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江西省看输卵管堵塞哪家医院最好的贵溪市男性不育一般需要多少钱This week’s landmark agreement between the U.S. and China on limiting emissions of carbon dioxide marks a significant diplomatic milestone in the struggle against global climate change. The fact that the two largest sources of CO2 have finally agreed to do something about it should, in theory, give a boost to next year’s ed Nations climate summit. Whether the actual terms of the deal—which calls for the U.S. to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 26% to 28%, compared to 2005 levels, by 2025, and for China to cap its emissions by 2030—have a realistic shot at being met is another question.上周,中美就限制二氧化碳排放达成重大协议,这在应对全球气候变化方面是一个里程碑式的外交事件。理论上,世界上最大的两个二氧化碳排放国最终同意就此采取行动将为明年的联合国气候变化峰会带来积极影响。按照协议,到2025年,美国的温室气体排放量将比2005年下降26-28%;到2030年,中国将实现温室气体排放零增长。不过,问题在于,这些目标能否真的实现。On the U.S. side, Republicans emboldened by the midterm elections will work to block any attempt to fulfill America’s side of the bargain, which Republican Sen. Jim Inhofe, of Oklahoma, soon to be chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, called “a non-binding charade.”美国方面,中期选举增强了共和党的实力。该党成员将阻止美国政府试图履行协议中的自方责任。即将担任参议院环境和公共工程委员会(Senate Environment and Public Works Committee)主席的俄克拉荷马州共和党参议员吉姆o英霍夫(Jim Inhofe)将中美之间的这份协议称为“毫无约束力。”China’s challenge in meeting the terms of the bilateral agreement are not political but structural: simply put, to reduce emissions growth, China must reduce the size of its coal industry, which supplies some three-quarters of China’s electricity. That is no easy task.就履行这份双边协议而言,中国面临的并非是政治难题,而是结构性挑战:简而言之,要降低温室气体排放增速,中国就必须压缩煤炭行业规模。而煤电约占中国目前发电量的四分之三,这绝不是一项轻而易举的工作。But Beijing must take action, because the smog-choked nation can hardly stick with the status quo. The climate deal is part of a larger strategy to address China’s pollution crisis.但中国政府必须采取行动,因为这个雾霾笼罩下的国家无法再安于现状。而这份气候协议正是中国应对污染危机宏图大略的一部分。The costs of China’s heavy reliance on coal for power generation were highlighted again days before the deal with President Obama was announced, when a pair of researchers at the prestigious Tsinghua University released a study showing that around 670,000 people die prematurely every year as a result of air pollution from coal. Every ton of coal produced in China adds more than 286 yuan () in environmental damage and health costs, reported Teng Fei, an associate professor at Tsinghua University. China produced nearly 4 billion tons of coal in 2013, according to the World Coal Association.就在中美宣布签署协议前几天,知名学府清华大学两名研究人员所发布的一项报告显示,燃煤引发的空气污染每年都会造成约67万人过早死亡,这再次突出了中国严重依赖煤电所付出的代价。清华大学副教授腾飞指出,中国每生产一吨煤,就会产生286元人民币的环境和健康成本。而据世界煤炭协会(World Coal Association)的数据显示,2013年中国生产了近40亿吨煤炭。The Tsinghua study follows a 2011 report by the World Health Organization, published in The Lancet, that estimated that 1.2 million people in China died in 2010 from diseases related to all forms of air pollution. China also has by far the deadliest mining industry in the world: One thousand forty-nine coal miners died in accidents in 2013, down 23% from the year before but still far more than any other country.上述研究成果出炉前,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)曾于2011年在医学杂志《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)上发表报告称,2010年有120万中国人死于各种空气污染引发的疾病。同时,中国还是世界上死于矿难人数最多的国家:2013年有1049名生产人员死于煤矿事故,虽比上年下降了23%,但仍远高于世界其他国家。Mounting evidence of coal’s environmental damage comes as China’s slowing economy has reduced demand for electricity, creating an oversupply crisis for an industry that has known nothing but steady growth for the last three decades. China has reached “a very critical moment in the management of its coal resources, and in the history of the coal industry,” says Cao Xia, a professor of environmental law at Shanxi University of Finance and Economics, in China’s coal heartland, Shanxi Province.就在经济增速放缓造成中国电力需求下降之际,体现煤炭污染环境的据越来越多,这给30年来一直以稳定增长著称的煤炭行业带来了供给过剩危机。在中国产煤大省山西,山西财经大学环境法教授曹霞认为:中国在煤炭资源管理方面以及在煤炭行业发展史上已经到了“一个非常关键的时刻。”The direct, domestic impacts of the nation’s massive coal industry, which produces and consumes about as much coal as the rest of the world combined, are added to the indirect, worldwide costs in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. No international program to combat climate change can succeed unless China slashes its burning of coal.中国煤炭行业规模庞大,煤炭产销量几乎和全球其他地区的总和相当。除了在国内造成的直接影响,这个行业产生的温室气体排放还给整个世界带来了间接成本。除非中国削减煤炭消费量,否则任何应对气候变化的国际性方案都无法获得成功。“The actions China takes in the next decade will be critical for the future of China and the world,” wrote Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern in a research paper for the Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy, in London. “Whether China moves onto an innovative, sustainable, and low-carbon growth path this decade will more or less determine both China’s longer-term economic prospects … and the world’s prospects of cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficiently to manage the grave risks of climate change.”费格斯o格林(Fergus Green)和尼古拉斯o斯特恩(Nicholas Stern)在向伦敦气候变化经济和政策中心(Center for Climate Change Economics and Policy)提交的研究报告中写道:“中国在今后10年采取的行动对中国和全球的未来都很关键。在这10年里,中国能否实现创新和可持续的低碳增长将或多或少地决定中国的长期经济前景……也将决定全世界的温室气体减排幅度是否足以应对气候变化带来的重大风险。”Facing mounting public outrage over air and water pollution, the central government’s actions to limit coal use have multiplied in recent months. The Airborne Pollution Action Plan, unveiled by the central government in September 2013, calls for a reduction of air pollution in the northern region surrounding Beijing by 25%, and 20% in the Yangtze River Delta.随着公众对空气和水污染不满的渐增,近几个月,中国中央政府限制使用煤炭的力度倍增。2013年9月,中央政府发布了《大气污染防治行动计划》,目标是让京津冀地区细颗粒物浓度下降25%,长三角地区下降20%。Aly, strict limitations on coal use in major urban areas, including Beijing and Shanghai, are in place. Planning to cap total coal production at 4.1 billion tons as of 2015, the government said in October it will no longer approve new coal mining projects below 300,000 metric tons (330,000 short tons), effectively banning the small, unregulated mines that have contributed to the coal glut. Hundreds of small mines have aly closed, and the government has also taken steps to restrict imports of “dirty” coal—i.e., coal with high levels of ash and sulfur. (Although China’s coal market is oversupplied, imports continue because domestic transport issues mean it’s often cheaper to purchase coal shipped from Indonesia or Australia than buy domestic coal from the northern provinces of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.)包括北京和上海在内的主要城市已经对使用煤炭做出了严格限制。按照十二五规划,2015年中国煤炭产能将达到41亿吨。今年10月份,中国政府表示,将不再核准新建30万吨(约合33万净吨)以下的煤矿,这实际上封杀了那些造成煤炭供给过剩的小型不规范煤矿。数百个小煤矿已经关闭,中国政府同时采取措施限制进口“脏”煤,即含硫量和灰分高的煤炭(尽管中国煤炭市场已经供过于求,但受国内运输条件限制,购买印尼或澳大利亚煤炭要比购买山西和内蒙等国内北部省份的煤炭便宜,所以中国一直在进口煤炭)。At the same time, though, China is embarking on a grandiose plan not to shut down the coal industry but to move it inland, away from the big cities of the coast and from the prying eyes of international environmental groups. As I reported for Fortune from Shanxi Province in April, coal producers, under the direction of the central and provincial governments, are building huge “coal bases” in the northwest provinces that will include large mines, power plants connected to coastal cities via gigantic high-voltage transmission lines, huge plants to convert coal to liquid fuel, and related facilities such as concrete plants and chemical plants.与此同时,中国正在实施一项宏伟计划,其内容不是整体关闭煤炭行业,而是将其迁移到内陆,远离沿海地区大城市以及国际环保团体的挑剔目光。今年4月份我曾从山西向《财富》杂志发回过报道,在中央和省政府的指导下,煤炭企业正在西北省份建立大型煤炭基地。这些基地将包括大型煤矿、通过特高压输电线路和沿海城市相连的发电厂、大型煤制油工厂以及混凝土厂和化工厂等配套设施。This huge migration and consolidation may well clean up the skies in cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen, thus reducing rates of respiratory disease and deaths linked to air pollution. It could also rationalize the coal industry, better matching supply to demand, and reduce China’s imports of foreign oil. What it won’t do is reduce the country’s overall carbon emissions; in fact, it could drastically increase them, as more coal gets burned and more carbon-intensive processes – particularly coal-to-liquids conversion – are expanded.这项重大的迁移及整合计划可能会让北京、上海和深圳等城市的天空蓝起来,从而降低空气污染引发的呼吸道疾病发病率和死亡人数。这项措施还有可能理顺煤炭行业格局,让供需更加平衡,并减少中国的石油进口。但它无法降低中国的整体碳排放水平。实际上,此举可能大幅度提高中国的碳排放量,原因是燃煤数量的增多以及碳密集型生产工艺将得到更普遍的使用,特别是煤制油。“We are very concerned” about the coal-base plan, says Ailun Yang, a senior associate with the World Resources Institute who focuses on energy issues in China. “Enforcing tougher air pollution standards along the coast will lead to shutting down coal plants, and create demand for a lot more gas. The western parts of China want to supply the gas by turning coal into gas. That process will be very, very bad for the world.”世界资源研究所(World Resources Institute)重点关注中国能源问题的高级研究员杨艾伦(音译)说:“我们非常担心。在沿海地区执行更严格的空气污染标准意味着关闭燃煤发电厂,这将为天然气带来大量需求。中国西部地区想将煤转换成天然气并对外供应。这对全世界来说是一项非常不好的工艺。”Headline writers often refer to China’s “addiction” to coal. The relationship might be better thought of as a bad marriage, where neither partner can afford to leave. China needs the coal industry to fuel its demand for energy, which will surely continue to rise as the economy grows (even at rates of 7% to 8% a year, rather than the red-hot 10% to 12% annually of the last decade) and the middle class expands. The coal industry, of course, requires rising demand to continue to grow, to generate returns on its huge capital investments of the last decade, and to provide jobs for the hundreds of thousands of people who work in coal mines, coal plants, and related industries. In Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Xinjiang, entire cities depend on coal production and processing.新闻头条记者经常用“依赖上瘾”来形容中国与煤炭的关系。将此想象为一场失败的婚姻也许更为合适——在这里,双方谁也离不开谁。中国需要煤炭行业来满足国内能源需求。随着经济的增长(就算年增长率为7-8%,而不是过去10年中白热化的10-12%)和中产阶层的扩大,中国的能源需求必将继续上升。当然,煤炭行业也要依靠需求的不断扩大来保持增长,从而为10年来投入的大量资金提供回报,并通过煤矿、燃煤发电厂以及相关行业创造出数以十万计的就业机会。在山西、内蒙古和新疆,都存在着整座城市都依赖于煤炭开采和加工的现象。Coal in China has created an economy within an economy, and reducing the size of the coal industry would result in massive unemployment across large swaths of the country. Notwithstanding China’s huge push on renewable energy and natural gas, it’s hard to see how this co-dependency will be broken any time soon.煤炭行业已经在中国经济体系中自成一体。压缩煤炭行业的规模将造成大量人员失业。尽管中国正在大力推广可再生能源和天然气,但很难想象中国经济和煤炭的这种相互依存关系很快就会被打破。That’s not to say there’s no hope. China’s overall energy intensity (the amount of energy required to produce a given unit of GDP) has gone down in recent years, as the export-led economy shifts toward higher-tech products and services. Most areas of the country are on track to meet or exceed energy-conservation targets for 2015, according to the National Development and Reform Commission (as reported by Reuters), and the rate of growth in energy use is expected to fall by half this year compared to 2013. According to China-based researchers for Greenpeace, the total amount of coal burned in the first three-quarters of 2014 was 1% to 2% lower than the same period a year earlier.但这并不是说没有希望。近几年,随着中国的出口型经济向科技含量较高的产品和务转移,中国的整体能源密集度(创造单位GDP所需的能源)已经下降。据路透社(Reuters)报道,国家发改委表示,中国大多数地区都将达到或者超额完成2015年节能目标;预计今年中国的能源消费增速将比2013年下降一半。绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)驻中国研究人员指出,2014年前三个季度,中国的燃煤总量比上年同期减少了1-2%。“The data suggests the world’s largest economy is finally starting to radically slow down its emission growth,” wrote the Greenpeace analysts.绿色和平组织的分析师们写道:“相关数据表明,作为全球最大的经济体,中国终于开始从根本上降低温室气体排放增速。”Still, the coal beast on the mainland continues to grow. In October, just as the results of the Tsinghua University study of coal fatalities was being released, the national news agency Xinhua reported that a huge coal field, containing 12.8 billion tons, had been discovered in western Xinjiang. Mining has aly begun.不过,难以驾驭的中国煤炭行业仍在增长。今年10月份,就在清华大学公布上述研究结果的同时,新华社报道称新疆西部发现了储量128亿吨的大型煤田,而且已经开始采煤。 /201411/343049萍乡市输卵管通而不畅的价格 The sound of 16,000 people chanting “Ali, Alibaba” fills the Yellow Dragon Stadium in Hangzhou, a city on China’s eastern coast. As the theme to The Lion King begins to blare over the sound system, a diminutive figure rises through the stage floor.在华东城市杭州的黄龙体育馆,16000人有节奏地反复喊着“阿里,阿里巴巴”。接着,《狮子王》的主题曲在音响系统中响起,一个瘦小的身影从舞台中升了起来。Dressed in leather and sporting a giant spiked Mohawk, black lipstick and a nose ring, Jack Ma begins to belt out an off-key rendition of Elton John’s “Can you Feel the Love Tonight” to his adoring employees.马云(Jack Ma)身穿皮衣,戴着一顶巨大而有尖顶的莫西干式假发,涂着黑色唇膏并穿了一个鼻环。他拉开嗓门,有点走调地向崇拜他的员工们演唱埃尔顿#8226;约翰(Elton John)的《今夜你能感觉到爱吗》(Can you Feel the Love Tonight)。It had been 10 years since Mr Ma founded Alibaba, the internet company that made him a billionaire, and it was time to celebrate. Soon, it will be time to celebrate again: Alibaba, the world’s most successful ecommerce company, is preparing to sell shares in a global initial public offering that is expected to be valued at well over 0bn.这是马云创立阿里巴巴10周年纪念会,这家互联网公司使他成为了亿万富翁,这是一个庆祝的时刻。不久,另一个值得庆祝的时刻又将到来:阿里巴巴这家全球最成功的电子商务公司正准备进行首次公开发行(IPO),预计其市值将远超1000亿美元。Mr Ma has been a cult figure in China for years. But he captured the attention of the world this year as excitement built around the impending IPO, which will let investors own a slice of the fastest-growing internet market on the planet.多年来,马云在中国一直是受人崇拜的偶像人物。但在今年,随着市场对阿里巴巴即将进行的IPO越来越感兴趣,他也吸引了世界的关注。上市将让投资者有机会在全球增长最快的互联网市场持有股份。Alibaba’s sales now exceed those of eBay and Amazon combined and make up about 2 per cent of China’s gross domestic product. Seventy per cent of all Chinese package deliveries come from Alibaba sales. Roughly 80 per cent of Chinese ecommerce transactions are conducted through Alibaba’s sites. And this is probably just the beginning, considering more than half of China is still offline. With 600m people using the internet and counting, China will soon overtake the US as the world’s biggest ecommerce market.阿里巴巴的销售额如今超过了eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)之和,占到了中国国内生产总值(GDP)的约2%。中国所有的快递包裹中约有70%来自于阿里巴巴的销售。中国的电商交易中大约有80%是通过阿里巴巴的网站进行的。而这很可能只是一个开始,因为仍有一半以上的中国人不上网。鉴于中国网民人数已经达到6亿,而且还在不断增加,中国将在不久超越美国,成为全球最大的电商市场。Mr Ma, godfather of China’s scrappy entrepreneurial spirit, is the FT’s 2013 Person of the Year because he personifies the Chinese internet – with all its potential and its contradictions.身为中国斗志旺盛的企业家精神“教父”的马云,被英国《金融时报》评为2013年度人物,因为他是中国互联网的化身——体现了中国互联网的全部潜力和矛盾。In a nation whose success has been built largely on business ideas developed elsewhere, Mr Ma is a true innovator. His contemporaries have mostly copied established business models to create “China’s Google”, “China’s Amazon” or “China’s Twitter”. But when Mr Ma started Alibaba in his apartment in 1999, this type of business-to-business ecommerce website did not exist.在中国,创业成功大多依赖于借鉴海外发展起来的商业理念,但马云是一位真正的创新者。与他同时代的人,大多复制成熟的商业模式,创立“中国的谷歌(Google)”,“中国的亚马逊(Amazon)”以及“中国的推特(Twitter)”。但当马云1999年在自己的公寓里创立阿里巴巴时,企业对企业(B2B)电子商务网站还不存在。Mr Ma is now setting his eyes on a new goal: shaking up Chinese finance. This has sent shockwaves through the staid, state-dominated financial sector and shows that his ambitions extend well beyond online retail.马云现已将目光投向新的目标:撼动中国的金融业。这在古板的、公有制为主体的中国金融行业激起了轩然,并表明马云的雄心远远超出了在线零售业。But there is another reason for choosing Mr Ma this year: his decision in May to step down as Alibaba’s chief executive at the age of 48 to devote himself to tackling some of China’s biggest problems – in particular its looming environmental disaster.但将马云评为今年的年度人物还有另一个原因:今年5月,他决定在年届48岁之际卸任阿里巴巴首席执行官职务,转而投身于应对中国一些最大的问题——尤其是中国日益迫近的环境灾难。He remains executive chairman of the company but his decision to focus less on the blind pursuit of riches and more on improving the state of the world reflects a profound shift in Chinese society – one that is being facilitated by the rise of the internet. After three decades of double-digit economic growth, the country’s growing and increasingly vocal middle class is no longer content with a myopic focus on GDP growth rates.马云仍是阿里巴巴的执行董事长,但他决定将更少的精力用于盲目追求财富,而将更多精力用于改善世界面貌,这反映了中国社会的深刻转变——互联网的崛起正使这种转型变得更加容易。在经历了30年的两位数经济增长后,中国不断壮大且越来越愿意表达自身诉求的中产阶层不再满足于短视地关注于GDP增长率。“In China, because of problems in water, air and food safety, in 10 or 20 years we will face a lot of health problems, like increased cancer. So that is one area where I will invest my money and time,” Mr Ma said in a telephone interview last week. “My second focus is people’s culture and education – if we don’t do this then young Chinese people will grow up with deep pockets but shallow minds.”马云上周在接受电话采访时表示:“在中国,因为水源、空气质量以及食品安全等方面的问题,10至20年后我们将面临大量健康问题,例如癌症发病率上升。因此我将在这个领域投入我的资金和时间。我的第二大关注领域是民众的文化和教育——如果我们无所作为,中国的年轻人将成长为富裕但浅薄的一代。”Mr Ma’s energy and optimism inspire many. But that does not mean he is a saint. Some former colleagues and confidants say his incredible success and the adulation it has brought has made him overconfident in his ability to change the world.马云的活力和乐观精神鼓舞了很多人。但这并不意味着他是个圣人。一些前同事和密友表示,马云惊人的成功以及由此带来的过度美誉,使他对自己改变世界的能力过于自信。In almost the same breath, he will say the internet is going to make China more open and transparent, while also vowing to hand over to the authorities information on any netizen who dares criticise the authoritarian Communist party.他会在几乎同一句话里表示,互联网将使中国变得更加开放透明,而他将继续向当局提供任何敢于批评威权的共产党的网民的信息。His own authoritarian tendencies, and his sometimes dizzying reversals in business strategy, have bred resentment among a minority at Alibaba. But his cult-like following ensures even disgruntled former employees do not dare criticise him openly.马云自己的专断倾向,以及他有时令人眩晕的商业战略逆转,使阿里巴巴的少数人产生反感。但他近乎偶像人物的光环意味着,即便是心怀不满的前员工也不敢公开批评他。“Anybody who wants to do anything in the Chinese tech industry in future has to be careful what they say about Jack Ma because he is just so powerful,” says a former employee who asks not to be named.一位要求匿名的前员工表示:“任何未来想在中国科技行业中做点什么的人,在谈到马云时都必须慎言,因为他的影响力太过强大。”“But even people like me who don’t buy into his cult of personality recognise that he epitomises the entrepreneurial new China, where a person from a very poor background can become huge through pure perseverance and by rallying people around him.”“但即便像我这种不吃他的个人崇拜那一套的人也承认,他是中国新一代企业家的代表,一个背景很穷的人通过坚持不懈和笼络人才成长为巨头。”Born in the southeastern Chinese city of Hangzhou in 1964, Ma Yun (his Chinese name) inherited a gift for showmanship from his parents, who earned their living as performers of “ping tan”, a traditional musical storytelling technique.马云1964年出生于杭州,他从父母那里继承了表演的天赋。马云的父母靠表演评弹(一种传统曲艺形式)为生。Mr Ma’s early life cannot have been easy: traditional ping tan was banned during the Cultural Revolution, the catastrophic decade-long political campaign launched by Mao Zedong in 1966 in which millions were persecuted, killed or banished to remote parts of the country.马云的早年生活肯定不容易:评弹在文化大革命期间遭禁,这场由毛泽东在1966年发动的灾难性政治运动持续了整整十年,其间数百万人受到迫害、被杀死或下放到中国的偏远地区。As a child, Mr Ma was bad at maths but fascinated by English. As China emerged from the trauma of Maoism and began opening up to the world, he decided he would devote himself to learning the language.马云小时候数学较差,但他对英语很有兴趣。随着中国渐渐抚平毛时代的创伤,开始向世界开放,他决定全身心投入英语学习。For nine years he got up early every morning and rode his bike to the Hangzhou Hotel, where he befriended foreign tourists and worked for free as a tour guide in order to practise English.有整整九年时间,他每天都早早起床,骑上他的自行车奔向杭州大酒店(Hangzhou Hotel),他在那里和外国游客交上朋友,免费充当导游,以练习自己的英语。After twice failing China’s national university entrance exam he was eventually admitted to Hangzhou Teacher’s Institute, where he graduated in 1988.在参加高考两次落第之后,他最终进入了杭州师范学院,并于1988年毕业。He worked as an English teacher at a local university making a month but in 1994 he started a translation business that took him to the US, where he was introduced to the internet. At the time, China’s state media were not allowed even to mention its existence.此后他在杭州当地的一所高校担任英语老师,每月的工资相当于12美元。但1994年他成立了一家翻译公司,这使他有机会去美国出差,在那里接触到了互联网。那时中国的官方媒体甚至不能提及互联网的存在。After a failed attempt to start an online Chinese version of the Yellow Pages, Mr Ma went to work for the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, where one day he was assigned to take an American visitor on a tour of the Great Wall.在创办中国黄页(China Yellow Pages)失败之后,马云进入中国对外经济贸易部工作。有一天,他被指派陪同一位美国游客游览长城。The visitor was Jerry Yang, co-founder of Yahoo. The meeting would turn out to be transformative for both men.这位游客就是雅虎(Yahoo)的联合创始人杨致远(Jerry Yang)。事实明,这次的见面将成为两人事业生涯的转折点。Early in 1999, Mr Ma gathered 17 friends and founded Alibaba in his apartment in Hangzhou, giving rousing lectures that revealed his ambition, his vision and his fighting spirit.1999年初,马云联合17位朋友在他位于杭州的公寓里创建了阿里巴巴。他发表了励志演讲,展示了自己的雄心、愿景和战斗精神。“Chinese brains are just as good as theirs and this is the reason we dare to compete with Americans,” Mr Ma told his comrades in a speech that was caught on camera. “If we’re a good team and we know what we want to do then one of us can defeat 10 of them.”马云在这段被录制下来的演讲中向他的战友们表示:“中国人的大脑和美国人一样聪明,这正是我们敢于和他们竞争的原因。如果我们是一个优秀的团队,而且我们知道自己想要做什么,那么我们就能以一当十。”Alibaba’s model was simple: allow small and medium-sized Chinese companies to find global buyers they would otherwise only be able to meet at trade shows. It worked brilliantly.阿里巴巴的模式非常简单:帮助中国的中小企业找到原本只能在交易会上见到的全球买家。这种模式取得了极大的成功。In 2003, Alibaba made its first tiny profit and launched Taobao (“search for treasure”) to compete with US ecommerce group eBay, which then dominated in China with market share of about 80 per cent.2003年,阿里巴巴首次实现了小额盈利,同时为了与美国电子商务集团eBay竞争而创建了淘宝网,当时eBay在中国占据主导地位,拥有大约80%的市场份额。In a series of interviews with global media, Mr Ma announced he was “going to war” with eBay. At the time, it seemed like a comical mismatch.在接受全球媒体的一系列采访时,马云宣布与eBay“开战”。当时,这种宣战显得有些可笑,因为双方实力悬殊。By 2007, eBay’s market share in China had dropped to less than 8 per cent and it had in effect quit the market. Taobao’s share price had soared to 84 per cent, making Mr Ma the unrivalled king of Chinese ecommerce.到2007年,eBay在中国的市场份额降至不足8%,实际上已经退出了中国市场。淘宝的市场份额飙升至84%,这让马云成为了无可匹敌的中国电商之王。He struck a landmark deal with his old friend Mr Yang in 2005, with Yahoo paying bn for a 40 per cent stake in Alibaba and handing its China operations over to Mr Ma to run.2005年,他与自己的老朋友杨致远达成了里程碑式的协议:雅虎付10亿美元收购阿里巴巴40%的股权,并将其中国业务交给马云运营。In taking over Yahoo China, Alibaba inherited a scandal that would cast a shadow over Mr Ma’s reputation in the west but cement his image as a safe pair of hands in the eyes of the Chinese government.阿里巴巴接管雅虎中国(Yahoo China)的同时也继承了一桩丑闻,这将为马云在西方的形象带来阴影,但巩固了其在中国政府眼里办事可靠的形象。Yahoo’s earlier decision to hand over private email information to the Chinese authorities had led to at least two Chinese journalists and democracy advocates being thrown in prison for subversion.此前,雅虎将私人邮件信息移交给中国有关部门的决定,导致了至少两名中国记者和民主人士因颠覆罪被捕入狱。When asked how he would handle such a situation now that he was in charge of Yahoo’s China operations, Mr Ma’s reply was unambiguous.当时有记者问马云,既然你现在负责雅虎中国业务,你将如何处理这种局面,他的回答相当干脆。“We create value for the shareholders and the shareholders don’t want us to oppose the government and go bankrupt,” he told reporters at the time. “Whatever [government officials] say, we’ll do it.”马云向记者表示:“我们为股东创造价值,股东不希望我们与政府作对,走上破产之路。无论(政府官员)说什么,我们都会配合。”When asked last week in the interview about the challenges of dealing with the Chinese government, Mr Ma pointed out that there had never been an organisation in China or perhaps anywhere that is as large as Alibaba. It boasts more than 600m registered accounts and welcomes about 100m shoppers a day.在上周采访中被问及与中国政府打交道的种种挑战时,马云指出,中国(或许全世界)从来没有阿里巴巴这么大的企业。阿里巴巴号称有6亿多注册账户,每天有大约1亿人通过其平台购物。“At the beginning I thought the government would worry,” Mr Ma said. “[But] we focus on business and the creation of jobs. The government seems to feel more comfortable now.”马云说道:“起初我以为政府会感到不安。(但)我们致力于商业和创造就业。政府现在似乎放心多了。”To his employees he has often said that Alibaba should “be in love with the government but never marry it”. Over the years he has repeatedly turned down offers to establish joint ventures with the state.在公司内部,他经常对员工表示,阿里巴巴应该“跟政府谈恋爱但不要嫁给他们”。多年来,他一再拒绝了与政府建立合资企业的提议。Apart from the Chinese government, Mr Ma seems willing to pick a public fight with almost anyone.除了中国政府以外,马云似乎愿意与几乎所有人公开作对。That includes Alibaba investors such as Yahoo and, most recently, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which this year refused to change its listing rules to accommodate the corporate structure Alibaba would like to use for its forthcoming IPO.这包括雅虎等阿里巴巴投资者,最近还有香港交易所(Hong Kong Stock Exchange)。香港交易所今年拒绝为了配合阿里巴巴希望采用的股权结构而修改上市规则。Within Alibaba, this fighting spirit is celebrated constantly and employees – or “Alipeople” as they are called – assume nicknames taken from characters in the kung fu novels that Mr Ma loved to as a young man.在阿里巴巴内部,这种战斗精神不断得到赞扬,而员工们(他们被称为“阿里人”)几乎都有一个来自马云年轻时非常喜欢阅读的武侠小说的化名。This is more than a gimmick for Mr Ma, whose own nickname – “Feng Qingyang” – comes from a reclusive swordsman character who was unpredictable and aggressive.对马云来说,这不只是一种噱头。马云自己的绰号是“风清扬”,它来自一个隐居山中的剑侠角色,行事不可预测而且非常好斗。“People don’t realise how much martial arts and kung fu novels influence Jack and his strategy for business,” says a former confidant. “They also helped shape his idealism because they are all about upholding the righteous way.”马云以前的一位密友表示:“人们没有意识到武术和武侠小说对马云及其企业战略的影响有多大。它们还帮助塑造了马云的理想主义,因为它们的要义都是弘扬正义。”Outside the ruling Communist party it is hard to find anyone today in China who has had a bigger impact on the lives of ordinary people than Mr Ma.在执政的共产党以外,在当今中国很难找到另一个人像马云一样,对普通人的生活影响如此之大。His decision to address some of the biggest problems facing China shows that his ambition extends far beyond changing the way people do their shopping. In an essay published this year, he laid out the scope of his vision.他决定应对中国一些最大的问题,这表明他的雄心远不止改变人们的购物方式。在今年发表的一篇文章中,他阐述了自己的愿景。“Just as the internet is revolutionising retail,” Mr Ma wrote, “we at Alibaba believe it will eventually do the same to fundamentally information-driven industries such as finance, education and healthcare. Once this change happens – once we are all connected – I believe the spirit of equality and transparency at the heart of the internet will make it possible for Chinese society to leapfrog in its development of a stronger institutional and social infrastructure.”马云写道:“就像互联网正在改写零售业那样,在阿里巴巴,我们相信它最终也将转变那些根本上由信息驱动的行业,比如金融、教育和医疗。一旦发生这种变化,一旦我们全面实现互联互通,我相信,互联网核心的平等与透明精神,将让中国社会有可能在发展更强大的制度和社会基础设施方面实现飞跃。”But he also included a warning: “Our water has become undrinkable, our food inedible, our milk poisonous and worst of all the air in our cities is so polluted that we often cannot see the sun,” he wrote. “Twenty years ago, people in China were focusing on economic survival. Now, people have better living conditions and big dreams for the future. But these dreams will be hollow if we cannot see the sun.”但他也提出了警告:“现在我们的水不能喝了,食物不能吃了,牛奶有毒,最糟糕的是,我们的城市空气污染如此严重,以至于我们经常看不到太阳。20年前,中国人只想着经济生存。现在人们的生活条件变好了,对未来有更远大的梦想。但如果我们看不到太阳,这些梦想将是空洞的。” /201312/268904南昌妇幼保健医院四维彩超如何预约

江西省儿童医院的产科怎么样Islands: New wealth symbols岛屿:新的土豪象征Luxury cars and private jets are no longer topping the ;to-buy; lists of Chinese billionaires.豪车和私人飞机已经不再是中国亿万富翁的购物首选,现在土豪们的野心更大了:去斐济、图瓦卢和大溪地当;岛主;。Instead, it appears that some are about to set off for the South Pacific later this month in search of something altogether bigger: Their very own island in Fiji, Tuvalu or Tahiti.本月,部分富豪将组团前往南太平洋实地考察,求购属于自己的私人岛屿。It is the first time such a group has been put together with the sole aim of securing the members#39; own South Pacific plot of land, according to Lin Dong, the founder of the China Island Owners Association. Lin explained islands in Fiji are the cheapest, with plenty of choice but very few inhabitants.联盟的发起人林东表示,富豪们以团体形式去南太平洋购岛尚属首次,并解释说,斐济的岛最便宜,因为那边;岛多人少;。The islands are generally being offered under 99-year leases (no outright ownership is offered) priced at RMB3m.斐济岛屿不出售完全产权,只出租99年的使用权,售价300万元人民币。 /201506/381130江西省妇幼保健院体检套餐 南昌市青云谱区湾里区看习惯性流产哪家医院最好的

瑞昌市输卵管通而不畅哪家好A Chinese investor who had just bought a French vineyard is feared dead in a helicopter crash that killed his son and is thought also to have claimed the lives of an aide and the vineyard#39;s previous owner.刚购买下法国葡萄庄园的中国投资者可能已经在直升机坠毁事故中丧生,同时还有他的儿子以及一位陪同和前葡萄园的拥有者。Lam Kok had completed the purchase of Chateau de La Riviere in the Aquitaine region of southwest France on Thursday, the vineyard#39;s marketing manager, Thierry Disclyn, told CNN.葡萄园的营销经理Thierry Disclyn告诉CNN说,Lam Kok周四完成了对法国西南部Chateau de La Riviere葡萄园的收购On Friday, Kok introduced himself to all the employees, and at about 5 p.m. local time decided to tour the estate by helicopter, Disclyn said.在周五,Lam Kok与所有员工进行了会面,在当地时间下午五点,决定乘坐直升机参观自己的产业,Thierry Disclyn说道。The helicopter, which was also carrying the vineyard#39;s previous owner, James Gregoire, Kok#39;s 11-year-old son Charles, and a representative of Lam Kok, Peng Wang, crashed into the Dordogne River.这架直升机上还有葡萄园的前庄主James Gregoire,Lam Kok的11岁儿子Charles,以及Lam Kok的一位代表Peng Wang,这架直升机坠入了多尔多涅河Police have recovered the body of Charles Kok but are still searching for the other bodies, Disclyn said.Thierry Disclyn说,警方已经找到了Charles Kok的尸体,但还在寻找别的尸体According to the local Sud Ouest newspaper, about 30 police officers and a team of divers are engaged in the search, which resumed at 8 a.m. local time.根据当地Sud Ouest报纸的报道,大约有30名警察和一个潜水队参与了这次搜救行动,并将于当地时间早上八点重新开始Lam Kok is the head of the Brilliant group, which specializes in the luxury hotel market, Sud Ouest said.Lam Kok 是Brilliant公司的董事长,专门经营奢华酒店,Sud Ouest说道。Kok wanted to turn the spectacular chateau building into a high-end resort and spa catering to wine enthusiasts, the newspaper said.Sud Ouest报纸报道称,Lam Kok想要把这个法国城堡建筑改造成高端度假区和温泉浴室,迎合葡萄酒喜好者的口味The 60-hectare Chateau de La Riviere estate, in Fronsac, east of Bordeaux, had belonged to James Gregoire since 2003. It was the largest of three vineyards owned by the Gregoire family in the region.占地60公顷的de La Riviere城堡位于波尔多东部,自2003年起就由James Gregoire所有,这是Gregoire家族在该区域所拥有的三大葡萄葡萄园中最大的一个 /201312/270153 高安市死精费用南昌华山医院的电话是多少

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