鹰潭治疗抗子宫内膜抗体多少钱

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年01月23日 13:35:05
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As part of its 100 Years of Beauty series, Cut.com#39;s team of researchers and hair stylists have finally taken on male beauty for the first time, giving a handsome model 11 different looks to correspond with the trends of each decade over the last century.作为《审美百年》系列片的一期,Cut.com网站的研究团队和发型师终于首次向观众展示了男性美。他们给一位帅气的模特打造了11种不同造型,每款造型都呼应过去一个世纪里每十年的流行风潮。The model, Samuel Orson, is morphed into representations for the eras through hairstyles and facial hair grooming - with looks inspired by shaving and grooming advertisements as well as iconic figures from the decades.模特叫塞缪尔·奥森,造型师们通过不同的发型和胡须,将模特打造成了不同时代的典型代表。造型师们的设计灵感源自过去的剃须广告和偶像明星。 /201511/409086Everything in moderation, as the old adage goes. As it turns out, that couldn#39;t be more accurate, as research continues to shed light on how the modern world is damaging our health. We might be living longer today than our ancestors did, but the current era isn#39;t as health-friendly as we might think.老话说得好,凡事都有个度。事实明,这句话十分准确,研究正持续揭露出现代社会是如何戕害我们的健康的。我们或许能比我们的祖先活得更久,但现在这个年代或许没有我们想的那样对健康多有益。10.Feeling Guilty Can Damage Your Health10.愧疚感能伤害你的身体Every January, people around the world resolve to leave their bad habits behind and embark on a journey of self-improvement as the new year begins. Then, a few weeks later, everyone starts to feel a little guilty for not following through.每年1月,全世界的人们都决心丢下他们的坏习惯并且在新年伊始时开始一场自我提升的旅程。接着,几周以后,每个人都会为没能做到而开始感到些许愧疚。But while a little guilt can encourage someone to make positive changes, too much guilt is a different story. Feeling guilty isn#39;t just unpleasant—it could be causing damage to your immune system. Researchers from Hull University found that people who felt guilty about their favorite activities had decreased levels of the antibody immunoglobulin A in their saliva. So if two people like to unwind with a box of wine and some trashy reality shows, but only one feels guilty about it, then the guilty person is more likely to catch viral and bacterial infections. That means your favorite ;guilty pleasure; could be the reason you seem to catch colds more often than someone who just calls it ;pleasure.;些许愧疚能鼓励一个人做一些积极的改变,但太多的愧疚感则另当别论了。感到愧疚不只是令人不愉快——它还可能对你的免疫系统造成损害。赫尔大学的研究者们发现对自己喜欢的活动感到愧疚的人唾液中的抗体免疫球蛋白水平降低。所以如果有两个人想用一箱葡萄酒和一些没什么意思的真人秀节目来放松自己,但只有一个人对此感到愧疚,那么这个愧疚的人更有可能被病毒和细菌感染。那意味着你最喜欢的;有罪恶感的快乐;可能就是你比只是单纯感到;快乐;的人更容易感冒的原因。9.Light Pollution9.光污染According to astronomers, the majority of Americans under 40 have never experienced true darkness. Urban areas experience a phenomenon called ;sky glow,; where artificial light is scattered by water droplets, creating a dome of light over the city. Even inside our own homes, the little lights on electronics like alarm clocks and televisions stay on 24/7—and our bodies just weren#39;t built to handle that. In fact, light pollution in the developed world is now so bad that it#39;s damaging our health. According to physicist Eric Vandernoot, the human body is hardwired for a cycle of light and darkness. Overuse of light in the evening is connected to a number of health problems, including increased risk of diabetes, obesity, depression, prostate cancer, and breast cancer.根据天文学家的说法,大多数40岁以下的美国人都没有体验过真正的黑暗。城市地区有种现象叫;人工白昼;,人造光被水滴反射出去,在城市上空制造了一个光线的穹顶。即使是在我们自己的家里,从闹钟和电视这样的电子产品中发出的微弱光线也一刻不停地照射着我们——而我们的身体可不是生来就能承受这些的。实际上,光污染在发达国家十分严重,它正侵蚀着我们的健康。根据物理学家Eric Vandernoot所说,人体天生适应光与暗的循环。在夜晚过度用光将导致一系列健康问题,包括增加患糖尿病、肥胖症、抑郁症、前列腺癌和乳腺癌的风险。Sleep disorders are another big problem. In fact, light pollution may have actually changed the entire way we experience sleep. Before the industrial revolution, it was common for people to sleep for two periods of around four hours each, separated by one to three hours ;of quiet wakefulness.; Even today, studies have shown that people tend to revert back to this sleep pattern once light pollution is taken out of the equation. And even if you buy blackout curtains and cover those flashing LEDs, you might still be in danger from excess light, since the streetlights are still on outside. Turning streetlights off has actually been found to drastically reduce crime (even criminals need to be able to see). Of course, that might not be much comfort to anyone trying to find their way home in the pitch dark, but at least they won#39;t get mugged.睡眠障碍是另一个大问题。实际上,光污染可能已经改变了我们整个睡觉的方式。在工业革命以前,人们普遍有两段睡眠期,每段约四小时左右,中间隔着1到3个小时的;安静的清醒;时期。研究显示,即使在今天,一旦光污染消失后人们也倾向于回到这种睡眠模式里去。而就算买了遮光布来挡住那些闪烁的LED灯光后,你可能还是会处在多余光照的危险下,因为外边还是有路灯。人们发现关掉路灯实际上大幅减少了犯罪行为(就连犯罪行为也需要能看得见)。当然,这对那些在伸手不见五指的黑暗中想要找到回家的路的人来说不是件好事,但至少他们不会被抢劫了。8.Added Sugar Is Worse Than You Realized8.多加糖比你意识到的更糟糕Sugar itself isn#39;t bad for you—glucose is essential to powering the body, especially the brain. The problem is that people are now consuming more sugar than ever, and you can definitely have too much of a good thing. And while our ancestors got most of their sugar from fruits and grains, these days most of our sugar is added to various processed foods—the average American eats 27.5 teaspoons of added sugar a day. It#39;s hard to cut back, too—the brain has a built-in trigger to let you know when you should stop eating and sugar consumption makes it less effective over time.糖本身对你无害——葡萄糖给身体、特别是大脑提供的能量至关重要。问题在于人们现在正消耗比以往更多的糖分,而再好的东西用起来都该有个度。我们祖先的多数糖分都是从水果和谷物中获取,而今天我们的多数糖都被加进了各种加工食品中——美国人一天中平均食用27.5匙的添加糖。减少食用量也很难——大脑有一套内置的机制,能让你知道什么时候应该停止进食,而糖分的消耗让它随着时间推移而变得不那么有效了。It#39;s only relatively recently that we#39;ve started to realize just how bad too much sugar can be for you. In the 1970s, when the public became concerned about fat in foods, manufacturers simply replaced fat with sugar. Since then, sugar consumption has shot up worldwide. Which is unfortunate, since sugar is now linked to high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, premature aging of the skin, dementia, brain damage, poor metabolism, and liver damage. Added sugar might even be damaging to our very DNA. In fact, some scientists now regard sugar as a problem potentially as damaging as alcohol and tobacco.直到不久前我们才开始意识到太多的糖分会对人造成多大的危害。在上世纪70年代,当公众开始关心食物中的脂肪含量后,制造商仅仅是把脂肪换成了糖分。自那以后,全世界食糖量迅速上升。这挺不幸的,因为现在糖和高胆固醇、糖尿病、肥胖症、皮肤过早老化、痴呆、脑损伤、药物不良代谢以及肝损伤都有关。添加糖甚至对我们的DNA有害。实际上,一些科学家现在把糖看作是和酒精与烟草一样具有潜在危害的东西。7.Climate Change7.气候变化We aly know that global climate change is making Mother Earth sick, but it may also cause major health issues in humans. As our oceans get warmer, toxic algae blooms will increase in likelihood, area, and duration. Algae like Alexandrium catenella can contaminate seafood and cause everything from vomiting to death by paralysis.我们已经知道全球气候变化让地球母亲生病了,但它也可能会引起人类的重大健康危机。随着我们的海洋变暖,有害藻类将有可能持续区域性的大量繁殖。像链状亚历山大藻这样的藻类能够污染海产品并且通过麻痹引起呕吐甚至死亡等一系列反应。Meanwhile, as the Earth gets drier, more dust will be blown into the ocean, spurring the growth of dangerous bacteria—poisoning caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio in seafood is aly up 85 percent since 1996. Rapid urban growth means that many sewer systems are aly close to overflowing and contaminating our water sources—in Milwaukee, it currently only takes 4.3 centimeters (1.7 in) of rain a day for this to happen. As climate change makes flooding more likely, this could become a real problem. Between the flooding and the increased bacterial growth in the oceans, don#39;t be surprised if water-borne diseases make a comeback in the developed world.与此同时,随着土地越发干旱,更多的尘土将被吹入海洋,激发危险的细菌生长——自1996年后由弧菌属细菌致毒的海产品已经在85%以上。快速的城市发展意味着许多污水管道系统已接近外溢而污染我们的水源——在密尔沃基,现在只需每日4.3厘米(1.7英寸)的降雨量就会发生这件事。至于气候变化使得发洪水的可能性更大,这将成为一个真正的问题。在思考洪水和海洋里增长的细菌的两个问题时,别为发达国家里卷土重来的水源性传染病感到惊讶。6.Lack Of Sleep6.睡眠的缺乏It might be a cliche, but in our fast-paced modern world many people just don#39;t get enough sleep. And researchers are increasingly concerned about just how dangerous that might be. In fact, men with chronic insomnia who sleep less than six hours per night are substantially more likely to die young than normal sleepers. In one study, 51.1 percent of male insomniacs were dead within 14 years, as opposed to just 9.1 percent of regular sleepers. Oddly, this only appears to affect men—women with chronic insomnia have only slightly higher mortality rates than average. That might be because men are more likely to suffer from severe insomnia than women, even though women are more likely to have insomnia overall.这或许是陈词滥调,但在我们快节奏的现代生活里,许多人都没有得到充足的睡眠。研究者们越来越关心这会带来怎样的危害。实际上,每晚睡觉少于6小时的慢性失眠者大体上更有可能比拥有正常睡眠的人死得早。在一项研究中,51.1%的男性失眠症患者在14年内死亡,与此相对照的是只有9.1%拥有正常睡眠的人死亡。古怪的是,这似乎只影响男性——患慢性失眠的女性死亡率只比平均水平高一点点。那可能是因为男性比女性更有可能患重度失眠症,即使总的来说女性更可能患失眠症。While insomnia itself isn#39;t deadly, it will slowly wear a person down by not allowing enough sleep for the body to rest, recover, and revitalize, and long-term sleep loss is now known to cause irreversible brain damage by killing off neurons. Even just working night shifts can badly damage your health. There is also no such thing as being able to ;catch up on sleep;—taking naps on the weekend won#39;t make up for lack of sleep during the week.虽然失眠本身不致命,它却会通过不允许身体由充足睡眠得到休息、恢复而慢慢拖垮一个人,并且现已知长期的睡眠缺失会通过杀死神经导致不可逆的脑损伤。即使只是值夜班也会大大危害你的健康。也不存在;补觉;的说法——在周末打个盹不能弥补这周缺失的睡眠。翻译:bansu 来源:前十网 /201510/405758

With the announcement Thursday that scientists had discovered direct evidence of gravitational waves, one of Albert Einstein’s wildest theories was validated. It was further proof (as if any were needed) of Einstein’s genius.上周四,科学家们宣布观测到了引力波存在的直接据,从而实了阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)的一个最令人难以置信的理论。这又一次印了爱因斯坦是个天才(说得好像还需要什么明似的)。But being a genius did not prevent the scientist, who died in 1955, from making mistakes. Some of his most significant errors occurred when he refused to believe the implications of his own ideas.不过,身为天才,这位1955年辞世的科学家也不能避免自己犯错。他的一些最重大的失误源于不愿相信自己的理论能推导出一些结论。Lawrence M. Krauss, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University, walked us through four of Einstein’s notable blunders.亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)的理论物理学家劳伦斯·M·克劳斯(Lawrence M. Krauss)给我们介绍了爱因斯坦犯下的四个不小的错误。1. Quantum Entanglement一、量子纠缠Einstein referred to this physical phenomenon, which suggests that objects separated by great distances can affect one another, as “spooky action at a distance.” He rejected the possibility, refusing to believe that objects could influence each other no matter how far apart they were.这种物理现象意味着,相隔甚远的物体之间可以相互影响,曾被爱因斯坦称为“鬼魅般的超距作用”。他否认了这种可能性,拒绝相信无论离得有多远的物体之间都可能相互影响。“He didn’t think the spooky action at a distance would be verified, but it was,” Dr. Krauss said. “He thought that was somehow unphysical. He presented this as an example of why quantum mechanics is probably wrong, but in fact it’s right.”“他认为鬼魅般的超距作用不会被实,但它就是被实了,”克劳斯士说。“他觉得这不符合物理原理。他举出这个例子,是为了说明为什么量子力学很可能是错误的,结果它其实是正确的。”A study released by a group of scientists in October provided the strongest evidence yet to support the claim. It followed a string of other experiments that have been conducted since the 1970s that suggest Einstein was too dismissive.去年10月,一群科学家公布的研究成果提供了迄今为止持这种说法最为有力的据。在此之前,有一系列自70年代以来的实验表明爱因斯坦太过武断。“These tests have been done since the late ’70s but always in the way that additional assumptions were needed,” one of the scientists involved told The Times in October. “Now we have confirmed that there is spooky action at distance.”“从70年代末开始就做了这些实验,但一直都需要做些额外的假设,”其中一名科学家在去年10月份告诉时报。“现在我们实,的确存在鬼魅般的超距作用。”2. Gravitational Lensing二、引力透镜效应In 1936, Einstein published an article in Science magazine, detailing what he called “lens-like action of a star by the deviation of light in the gravitational field,” or, in less scientific terms, the idea that objects in space could divert light.在1936年,爱因斯坦在《科学》杂志(Science)上发表了一篇文章,详细解释了他口中的“恒星让通过引力场的光线发生偏差的类似透镜的效应”。用更平白的语言来说,就是太空中的物体可以扭曲光线。“Of course,” he wrote offhandedly, “there is no hope of observing this phenomenon directly.”“当然了,”他随手写到,“没有直接观测到这一现象的希望。”But Dr. Krauss said: “He only thought of lensing by stars and didn’t think of galaxies. He really wasn’t much of an astronomer.”然而,克劳斯说:“爱因斯坦只考虑到了恒星的透镜效应,没有想到星系。他的确不那么精通天文学。”Gravitational lensing has become one of the most useful techniques available to scientists in mapping the universe.引力透视效应如今成为了让科学家得以绘制宇宙图谱的最有用的技术之一。3. The Cosmological Constant三、宇宙常数In trying to apply his general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe, Einstein threw into his equation a term representing a “cosmological constant,” because he believed he needed to represent a repulsive force that would counter the attractive force of gravity in order to represent the universe as static.在尝试将相对论的基本理论运用到宇宙构造中的时候,爱因斯坦在方程中加入了代表“宇宙常数”的一项,因为他认为,为了得到静态宇宙,需要加上这一项来代表制衡引力的一种斥力。Years later, when it was discovered that the universe was expanding, Einstein discarded the term. He was said to have called it “his biggest blunder.” (Though in recent years, questions have been raised about whether that e was misreported.) 多年以后,科学家发现宇宙在膨胀,于是爱因斯坦摒弃了这一常数。据称他把宇宙常数叫做“自己最大的错误”。(不过,近年来,有关这句话是否为误传的疑问浮出了水面。)In any case, Dr. Krauss said that Einstein should not be criticized for attempting to balance the equation, since the idea that the universe was static was accepted at the time. But, he said, that does not let Einstein off the hook.无论如何,克劳斯表示,那个年代大家公认宇宙是静态的,爱因斯坦不应该因为试图让方程成立而受到批评。但他又称,这并不意味着爱因斯坦就可以免责。“The second aspect is, it was also a mathematical blunder because the cosmological constant doesn’t produce a static universe,” he said. “It makes the universe expand faster and faster, which is what we’re experiencing right now.”“换个角度来看,这也是一个数学错误,因为宇宙常数并不能得到静态宇宙,”他说。“会得到的结论反而是宇宙在越来越快地膨胀,也就是我们现在的理解。”“Had he had the courage of his convictions, in some sense, he would have realized that his theory required a universe to be expanding, not one that was static, and he could have predicted it,” he added. “And as I often say, if he just could have predicted it, he would have been famous.”“在某种程度上,假如爱因斯坦有相信的勇气,就会意识到自己的理论成立的前提是宇宙在膨胀,而不是静态的,那么他就能做出这一预测,”克劳斯还表示。“我时常说,哪怕他只是预测出宇宙在膨胀,那他也会很出名。”(The cosmological constant, as it turns out, may not have been so wrongheaded. NASA scientists say that the term “significantly improves the agreement between theory and observation.” Dr. Krauss says that it is possible that dark energy may act in exactly the way that the term was originally meant to represent.)(现在看来,宇宙常数或许并非错得离谱。美国航空航天局[NASA]的科学家们表示,这个概念“极大地促进了理论与实测之间的融合”。克劳斯则称,有可能暗能量的行为恰好就符合这一概念当初代表的含义。)4. Gravitational Waves四、引力波Direct evidence of gravitational waves has Einstein back in the news again now, since he originally proposed their existence a century ago. So it’s funny to learn that he changed his mind, 20 years after suggesting the idea.引力波存在的直接据如今让爱因斯坦再次回到了新闻里,因为正是他在一个世纪前最先提出了该理论。有意思的是,在提出这一概念20年后,他改变了主意。“He wrote a paper saying they don’t exist, and retracted the idea,” Dr. Krauss said. “It turned out he had made a mathematical error that was only discovered just before he was going publish” the retraction.“爱因斯坦写了篇论文说引力波并不存在,要收回这个理论,”克劳斯说。“结果是他犯了个数学错误,在他马上就要发表(收回)文章的时候,错误被发现了。”That paper was rejected by a first journal, Physical Review, Dr. Krauss said, after the mathematician and physicist reviewing the paper, Howard P. Robertson, found the error.克劳斯说,这篇论文先是投给了《物理》(Physical Review),然而进行评议的数学家、物理学家霍华德·P·罗伯逊(Howard P. Robertson)发现了错误,于是文章被杂志拒收。Einstein, angry at having his paper reviewed, planned to publish it in another, obscure journal, but found his error independently and managed to rewrite the paper so that it was accurate before it was published爱因斯坦对自己的文章竟被拿去评议感到愤怒,准备把它发表到另一份不出名的期刊上。不过,他自己也发现了这个错误,设法重写了论文,弄准确了之后才发表。“He wanted to retract the very thing we just discovered this year,” Dr. Krauss said, chuckling. “I think it’s a nice bit of poetry.”“他想要收回我们今年刚刚实测到了的东西,”克劳斯自己笑了起来。“我觉得这真是有点诗意啊。” /201602/426527

  If you’re at all like me, you’ve eaten a lot of junk food late at night. One explanation for those late-night slices of pizza or burgers has to do with alcohol, which has a disinhibiting effect that makes us crave fat and salt. But an increasing body of research suggests that exhaustion, too, plays a role — that the “sleep munchies” are real, at least in cases when people didn’t get enough sleep the night before.  是不是有小伙伴和我一样,晚上很晚的时候还要吃很多垃圾食品呢。有一个解释就是那些我们晚上吃的披萨和汉堡都含有酒精,而酒精则可以使我们更加渴望脂肪和盐。但是越来越多的研究表明,疲惫也会使人养成睡前吃东西的习惯,尤其是那些前一晚没有充足睡眠的人。  A new study in the journal in which participants were put on normal sleep or sleep-restricted schedules while their calories were carefully monitored. Allison reports:The new study, based on blood samples, documents a novel finding: The daily rhythm of a particular endocannabinoid is altered by a lack of sleep.  《睡眠》期刊中记录了一项实验,参与者分别被分到正常睡眠组和限制性睡眠组,并且详细监测了他们体内的卡路里。阿里森说这一基于血液试样的研究明了一个新的发现:人体内的花生四烯酸甘油的含量会因缺乏睡眠而改变。  And these changes “could be driving intake for more palatable foods,” Erin Hanlon, a neuroscientistat the University of Chicago Medical Center, told us.  “而这些变化就是驱使人对美食向往的元凶。”芝加哥医疗中心大学的神经系统科学家艾瑞森·汉龙告诉我们。  “We found that sleep restriction boosts a signal that may increase the hedonic aspect of food intake,” says Hanlon. In other words, being sleep deprived may produce a stronger desire to eat.  汉龙说,缺乏睡眠会促使人们增加对美味食物的享受。换言之,睡眠不好会让人更加想吃东西。  We’re still a long way from understanding the connections between sleeplessness, stress, and, well, gluttony. But knowing that the “sleep munchies” are probably a real thing with an explainable physical cause can only help those of us trying to improve our droopy-eyed eating habits.  或许我们尚未研究清楚睡眠、压力以及暴饮暴食之间的关系。但了解睡前饥饿感的原因至少可以帮助我们改善睡眼惺忪还得吃东西的习惯。 /201603/433453

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  The Three Kingdoms三国Battle of Red Cliffs赤壁之战In 208, Zhou Yu and Liu Bei led their forces to fight Cao Cao.208年,周瑜和刘备领导他们的军队抗击曹操。Cao Cao led a force of 300 000 to attack Wu.曹操带领300000兵力攻击吴国。Zhou Yu led the Wu forces (30 000) with Liu Bei’s forces (20 000).周瑜带领吴国的30000人马和刘备的20000人马。Cao Cao had previously linked his ships together because his men were mainly composed of Northerners who were not accustomed to fighting on water;they were also sick after an epidemic.曹操在开战前就将他的船只都拴在了一起因为他的军队中大多是北方人,不习惯于水上作战,而且将士们还感染了风寒。In the mean time, Huang Gai faked himself a turncoat, seeking giving top secret of Wu’s army to Cao Cao.同时,黄盖装作吴国的叛徒,企图将吴军的顶级机密告诉曹操。At the night of the battle, Huang Gai fabricated his escape from the South side of the Yangtse River where Wu’s camp is to the North side where Wei’s base is.作战之夜,黄盖假装从扬子江南边的吴军营地溜到了北边的魏军营地。Near the Northern bank, Huang Gai set his tail boat on fire.他在北岸附近点燃了自己的长尾船。The Cao Cao’s armada, connected together, was caught fired in the bay and nearly totally destroyed.曹操联接在一起的舰队在河湾上着了火,几乎全军覆没。Zhou Yu, at this time, sent his whole army against Cao Cao’s army which lost all its morale.这时周瑜派出所有士兵袭击丧失斗志的曹操军队。Cao Cao decided it would be best to retreat.曹操决定最好先撤退。The result of the Battle of Red Clifk greatly hindered Cao Cao’s expension across Yangtse River into the Southern China.赤壁之战的结果极大地阻止了曹操跨过扬子江向中国南部的扩张。 /201510/398244I was on the Shinkansen bullet train and roaring north toward the Japan Sea at 125 miles per hour when I passed through the wormhole in space-time. The wormhole was on the far end of a long, unlit tunnel. Three-quarters of an hour earlier, in the midst of a sunny winter’s day, I’d boarded the train at the loud, insanely complex and many-leveled Tokyo main station, accompanied by my friend Bob Sliwa. We were bound for the coastal town of Kanazawa, sometimes known as the hidden pearl of the Japan Sea and famed for the freshness and variety of its fish-based cuisine. 新干线子弹列车以125英里的时速在漫长而黑暗的隧道中飞驰,奔向北方的日本海。忽然,列车从隧道尽头穿过,仿佛带着我们从时空虫洞一跃而出,来到另一个崭新的世界。那是一个阳光灿烂的冬日。45分钟之前,我和老友鲍勃·斯里瓦(Bob Sliwa)在人声鼎沸、层次繁多、纷乱繁忙的东京站登上了这列动车,目的地是海滨城市金泽。金泽被誉为日本海一颗鲜为人知的明珠,以新鲜多样的海鲜料理而闻名于世。 The trip there last winter was to be the climax of my weeklong attempt to find the hidden culinary truth of Japan, beyond the reach of guidebooks or the well-intentioned efforts of such celebrity investigators as Anthony Bourdain. My secret weapon in this was Bob himself, a man embedded in Japan for 30 years, deeply conversant in the ways and cuisines of the country and, by great good fortune, my college roommate. 这趟行程是我去年冬天为期一周的日本之旅的高潮。此行目的是寻找日本料理不为人所知的真相。这些真相在一般旅游指南的介绍中是找不到的,即使那些安东尼·伯尔顿(Anthony Bourdain)之流的著名美食家用心良苦的努力也未能触及。我的秘密武器就是老友鲍勃,他在日本生活了30年,对这个国家的饮食人文深有浸润。我曾与他大学同窗,真是幸何如之。 We exited the tunnel into a crash of white light. On the far side was a winterscape of deep snow, mountain vistas and blowing wind. The day we’d been traveling through until then had been dry and mild, and the sudden atmospheric shift made it seem that we might, in fact, have just rocketed through a rift in space-time. Bob, stroking his goatee, laughed out loud at my confusion. 在我们穿出隧道的那一刹那,耀眼的白色阳光扑面而来。远方是一片白雪皑皑、山峦起伏、寒风凛冽的冬季景色。在此之前,我们所到之处的天气一直温暖而干燥。眼前气候却迥然不同,实在令人惊异,似乎我们真的实现了一次时空穿越。鲍勃捋着山羊胡子,对我的困惑大声笑了起来。 “We were climbing in the dark in that tunnel the whole time — didn’t you feel your ears pop?” he asked. “What you see here is the result of the steady wind blowing off the Japan Sea from China, picking up the moisture of the ocean along the way and throwing it against the mountains as snow — and lots of it. Think of the Continental Divide, Japan-style.” “我们在那条黑暗的隧道里一直在向山上爬升——你没觉得耳压有变化吗?”他说,“风从中国吹过日本海,带来海上的湿气,遇到高山阻隔后变成大量降雪,于是形成了窗外这样的景色。这就是日本特色的大陆板块气候。” I lowered my eyes from the Alpine visuals and back to my notes on the previous days’ eating and drinking. The pages, which were thick with arrows and exclamation points, seemed only to get more densely crosshatched as time went on, and for good reason. The dozen or so meals I’d had in Tokyo had been a marvel of consistent variation, ringing fluid changes of texture and flavor on those three little words that define the cuisine of this island nation at its heart: iso no aji, or “tastes like ocean spray.” 我的目光从积雪覆盖的高山景色收回,落在摊开的笔记本上。那上面记录了我这些日子里享受的美酒美食,字里行间充满了各种箭头和惊叹号。随着时间的推移,这些记号愈发变得密密麻麻。在东京的十几餐,多姿多的美食、流畅变幻的质感与风味,无不体现着岛国料理之精髓,那简单的三个字:iso no aji ——“浪之味”。 By agreement, the majority of places Bob and I had gone to so far were chosen to illustrate the point that the most creative cooking in Japan is no longer being done in A-list restaurants. Those places, which continue to serve up superb food, belong to the days when the country was still riding high atop the mighty economic surge that carried it from the ashes of World War II all the way to the forefront of the global market. They’re relics of the time when the Japanese, so expert at mimicry, sent their best young chefs to the high-end restaurants of France and Italy where their work ethic ensured them a rapid rise up the kitchen ladder, and upon their return, the creation of perfect interpretations of their previous employers’ cuisine. 这次我们共同选择的多数餐馆都是为了实一点,那就是日本最有创意的烹饪料理已不再属于那些高档餐饮会所。这些餐馆仍然提供着最高端的食物,但他们却属于那已经逝去的年代。当时,日本从二战的灰烬中站起,驾驭着经济复苏的大潮,直至国际市场最前沿。作为模仿的专家,日本把他们最好的年轻厨师送进法国和意大利的高档餐馆。他们刻苦工作,在餐饮业的职业阶梯上一路攀升。当他们回到日本,也带回了对就学之地烹饪艺术的完美诠释。 It’s no accident that Tokyo has the highest number of Michelin-starred restaurants of any city in the world. But rather than sampling the wares of these warhorses, I’d arrived to try the second culinary wave, a quiet in-house revolution that is afoot all over the country. Driven by chefs mostly in their late 20s and early 30s, its inspiration was the collapse of that same economic surge in the early 1990s, followed by the now famous stagnation or “20 lost years,” as it’s referred to in the foreign press. As the country entered a period of soul-searching, these young chefs took the opportunity to throw off what Bob calls the “legacy exoskeleton” of manners and slavish obedience to groupthink and instead to begin advancing the cause of native ingredients, prepared with great care and what seems at times almost freakish originality. 因而,东京拥有全世界最多的米其林星级餐馆,并非侥幸。但是,我这次不是为了这些久经沙场的老牌餐馆而来。我要品评的,是正在全日本悄然兴起的二次料理革命,是来自日本本土的一波崭新的美食潮流。这场革命由一代30岁上下的厨师兴起,他们的灵感植根于二十世纪90年代初著名的经济大萧条时期。那时日本经济从高速发展之中迅速崩溃,步入了外媒所称的“失去的二十年”。在全日本进入反思之时,这些年轻厨师们趁机摆脱了对集体思维的奴性从,用鲍勃的话来说,抛开了“前人的桎梏”。他们开始倡导一种以本土食材为材料,精心准备,独具匠心,甚至异想天开的料理风格。 Exhibit A: the plate of smoked salted cod roe sprinkled with red chile pepper flakes at a restaurant called N-1155 in the hip, hilly Tokyo neighborhood of Nakameguro. The smoking and salting produced a deliciously bespoke version of fish jerky, whose peppery marine tang married perfectly with a chilled glass of sauvignon blanc. 我记录里的第一件精品,是洒着红辣椒末的腌熏鳕鱼白。这是在东京附近,时尚的丘陵小镇中木黑(Nakameguro),一家叫做N-1155的餐馆里吃到的。品尝着经熏制和腌制而成的美味特制鱼干,再叫上一杯冰白苏维翁,正与弹性的海鲜口感相得益彰。 Exhibits B and C: a flash-cold-smoked sea perch sashimi, and a bagna cauda, both served at the same restaurant. Flash cold smoking, done in the kitchen just before plating, imparts a tangy, cooked woodland savor to the raw flesh of the fish that makes for a delicious cognitive dissonance in the mouth. The bagna cauda was upgraded by having its oil mostly replaced with cream, creating a rich bath into which produce from the restaurant’s own farm in southern Japan — thin-cut yellow carrot, mustard green, lotus root and kohlrabi — was dipped and then removed, leaving its bright, vegetal essences enrobed in unctuous garlic. 在这家餐馆里还可以吃到冷熏微烤鲈鱼刺身加意大利蘸酱。在后厨即将装盘之前,快速的低温微熏给生鱼片增加了一种浓郁的木香,放入嘴中,满口生香。意大利蘸酱经过改良,由奶油代替菜油。餐馆在日本南部农场自产各种蔬菜,包括胡萝卜、芥菜、莲藕和甘蓝。这些蔬菜被切成薄片,在汤汁中浸润,然后捞出弃置不用,只留下一股爽口的蔬菜精华,与厚厚的蒜茸和奶油一起,创造出一碗香浓的酱汁。 The next day, a few blocks away, it was the turn of a place called Harbor Bar. Modeled vaguely on a Venetian wine bar and boasting fish from the Sanriku Coast region of northern Japan, the tiny restaurant has a cheerfully casual D.I.Y. atmosphere that channels Bushwick. But there’s nothing casual about the food in the least. 第二天,我们去到几个街区之外的另一家料理,叫做港湾酒吧(Harbor Bar)。这家小餐厅格局依稀有些酒吧的味道,所用的食材都是日本北部三陆海岸地区的海产。它的环境轻松随意,有一种自助的气氛,让人想起纽约的布什维克。可它的菜肴却很精致。 The opener was a plate of super-fresh scallop sashimi, enlivened with a ginger sauce whose citrus notes gave the dish the feel of a mollusk ceviche. This was followed up by a serving of raw botan shrimp — as large as langoustines — which arrived paired with a spicy rémoulade of cured carrots. While we ate, Bob and I continued to catch up. Unusually for a Westerner who has been living long-term in Japan, he’s lost none of his youthful enthusiasm and manifests the same manic glee he once did as a jazz-mad, art-crazed undergraduate. 开胃菜是一盘超级新鲜的扇贝刺身,配料的姜汁带有一种柑橘味,使这盘菜有一种酸橘汁腌海鲜的口感。接着上来的是生牡丹虾——和海鳌虾一般大小——搭配香辣蛋黄酱腌胡萝卜。我和鲍勃边吃边聊我们分别之后的生活。他还是像年轻时那么热情洋溢。在大学时,他曾是个爵士乐狂和艺术狂。而现在,他那种兴奋与狂热的劲头丝毫未减。对于一个在日本长期生活的西方人来说,这实在很不寻常。 “Some people live here and want to be Japanese,” he said. “I didn’t. Not only is it impossible, but I don’t want to be treated the way Japanese treat themselves. I love Japan, but I sell myself as a foreigner who’s willing to break the rules and say what’s wrong.” “有些人在这里生活,希望与本地人融为一体。”他说,“可我不是这样。不单因为我根本做不到,而且我也不喜欢日本人对待他们自己的方式。我爱日本,但是作为一个外国人,我不怕打破规矩,也不怕指出他们不好的地方。” “And what is wrong?” I asked. “他们有什么不好的地方呢?”我问道。 Bob, who works in Japan as an industrial designer, rubbed his hand over his shaved skull and said: “Two words define Japanese culture. One is ‘monozukuri,’ or ‘the Japanese way of making things.’ The other is ‘omotenashi,’ or ‘the Japanese way of hospitality.’ If the country rebuilt itself into such a buff economic specimen after World War II, it did so partly out of its belief in the superiority of both of these things to any other country’s. But then the bubble economy burst, the 21st century happened, and the country lost its way. I call it a nationwide case of the rope-a-dope. Whole industrial sectors have fallen asleep. Remember the Walkman? How’s that working out for you, Sony?” 鲍勃在日本的职业是工业设计师。他用手摸了摸自己剃光的头,说:“日本文化可以用两个词来定义。第一个词是‘制造’,也就是‘日本特色的制造方式’。第二个词是‘招待’,也就是‘日本人的待客之道’。这个国家在二战后把自己建成一个强有力的国家,原因之一就是因为他们确信,自己在这两点上比其他任何国家都优越。但是,进入21世纪之后,经济泡沫的破灭使他们不知所措。我认为,整个国家现在都在韬光养晦,整个工业界毫无生机。你还记得随身听吗?让我们来问问索尼:它的命运如何了?” Before I could answer the rhetorical question, my attention was distracted by the arrival of something called an iwagaki rock oyster. 我正在想如何回答他的这个反诘,一道新菜的到来打断了我的思绪。这道菜名是岩蚝。 Ah, that oyster. It was the largest bivalve I’ve ever seen, with a shell approximately the size and shape of my foot. “You freeze it while alive and then slow-cook it at low temperatures,” the waiter explained, bowing. “That makes the umami come out.” The monster was dressed in a brightly acid dill-based mignonette and disproved the axiom that larger versions of anything taste worse: It was a briny, exquisite splash of sea in the mouth. 呵,那生蚝。可以说它是我曾见过的最大的贝类了。贝壳的形状大小和我的脚差不多。“它还活着的时候你就得把它冷冻起来,然后用小火慢炖。”侍应生鞠了一躬,对我们介绍说,“这样鲜味才能出来。”这个特大生蚝上涂抹着一层酸酸的茴香木樨草酱汁,吃在嘴里,给你带来鲜咸而细腻的海浪滋味,彻底否定了“物大则无味”这一坊间说法。 I was still finishing it when the owner of the restaurant, alerted by my exclamations of joy, came over to talk. His name was Akira Matsuoka and he’s part of a restaurant consortium that oversees several venues in Tokyo. Rail thin, with high cheekbones, black jeans and alt-rock facial hair, he answered my question as to how he invents his dishes by explaining: “My partners and I think of ourselves as a food think tank. We don’t care about Michelin rankings. First we come up with the concept, and then we invent the dishes to fit it, sometimes collectively and sometimes individually. Rather than a star chef, we make the food the star.” He smiled and circled a finger in the air to indicate the small space crammed with diners. “And it seems to be working.” 我细细品尝着它的滋味。听到我不停的赞叹之声,餐馆老板走了出来,与我攀谈起来。他名叫阿基拉松冈(Akira Matsuoka),他的这家小店是一个餐饮集团属下的一部分,这个集团在东京还有几个其他店面。他人很瘦,高高的颧骨,身穿黑色牛仔,留着另类摇滚式的须发。当我问到他是如何创造出这道菜时,他回答说:“我和我的合伙人把自己看作美食智库。我们不在乎米其林星级。我们会首先想出一个概念,然后再创造一盘菜来表达这个概念。菜点的创作有时合作完成,有时独立完成。我们并不想做什么明星厨师。在这里,食物才是明星。”他微微笑着,手指在空中划了一圈,指着挤满小屋的就餐者。“这个做法看起来还蛮有效的。” Over the next few days, the culinary wizardry of Tokyo chefs remained unflagging. Yet, of all the entrees and appetizers I tried (the rice paper tubes of crab flash-fried so that the crunchy, starchy surface held a core of molten raw crustacean; the cod ovaries baked in Gorgonzola that scattered delicious marine bursts of garlic across the palate; the tiny fish called an ayu, or “sweet fish,” which is fermented in the dregs of sake for three years to make the bones grow edibly soft) — all of it, no matter how odd, gross or wonderful, would pale next to the one dish that remained dangling, like the holy grail, just out of reach. People spoke of it as the greatest white-fleshed sashimi in the world. 接下来的几天里,东京大厨们展示了从未令我失望的料理魅力。我品尝了各式各样的开胃菜与正餐,包括壳脆馅嫩的香煎软壳蟹米纸卷,充满蒜香海鲜口感的奶酪焗鳕鱼子,还有用清酒渣腌制三年而成的酥骨小香鱼。这些餐点有的怪异、有的恶心、有的美味。然而,所有这些,在另一道美食面前都黯然失色。那就像一个遥不可及的圣杯,一直在我们眼前晃动。它就是传说中世上最了不起的白身鱼刺身。 Back on the train, I heard Bob say, “We’re almost here,” and I slowly raised my eyes from my notebook. The fish was the legendary kanburi, or winter yellowtail, which abounds in the waters off Kanazawa, and after a couple of hours on the train, we were finally sliding into Kanazawa Station. “我们快到了。”鲍勃的话音把我拉回到眼前的火车上,我从笔记本上慢慢抬起目光。经过两小时的旅程,火车终于缓缓滑进金泽车站。那传说中的鱼,就是盛产于金泽的冷鰤鱼,又叫冬鰤。 But before food, a drink. Several, actually. Drinking in Japan is a crucial social and professional lubricant in a country where ritualized courtesies can easily harden into walls, and Bob, a teetotaler in college, had successfully adapted. Kanazawa, like most Japanese cities of a decent size, has a distinct “drinking district,” honeycombed with tiny bars, and not long after checking in to our hotel, we found ourselves in a stand-up bar called Choikichi. 当然,在吃之前,总得喝上一杯。或者多喝几杯。在日本这个地方,礼仪往往成为人际交往的障碍,而饮酒则成为社会与职业交往至关重要的润滑剂。鲍勃在大学是个滴酒不沾的人,但他终于也成功地转型了。和其他略有规模的城市一样,金泽也有自己的“饮酒区”。在这里,小酒家比肩接踵。我们在酒店入住之后没多久,就已经身处一家名为崔基地(Choikichi)的站立式酒吧了。 Stand-up means exactly what it sounds like, and the long counter of this former ice cream parlor was crowded on a late afternoon with regulars watching sumo wrestling on television. As titans clashed thunderously on the screen above us, the locals chatted happily with one another, and I had the sense of having wandered into a tiny Japanese analogue of Cheers, the famously chummy bar “where everybody knows your name.” We ate edamame and delicious rakkyo (pickled onions) and drank a fairly common but tasty sake. 站立式酒吧恰如其名。傍晚时分,这个由冰激凌小店改造的酒吧里,长长的柜台前熙熙攘攘地站满了本地的熟客,兴高采烈地彼此交谈。头顶上,电视中播放着相扑比赛,一个个彪形大汉如雷霆般向对方冲击。恍惚间,我觉得走进了日本版的干杯酒吧(Cheers),那个有名的酒吧,“在那儿每个人都互相认识”,如一家人般亲密。在这个站立式酒吧里,我们就着毛豆和美味的腌藠头(一种腌制的小洋葱)喝到了味道不错的普通清酒。 Bob, a habitué of these places, was welcomed everywhere we went with shouts. The shouts were particularly loud later that night at a bar named, hilariously, Pub Dylan (as in Bob). There I was served a very expensive sake called Dassai, whose cool, perfect balance gave me the impression of drinking a dipperful of outer space. It was also at this place that Bob (my friend) brought down the house by correctly identifying the Japanese rock band playing on the big-screen TV as the Atomic Bomb Masturbation. 鲍勃显然是这些地方的常客,他每到一处都会受到人们的欢呼。那天晚上晚些时候,我们来到另一家酒吧,它的名字很有趣,叫迪伦酒吧(Pub Dylan),和鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)同名(译者注:美国著名歌手,名字与作者的老友鲍勃相同)。我们走进这家酒吧时,欢呼声尤为响亮。在那里他们端给我一杯非常昂贵的清酒,叫做獺祭(Dassai)。它那清凉、酸甜有致的口感让人有飘飘欲仙之感。在这里,鲍勃,不是鲍勃·迪伦,而是我的朋友鲍勃,准确地认出了头上大屏幕电视里表演的日本摇滚乐团是Atomic Bomb Masturbation,赢得了全场又一次欢呼。 After a quick, delicious tempura dinner I returned to my dwarf hotel room, only moderately worse for alcoholic wear, and asked myself the obvious question: Is Japan the most food-crazed nation on earth? Evidence for “yes” is pretty thick on the ground. Tokyo has a staggering 80,000 restaurants, as opposed to the 15,000 of New York or the 6,000 of London. But more to the point: Where else on the planet would a country’s biggest boy band have its own cooking show? What other nation would stage a televised competition in which they brought in challengers to try to better a master sushi chef’s technique and scanned the resulting sushi pieces with an MRI to compare the ratio of rice to air? What other place could possibly, under any circumstances, have invented the operatic and off-the-wall “Battle of the Iron Chef”? 简短而美味的天妇罗晚餐之后,我回到狭小的酒店房间,略有醉意。我忍不住自问:日本是否是地球上最爱吃的国度?肯定的明比比皆是:东京餐馆有令人震惊的8万家之多,而纽约只有1万5千家,伦敦更是才有6千家。更说明问题的是:除了日本,世界上哪个国家里最著名的男孩乐队会有自己的烹饪节目?哪个国家电视台的厨艺比赛,会不仅让参赛者挑战寿司师傅的料理技巧,更是用核磁共振来检测寿司饭卷中空气的含量,并以此决定比赛结果?又还有哪一个国家能发明出那个夸张而奇特的“铁人料理”(Battle of the Iron Chef)电视节目? The very next day, as if in answer to these questions, Japan served me the best seafood meal of my life. It did so at a small, easily missed, relatively modest-looking restaurant called Yamashita. 就在第二天,仿佛是要回答我的问题,日本献出了我一生中吃到的滋味最美的海鲜。这事发生在一家豪不引人注目,门面简单的小餐馆里,其店名叫“山下”(Yamashita)。 Yamashita is on no foreigner’s must-see lists, and there wasn’t an English language word in sight. But the restaurant, located by Bob, is a temple of sorts where the eponymous owner and chef Mitsuo Yamashita is referred to by his employees as the Master, and boss and staff work as one to pluck the freshest, purest products from the nearby ocean and put them on your plate with minimal interference. 山下餐馆是鲍勃找到的,像个禅院模样。它在任何一个外国旅游者的景点清单里都从未出现过。店里所有地方也没有半句英文。店主兼大厨山下光雄(Mitsuo Yamashita)被手下称作“师傅”。老板和手下共同努力,从附近的海域中带来最新鲜纯净的海产,然后做极简的处理之后送上你的餐盘。 The meal began with a pictorially perfect tray of amuse bouches: thin-cut strips of yellowtail stomach dressed in a vinegar-miso sauce, which tasted smoked though they weren’t, along with a small pile of herrings fermented in the dregs of sake, and a handful of fresh snap peas, each dabbed with tiny blobs of black sesame pesto. 最先送上来的是餐前点心:切得薄薄的鰤鱼肚沾香醋味噌酱,虽然没有经过熏制,吃起来却有些微烤的味道;还有一小堆酒糟鲱鱼和十来个上面点洒着黑芝麻酱的新鲜蜜豆。 A sake, painstakingly engineered by Mr. Yamashita in consultation with local brewers, partnered these refined salty nibbles perfectly. But all this was a mere prelude to that moment when a waitress, smiling, brought in plates heaped high with the prized kanburi sashimi. 与这些鲜咸的小吃完美配合的是山下先生与当地酿酒师合作精心酿制的清酒。这只不过是个前奏。接下来才是大家翘首以待的时刻:女侍应生微笑着端上一盘堆得高高的久负盛名的冷鰤鱼刺身。 Why has this fish been elevated to the very top spot among sashimi lovers? Because kanburi uniquely fuses two qualities that are almost never found in the same animal. Take maguro, the tuna whose sashimi is most recognizable to Americans. There’s the red meat, or akami, version, with its firm texture and relatively mild flavor, and the pinker version known as otoro that is filled with delicious oils and fats. The problem is that the tasty otoro has a crumbly, falling-apart texture in the mouth likened disdainfully by Bob to “eating sashimi marshmallows.” Because texture, along with temperature and flavor, are part of the “mouth moment” of Japanese cuisine, the challenge is to find a firm fish that is also rich in oil. 为什么冷鰤对生鱼片爱好者来说位居榜首?因为它是能够融合两种重要品质的唯一鱼种。就拿美国人最熟悉的金鱼来说吧。鱼背部颜色偏红的部分,叫Akami,肉质紧实,味道相对比较平淡。鱼腹颜色偏浅的部分称为otoro,油脂丰溢,味道香美,但是肉质却十分疏松,按鲍勃轻蔑的话来说,吃起来就像 “吃生鱼片棉花糖”。肉质、温度和味道是日本料理中“口感”不可或缺的部分。因此,找到一种油脂丰溢而肉质紧实的鱼片是一个挑战。 Enter kanburi, which for that brief, miraculous period every winter, is both those things. The fish, in thick slabs, now lay fanned out on the plate before me, glistening with oil — oil that had leached out of it because the Master had intentionally let the fish “rest,” or cure for a day or so. Mind you, fish oil like this has nothing “fishy” about it. The kanburi was silky, pliant, yielding and tasted of a distilled, superclean essence of the sea. It seemed to exemplify everything that was best about Japanese cuisine, and mouthful by mouthful it put me into a kind of trance. 这时就轮到冷鰤出场了。每年冬天,有那么短暂而奇妙的一小段时间,冷鰤能够同时拥有这两种美质。我面前的盘子里摆放着一块块厚厚的鱼块,闪着油光——师傅特意让鱼“歇”了一天左右,让油脂溢出。别忘了,这样的鱼油毫无腥味。冷鰤肉质柔软滑顺、富有弹性,吃在嘴里,像是浓缩了清新爽口的大海芳香,突显日本料理的最高境界。随着一片片刺身送人口中,我仿佛不知身在何处。 Suddenly the Master poked his head in again and barked some machine-gun Japanese at Bob, who translated it with a single word: squid. It was being offered as our next course, and there was no question of not taking it. One would as soon have refused an audience with the pope. 忽然,师傅探出头来,对鲍勃叫出了一串如机关一般的日语。鲍勃的翻译只有一个词:乌贼。原来这是下一道菜,我们当然来者不拒。我宁可错失与教皇见面的机会,也不会拒绝这样的美食。 This would turn out to be something called “spear squid.” Freshly caught and still alive in the kitchen, it was killed, masterfully julienned and brought to the table as sashimi, along with a sauce made of fermented bonito guts, a condiment of pickled wild wasabi flowers, a heated stone and some stern admonitions from the Master as to exactly how to cook the squid — barely — and what the precise protocol was for eating it. Dishes like this belong to a category known for its hazawari, or “tooth feel,” and produce a dazzling mix of ocean flavor notes while offering an old-fashioned popcorn-like crunch in the mouth. 端上来的是所谓的“乌贼”。刚刚抓到的,在厨房活杀之后,精巧地片成条,然后作为刺身端上桌来。配菜包括鲣鱼内脏酱和腌渍野芥末花,还有一块烤热的石头。师傅神情严肃地教导我们如何烹制乌贼——不能久烹——然后又教给我们吃乌贼的准确步骤。这道菜肴主要是要感受它的“嚼口”,一种海洋风味交织着老派爆米花的爽脆。 By the end of such a meal, something has happened to you, something close to the psychic euphoria produced by yoga or meditation. You’ve entered a zone of food satori, mystically zonked by the punch of a culture that has been perfecting its culinary subtleties for thousands of years. What to do? 一餐已矣,你会感受到一种微妙的变化,好似瑜伽或冥想之后感悟的那种心灵之升华。仿佛你刚刚接受了那历经千年浸润的饮食文化对你的神秘一击,使你顿获美食之悟。 After an elaborately choreographed goodbye, we took a digestive stroll in the seaside air, passing through the gaudy Kanazawa downtown with its Ginza-style flashing lights, its kuru kuru (conveyor belt) sushi restaurants (Japanese is rich in onomatopoetic words, and “kuru kuru” is the sound of a conveyor belt; say it fast and you’ll understand), its knickknack shops, bars and omnipresent FamilyMart convenience stores. 经过一个精心设计的告别仪式之后,我们在海滨的空气中缓步前行。一路上是金泽市中心银座格调的华丽灯火,以及一家家库鲁库鲁回转寿司餐厅(日语里有很多拟声词。“库鲁库鲁”是回转带转动的声音,试一下快速读这个词你就会明白了)、小礼品店、酒吧,和无处不在的全家连锁便利店。 Our destination was the beautiful old wood-fronted part of town called Higasha Chaya-Gai. (Kanazawa shares with Kyoto the distinction of being one of the few large Japanese cities not bombed by the Allies during World War II). There, we entered a sleekly minimalist bar called Teriha and seated ourselves among the drinkers, conscious that it was our last evening out. 我们的目的地是老城东茶屋街(Higashi Chaya-Gai),那是一片美丽的木质民房。(金泽和京都是二战期间没有遭到盟军轰炸损毁的仅有的几个日本大城市之一。)在那里,我们走进了一家简约风格的酒吧,叫做照葉(Teriha)。我们在酒客间坐下,心知这是我们这趟旅行的最后一晚了。 I had spent a full week living inside a kind of tone poem of fish and alcohol, enriched by unflagging conversation with a dear old friend. But a vague perception had been weighing on me constantly during the trip, and suddenly, in the dark bar, that perception sharpened into words: I’ve never been to so foreign a place before that felt so deeply familiar. 整整一个星期,我仿佛生活在一个鱼和酒交织而成的音诗之中,伴随着亲密老友热情洋溢的交心畅谈。自始至终,我的脑海里有一种若隐若现的感觉,琢磨不透,转瞬即逝。那天,在那个昏暗的酒吧里,我忽然抓住了那个感觉:我从未在一个如此陌生的国度里体会到如此深刻的熟悉感。 Differently from an Asian country like India, where I’ve also spent time, the social iconography of Japan is profoundly recognizable to an American. Despite the culture’s insularity and remoteness from us, the Japanese often dress and style themselves in a way that clearly states their social membership in categories of rocker, matron, intellectual, etc., and these identities can be easily “” by a tourist from the ed States. This fact, a product of the longstanding symbiotic relationship between the countries, produces a visual halo effect, in which one is always observing roles and mores on several levels at once. Exhausting on the one hand, it’s endlessly, compulsively fascinating on the other. 我去过其他亚洲国家,比如印度。但是日本不同。它的社会表象对美国人来说有深度的共识感。尽管日本是个距我们很远的岛国,但那里人的着装饰清楚表达出他们的社会归属:摇滚人、主妇、文化人,等等。美国旅游者可以轻易认出这些人的身份。这是日美两国相存相依多年的产物,也因此促成了一个光环效应,使人可以同时观察到他人的社会角色以及其他诸多层面的东西。一方面,这有些令人应接不暇,另一方面,这也的确让人不由心醉神驰。 Back in the bar, the lights suddenly dimmed further, and the conversations ceased. Rain started to fall, visible out the windows. Shrouded in darkness at the end of the bar, the owner, an ex-geisha named Yaeko Yoshigawa, began playing a flute. It was a bamboo flute called a shinobue, much used in Noh and Kabuki theater music and part of the essential “kit” of the geisha. The slow, wavering tones, played without obvious melody but filled with richness, lack the forward propulsive quality of Western music. Instead, individual notes are held until they’re mere wisps of sound, acoustic vapor. 这时,酒吧里灯光转暗,大家停止了交谈。窗外开始淅淅沥沥地下起雨来。吧台尽头,黑暗笼罩之中,酒吧主人吉川八重子(Yaeko Yoshigawa)开始吹起了笛子。她以前是个艺妓。她使用的竹笛叫做筱笛,是艺妓的基本“工具”之一,多用在日本能剧和歌舞伎剧场音乐之中。与西方音乐的大收大放不同,这音乐悠扬而婉转,听不出曲调,却充满内涵。每一个音符都拉得长长的,直到它越来越轻,终至弱不可闻,犹如情人耳边轻轻的私语。 For several minutes, quietly, the flute music continued, thing the air in the darkness. It wavered, seemed about to stop and then, surprisingly, went on, moving forward without resolution, a little bit like the beautiful, perplexing country of Japan itself, whose mix of ceremonial gravity and hidden culinary wonders had given me a week of the very best eating of my life. There was a pause that extended until we could hear the rain pattering on the roof and a single last note, after which Ms. Yoshigawa removed the flute from her mouth with a bow. The recital was finished. The tone poem was over. In the semi-darkness, Bob raised his glass in a last toast. It was time to go home. 几分钟里,静静的笛声在黑暗中萦绕。若隐若现,时有时无,在你以为音乐已尽之时,它却重再浮现,复又前行。这音乐正像日本这个美丽而莫测的国度,其庄重的礼仪和不为人知的料理奇迹交相辉映,让我度过了有生以来最美味的一个星期。音乐又一次停歇,只听见雨点在屋顶砸落的声音,接着,最后一个音符从笛中滑出。吉川夫人放下笛子,深深鞠躬。一曲终了,我那为期一周的交响音诗也就此结束。半明半暗之中,鲍勃最后一次举杯。是该回家的时候了。 If You Go 探访指南 Where to Stay 住在哪里 This particular trip was dedicated to eating, not lodging. In both Kanazawa and Tokyo there are abundant “business hotels,” found under that term on the Internet, where for usually less than 0 a night, or 11,390 yen at 114 yen to the dollar, one sleeps in a luxuriously appointed room the size of a large refrigerator. These are typically squeaky clean and have all modern conveniences, including, often, a washer-dryer and, incredibly, a pants press. 我这次旅行的目的是吃而不是住。金泽和东京都有大量的“商用酒店”,在网上用这个词即可查到。价钱一般为每晚100美元,或者1.139万日元(按1美元等于114日元计算)。房间和一个大型冰箱差不多大小,陈设奢华。这些酒店都一尘不染,拥有一切现代设施,通常包括洗衣机和烘干机,而且令人难以置信的是,常常还会有自动熨裤机。 Where to Eat 吃在哪里 Tokyo 东京 N-1155, 1-1-55 Nakameguro, Meguro, Tokyo; 81-3-3760-1001. N-1155, 东京目黑区中目黑1-1-55 ; 81-3-3760-1001。 A beautiful wood-paneled restaurant in one of the hipper districts of Tokyo that serves innovative, exquisitely prepared seasonal food. Much of the produce is from the restaurant’s own organic farm in southern Japan. An English-language is a plus. Dinner and drinks start at about 5,000 yen. 位于东京比较前卫的街区里的一家美丽的木质餐馆,提供富有创意而制作精美的海鲜食品。使用的蔬菜主要取自餐馆在日本南部自营的有机农场。更棒的是他们提供英语的菜单。晚餐和酒水从5千日元起。 Harbor Bar (Minatomachi Baru), 3-7-8 Kamimeguro, Meguro, Tokyo; 81-3-5869-5806. 港湾酒吧(Harbor Bar, Minatomachi Baru), 东京目黑区上目-7-8; 81-3-5869-5806。 Hipster interiors and a crowd right out of Bushwick fill up this small, very tasty seafood shop. The place is modeled loosely on a Venetian fish restaurant and has a decent Italian wine selection, but the superfresh and very creative dishes are straight from the Sanriku Coast, north of Tokyo. Dinner and drinks from about 4,000 yen on up. 这家小巧的海鲜店内饰时尚,味道上佳,满座的宾客与纽约布什维克没什么两样。室内装修仿效维也纳海鲜餐馆,酒单上有很不错的意大利酒品,然而它超级新鲜而极具创意的海鲜却全部来自东京北部的三陆海岸。晚餐与酒水4千日元起。 Kanazawa 金泽 Yamashita Restaurant, 2-23-5 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-223-1461. 山下餐馆(Yamashita Restaurant), 石川县金泽片町2-23-5; 81-76-223-1461。 This world-class fish mecca is unostentatiously small and bare. Its stern, somewhat forbidding owner runs a very tight ship, and no English is spoken. But animated pointing at display cases will probably do the trick. Dinner and drinks, about 4,000 yen. 这个世界一流的海鲜胜地其貌不扬,风格简朴。餐馆主人不苟言笑,管理严格。这里没人会讲英语。不过,你只要动作夸张地朝摆在外面的餐点样品指一指,就一定能让他们明白你的意图。晚餐与酒水4千元左右。 Teriha Restaurant and Bar, 1-24-7 Higashiyama, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-253-3791. 照葉酒家(Teriha Restaurant and Bar), 石川县金泽东山1-24-7; 81-76-253-3791。 Located in the historic wood-fronted district of the city, this wine bar with its beautiful, minimalist interior tends to fill up fast with the local A-list crowd. The owner, a former geisha, speaks some English. If you beg her for a shinobue (flute) recital, she may oblige. Drinks begin at 500 yen. 这个坐落在金泽木屋古城的美丽而风格简约的小酒吧通常总是充满了当地的一流酒客。艺妓出身的酒吧老板懂一点英语。如果你请她演奏一曲笛子,她有可能会满足你的要求。酒水从5百日元起。 Pub Dylan, 3-25 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-222-0322. 迪伦酒吧(Pub Dylan), 石川县金泽片町2-3-23; 81-76-222-0322。 This small, friendly, deeply atmospheric watering hole is found in the city’s Shintenchi bar quarter. A rowdy crowd tends to form by late evening, and chatting is encouraged in whatever language you happen to speak. The Dassai sake (about 9,110 yen a glass) is out of this world. Other drinks begin at about 500 yen. Cash only. 这是一个非常友好而氛围热情的小小的灌酒处,处于新天地酒吧区。每天夜深以后,这里会聚集一群嘈杂的人群,无论你讲何种语言,都可以在此聊天。他们的獺祭清酒2千到3千日元一杯,是不世出的美酒。其他酒水5百日元起价。只收现金。 Choikichi, 2-8-18 Katamachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 81-76-261-4900. 崔基地(Choikichi), 石川县金泽片町2-8-18; 81-76-261-4900。 This is old-school working-class Japan. A single standing-only counter, jars of pickled bar food and local workers sighing over sumo wrestling on TV. The owner is often referred to as Mom (in Japanese, of course) by the clientele. No English spoken. Snacks and drinks start at 200 and 300 yen respectively. 这是个日本老派工薪阶层的酒吧。只有一个站立式柜台,成瓶的腌制的下酒菜,当地工人站着一边喝酒一边观看电视相扑比赛。客人们叫酒吧老板做妈妈(当然是用日语)。这里不会讲英语。小吃和酒水分别为2百和3百日元。 /201603/430121

  Confucius(551 B. C.~479 B. C.), born at Zouyi (south-east of the present Qufu, Shandong Province), whose given name was Qiu and courtesy name Zhongni, was the founder of Confucianism.孔子(公元前551年~公元前479年),名丘,字仲尼,鲁国陬邑(今山东曲阜东南)人,孺家创始人,被后世尊称为“圣人”。As one of the greatest thinkers and educators in the history of China, Confucius#39; legacy lies in the following three aspects.作为中国历史上伟大的思想家与教育家,孔子的贡献主要体现在三个方面。Firstly, he compiled and preserved literary works of three generations. The six documents (The Six Classics) under his compilation, including Shi (The Book of Songs), Shu (Collection of Ancient Texts), Li (The Rites ), Yue (The Music), Yi (I Ching, or The Book of Changes), and Chun Qiu (The Spring and Autumn Annuals), are considered as the classics of Confucianism. This accomplishment makes an enormous impact on the succession and development of the traditional Chinese culture.第一,对三代文化的整理与保存。他整理了《诗》、《书》、《礼》、《乐》、《易》、《春秋》6部文献,被后代奉为儒家经典,合称“六经”,为传统文化的继承与发展作出了巨大贡献。Secondly, Confucius established a system of philosophical thoughts with ;ren;(benevolence) as its fundamental virtue. This virtue is the central theme of his Analecrs.第二,建立了一套以“仁”为核心的思想体系,这集中体现在记录他一生言行的《论语》一书中。As a moral and ethical system, ren focuses on human love that is hierarchical and differentiated.“仁”是一种道德境界与伦理体系,核心内容是提倡一种多层次、有差别的人类之爱。Thus Confucius created his version of humanism.孔子的“仁”是对“人”的发现,自他开始,人们才把“仁”由外在规范转化为一种内在自觉。Based on ren, Confucius objected to the fantastic powers that confused the human spirit. He took a skeptical and indifferent attitude toward religion and further developed his humanistic ideas.以“仁”为基础,孔子反对“怪力乱神”,对天命鬼神采取了怀疑和冷漠的态度,由天命神学转到了人本思想,并进一步发展了民本主义思想。Confucius#39; concept of li refers to a set of ritual and musical systems, with the hierarchical system as its core.孔子也讲“礼”,礼是礼乐制度,核心内容是等级制度。Ren and li are complementary: Ii is the exterior principle of ren while ren is li#39;s intrinsic guiding power. To accomplish ren, one must abide by li, while ren will be naturally generated in the process of practicing li.礼与仁互为表里,礼是仁的外在规则,仁是礼的内在指导因素。要达到仁,必先合乎礼,在反复实践礼的过程中自然会产生仁。Fundamentally, the purpose of Confucius#39; li is to restore the traditional rifles of the Zhou Dynasty.孔子讲“仁”的根本目的是维护与恢复周礼。Thirdly, Confucius established private schools and founded a systematic educational framework.第三,兴办私学,创立了科学的教育思想体系。He maintained the idea that everyone has the right to be educated despite class differences. In teaching practice, Confucius adopted flexible teaching methods which involve the combinations of learning and thinking, learning and reviewing as well as teaching and learning. He strived for educating students in accordance with their aptitude and adopted a heuristic style of teaching.孔子提出“有教无类”,认为人人都应该受教育。在教育实践中创立了灵活多样的教学方法,提倡“学”与“思”的结合、学习与复习的结合以及教与学的结合,讲求因材施教和启发式教学等等。These philosophical thoughts are still valuable in application today.这些思想,直到今天还有其现实意义。 /201510/402113

  

  

  Zhang Heng(78~139), whose courtesy name was Pingzi, was a famous astronomer in the Eastern Han Dynasty.张衡(78~139 ), 字平子。东汉天文学家。历官郎中、太史令等。His publication Ling Xian (Mystical Laws) summarized his achievements in astronomy. 《灵宪》一文,全面地体现了他在天文学上的成就。He held that the universe was infinite in both space and time and invented the world#39;s first eauatorial armillary sphere.他提出“浑天说”,认为宇宙在空间上没有边界,在时间上没有起点。他创造的天文仪器浑天仪,是一种演示天体星象运动的表演仪器。He also believed that the heaven was round and the earth flat.关于地球的结构,他持“天圆地平”说。Furthermore, he recorded 2 500 stars, drew the first comprehensive star chart and accurately interpreted the formation of lunar eclipses.他还记录了2500颗恒星,画出了中国第一张完备的星图,正确解释了月食的成因。He was renowned as the inventor of the world#39;s first seismograph, which was invented 1 800 years earlier than other similar devices.在地震学上,他发明了候风地动仪,是世界上的地震仪之祖,比其它类似设备早了1800年。Legend said that he invented two magical devices:a three-wheeled device that could rotate automatically and a wood carving that could fly in the sky.传说他当时还制作过两件神奇的器物,一件是有三个轮子的机械,可以自转;一件是一只木雕,能在天上飞翔。In a mathematical treatise, he approximated pi by working out two numbers.在数学上,他写过《算罔论》一书,推知圆周率大约在3. 14和3. 16之间。He held fast the principle of seeking truth from facts and strongly objected to the non-scientific viewpoints in the society.他坚持实事求是的原则,坚决与鄙弃知识的社会愚昧思想作斗争。Zhang Heng was also an outstanding writer, whose Er Jing Fu (Two Capital Cities) and Gui Tian Fu (To Live in Seclusion) are considered as literary masterpieces in ancient China.张衡还是一位大文学家,有《二京赋》、《归田赋》等传世之作。 /201603/430931

  There are countless urban legends about drinking, from supposed wisdom about what gets you drunk the quickest, to tips on how to avoid a hangover, to rules of thumb for how you should buy and serve a fine wine. Many of them, however, aren#39;t rooted in science or data. Here are 5 things you#39;ve heard about alcohol and drinking that aren#39;t actually true.关于喝酒有无数的传闻,从哪些酒最容易让人喝醉、到如何避免宿醉的温馨小贴士,再到如何购买葡萄酒的经验法则。然而,很多这类传闻都是没有科学数据撑的。这里有5条一直为大家深信不疑的饮酒小常识,其实它们都是不正确的!Myth 1: Hard Alcohol Will Get You Drunk Quicker.谬见1:烈酒更容易醉人Yes, hard liquor has a higher alcohol content than beer. But as long as you#39;re drinking them at the same speed, a shot of liquor in a mixer should give you the same buzz as a 12-ounce beer. Shots tend to get people more drunk because they take them more quickly than they would drink a beer or a glass of wine.是的,烈酒的酒精浓度比啤酒更高。但是如果你以相同的速度喝完烈酒和啤酒,其实一小杯兑了饮料的烈酒和12盎司的啤酒是一样的,都能让你脑袋嗡嗡作响。喝小杯的烈酒之所以更容易让人醉,是因为小杯酒和一瓶啤酒或者一杯红酒比,喝起来更快,也就更容易醉人。Myth 2: Everyone Gets Hungover.谬见2:人人都会宿醉Studies show that about 25 percent of people don#39;t get hangovers. Lucky folks! It#39;s possible that this is because they don#39;t drink as much as they think they#39;re drinking, or it could be because of some as yet unknown genetic quirk. One study of Australian twins found that genetics were responsible for 40 to 45 percent of the difference in hangover frequency between people.研究表示,近百分之二十五的人并不会宿醉。多么幸运的人!很可能是因为他们实际喝的酒并不如他们自己想象得多,又或者是他们体内有一些未知的遗传基因。一对澳大利亚双胞胎的研究表明,人与人之间的基因会使人们在宿醉频率上有百分之四十至五十的不同。Myth 3: Beer Will Give You A Round Belly.谬见3:喝啤酒会有啤酒肚There isn#39;t anything more fattening about beer than any other alcohol. All alcohol is caloric and can lead to weight gain. The reason people associate a big gut with drinking too many brewskies might be because beer is consumed in larger quantities than liquor or wine.没有任何一种酒会比啤酒更容易增肥。其实所有的酒都有热量,都会导致增肥。之所以大多数人把大肚腩和喝啤酒联系起来,原因可能是一般我们会喝很多啤酒,而烈酒和葡萄酒则不会喝很多。Myth 4: Drinking Killls Brain Cells.谬见4:饮酒会杀死脑细胞Long-term hard drinking isn#39;t great for the brain, but alcohol doesn#39;t kill brain cells like your mother warned it did. It does, however, impair brain function over time. Drinking can damage the ends ofneurons, making it more difficult for them to relay signals. But that#39;s not quite the same thing as destroying entire cells.长期酗酒对大脑不好,但是并不是像你妈说的那样,酒精会导致脑细胞死亡。但久而久之,饮酒会损害脑功能。饮酒会损害神经元末梢,会减慢神经元传递信号。但这和杀死整个脑细胞完全是两个概念。Myth 5: Sake Is A Rice Wine.谬见5:日本清酒是一种米酒You would be forgiven for thinking this, as sake is often sold as a rice wine. But in fact, it#39;s more like a rice beer. Wines are alcoholic beverages made from fermented grape juice, and some expand that definition to include any and all fruit. But the process to make sake, which includes milling the grains of rice and fermenting them for weeks, is more akin to the beer-making process.你有这种误解是很正常的,日本清酒一直作为米酒来卖。事实上,它更像是一种米啤酒。葡萄酒是由发酵的葡萄汁制成的酒精饮料,一些人也说其它水果酿制的酒也算葡萄酒(但不包括米)。日本清酒的制作过程包括磨碎大米粒,再让它们发酵几周,这更像制作啤酒的过程。 /201601/419961

  

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