祸首。The tooth belongs to a species called Planohybodus.化石中鹦鹉螺外壳上的牙齿属于一种叫做平弓鲨的物种。And that is a surprise.这是一个惊喜的发现。Those modern sharks that eat shelled animals have robust teeth for crunching through hard exteriors.觅食有壳动物的现代鲨鱼通常长着强壮的牙齿,可以咬穿坚硬的外壳。The teeth of Planohybodus, in contrast, were slender and pointed-the sort usually associated with grasping and tearing at flesh.相反,平弓鲨的牙齿,是那种纤细而突出的,一般让人联想到抓住和撕裂肉。In a modern predator, that would indicate the habit of eating fish.在现代掠食者中,拥有这种牙齿意味着习惯吃鱼。That a shark with teeth like this would try to make a meal of an ammonite is, at first sight, odd.长着这样牙齿的鲨鱼,会试图吃掉鹦鹉螺,美餐一顿的理论,乍一看有点古怪。But second thoughts provide a possible explanation.但想一想就有了合理的解释。Ammonites manoeuvrability would have depended crucially on their buoyancy control.鹦鹉螺的灵活性主要建立在浮力控制上面的。Even a small puncture to the shell, which a pointed tooth would be well able to deliver, would let the water in and cause that control to vanish.即使是壳上的一个小洞,可能就是这样尖牙造成的,就会让水进入壳内,鹦鹉螺从而无法控制浮力。Since ammonites could not withdraw entirely into their shells for self-defence, it would then just be a question of dragging the creature out of its chamber in order to eat it.鹦鹉螺不能完全缩回外壳内自卫,于是就很可能就会被从外壳中拽出,成了其他生物的美食。And for that, sharp, pointed teeth are ideal.这样说来,锋利的尖牙是完美的武器。 /201212/216353。

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Pakistans future;Resilient mess;文艺;书评;巴基斯坦未来;扑朔迷离的未来;The Future of Pakistan. By Stephen Cohen and others.《巴基斯坦的未来》,斯蒂芬·柯恩著。It seems optimistic to write a book called “The Future of Pakistan”; it assumes the country has one. Tot up the assorted threats and its survival may look dubious: Islamists, separatists, potentially stray nuclear weapons, the war in Afghanistan, economic and natural disasters, a booming and restless young population, unfathomably venal leaders, rotting institutions and violent megacities. Any of these could yet spell the countrys demise (see our special report this week).作者似乎以乐观的态度写《巴基斯坦的未来》这本书;书中倒是希望巴基斯坦的未来会让人乐观。综合各种威胁,巴基斯坦的犹存似乎让人疑虑重重:伊斯兰教徒和独立主义者盛行,潜在的核武器事端,阿富汗战争,经济和自然灾难,迅速增加的颓废的年轻人,国家领导人卷入受贿深渊,机构腐败,大城市暴力事件不断。上面的任何一个事件可能招致这个国家的灭亡。Individually, none of the 17 expert contributors to this frank and detailed volume is quite so apocalyptic. But their collective mood is grim. In pondering scenarios for the coming years, these various specialists have produced a flood of gloomy details and prognoses.不同的是,在这本平实而详细的书中,17位撰稿人没有任何一位作出预言般的警告。但是这些专家都感觉前景的黯淡。当思考未来愿景时,这些来自各个行业的专家都传达大量令人沮丧的事实和预测。Stephen Cohen, a well-respected observer of Pakistani politics at the Brookings Institution, sets the tone by observing how Pakistanis lack even a shared idea of their nation. They are increasingly divided between the urban and rural, the educated and illiterate, and by competing religious strands. “The new normal is abnormal,” he observes.巴基斯坦布鲁金斯研究所的备受尊崇的政治家斯蒂芬柯恩,通过观察巴基斯坦人如何缺少意见交流,以此定下本书基调。城市和乡村,高等学历者和文盲之间的分化日益严重,宗教团体竞争日益激烈。“正常之中有些反常” 斯蒂芬柯恩说。The country is threatened by various long-term trends. Of Pakistans 185m people, two-thirds are younger than 30 years old. Only the population of Yemen—hardly a model of stability—is more youthful. One poll taken among such youngsters and cited in the book suggests that three-quarters might emigrate if given the chance. Also many of the young hold extreme religious views, unleashed by the zealous regime of Zia ul Haq in the 1980s.这个国家正收到各种长期流行趋势的威胁。巴基斯坦的18.5亿人口,2/3的人口都未满30岁。只有也门的人口,因其流动性小,人口年轻化更严重。通过对年轻人的民意调查,显示3/4的年轻人如果给予机会就会搬迁。本书也引用这次调查结果。也有很多热衷于穆罕默德·齐亚·哈克政权持的年轻人被释放,他们持有极端宗教主义观念。Rapid urbanisation brings more problems. Over a third of Pakistanis now live in towns and cities, where tribal and rural rivalries are morphing into violent, urban warlordism. Town-dwelling Pakistanis are “historically more religious and conservative than rural populations,” writes Shuja Nawaz of the Atlantic Council. They also have smaller families, and the youngsters are often left to fend for themselves. Thus it is in towns that both extremists and the armed forces increasingly find recruits, which bodes ill for preserving moderate views inside the army. Oddly, little space is given to the bloody turmoil in Karachi, perhaps the worlds most violent metropolis.城市化的快速发展也带来不少问题。超过1/3的巴基斯坦人居住在城镇和城市中,部落和农村日益蜕变成暴力和城市的傀儡。来自大西洋理事会的舒贾·纳瓦兹说,居住在城镇的人“历史性的变得比农村人更虔诚更保守”。他们的家庭人员很少,最小的孩子不得不照料自己。在城镇中极端分子和武装力量成员日益壮大,军队的中立态度预示着好的征兆。奇怪的是,血腥的暴力事件频繁发生于卡拉奇,它恐怕是世界上最残忍的大都市。The armys destructive habit of meddling in Pakistani politics continues unabated. Roughly every decade this switches from explicit power grabs to unsubtle efforts to manipulate civilian leaders. For now Pakistan is in the latter phase. Though this book went to press before the most recent civilian-military clash, known as Memogate, the authors may well prove largely right in predicting lots of scheming but no new coup for some years yet.军队并没有改掉总是插手于巴基斯坦政治这个破坏性的恶习。似乎每个十年都发生从攫取政权到试图操控平民领导人的转变。现在巴基斯坦处于后者的掌控中。虽然此书在军民冲突(备忘录门)前已经出版,但其在预测大量阴谋方面的观点都正确,但是几年来没有产生新政权的更替。Within the gloom there are glimmers of hope. Most of the authors expect Pakistan to hobble forward more or less in its current state. The lives of some will improve. Literacy rates are rising fast (79% of men under 24 can now , says the World Bank), families are shrinking (even in rural areas the norm is now to have four children, down from as many as ten two generations ago) and the press, generally, is more open than before. One sharp contributor, Aqil Shah, reckons that Pakistan will become “neither Sweden nor Somalia”, as the armys strong grip will prevent disintegration but also block growth of strong civilian institutions. Even an optimist would not describe Pakistans glass as half full—keeping it unbroken may be the best one could hope for.在阴霾之中还有一丝希望。面临这样的状况,大部分专家希望巴基斯坦人能或多或少在蹒跚中摸索前行。一些人的生活会得到改善。教育普及率迅速增加(据世界说24岁以下的人中79%的人能阅读 ),家庭人员减少(在农村普遍是四个孩子,比两代前的很多孩子相比下降)。Aqil Shah认为巴基斯坦不会步瑞士和索马里后尘,军队紧握政权使其免于风崩离新的可能,但也阻遏了平民机构的强劲增长。甚至乐观主义者也不会将巴基斯坦描绘为半满的玻璃杯——而保持这个玻璃杯的完整可能是人们最希望的。 /201212/217643



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