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重庆爱德华医院割包皮多少钱重庆医科大学附属口腔医院网络预约Egypt after the coup政变之后的埃及It isn’t over yet一切还未终结A week after the military coup that overthrew Egypt’s elected Islamist president, the country remains dangerously divided埃及发生军事政变,民选伊斯兰总统遭罢黜。一周之后,国家仍处于十分危急的分裂状态July 13th 20132013年7月13日THE words “civil war” pepper many a conversation in Cairo in the wake of the military coup on July 3rd that ousted Muhammad Morsi, a Muslim Brother, after only a year in power. On July 8th the prospect of all-out strife loomed larger after the security forces in Cairo shot dead at least 50 people who had been demanding Mr Morsi’s reinstatement.7月3日,埃及发生军事政变。穆斯林兄弟会的穆罕默德#8226;穆尔西(Muhammad Morsi)执政仅一年之久,便遭罢黜。自那以后,开罗的民众议论纷纷,“内战”这个字眼频频出现。6月8日,开罗的安全部队士兵至少开打死了50名要求恢复穆尔西职位的民众。形势愈加严峻,全面大战在即。Egyptian society remains bitterly divided between a core of Brotherhood backers, who feel cheated, and the millions of people, including secular-minded and liberal Egyptians and quite a lot of religious ones, who wanted Mr Morsi to go. Above all, Egyptians need to agree on a plan to move the country back to democracy. On July 8th the judge appointed by the army as an interim president unveiled a brisk timetable for bringing in a new constitution and for parliamentary and presidential elections. It is bound, at best, to be a bumpy ride.埃及社会仍是严重分裂,一边是穆兄会的核心持者,心中是上当受骗的感觉;另一边是数百万民众,其中不乏世俗自由派埃及人以及大批宗教人士,他们要的是穆尔西下台。最重要的是,埃及人需要确定一个统一方案,让国家重返民主之路。7月8日,由军方任命的临时总统——最高法院院长迅速公布了一份安排紧凑的时间表,确定了新宪法的颁布时间以及议会选举、总统大选时日。即便天时地利人和,这条路也注定坎坷。The opposition is still crowing over Mr Morsi’s demise. Voices calling for the vanquishing of “terrorists”, as the fiercer foes of the Muslim Brothers like to call them, seem louder than those calling for restraint and compromise. On the other side, Mr Morsi’s diehard disciples, fearing for their survival, refuse to consider anything less than his reinstatement, which the generals now in charge are sure to dismiss out of hand. Since July 3rd Mr Morsi’s people have continued to mass in districts of eastern Cairo, where their support is strongest, to protest against the overthrow of their democratically elected president.反对派至今还在为推翻穆尔西而沾沾自喜。要求消灭“恐怖分子”(这是更暴力的穆兄会反对派喜欢用的称呼)的人似乎比呼吁克制、折衷的人更多。而另一边,穆尔西的铁杆持者为了他们的存亡大计,要求穆尔西复职。若不满足这个最低条件,一切免谈。但目前的军方领导人肯定会当即拒绝。自7月3日起,穆尔西的持者就一直在开罗东部地区(他们的“大本营”)集会,抗议军方罢免他们民主选举的总统。The two sides also disagree over who was to blame for the shooting on July 8th outside the Republican Guard Club, where Mr Morsi was said to be held. The actions of the security forces seemed plainly disproportionate, at the least. The interim president, Adly Mansour, called for an inquiry without suggesting its terms, leaving the whiff of a would-be cover-up. The security forces have never hidden their hostility to the Brothers.双方存在分歧的还有一点:谁该为7月8日发生共和国卫队俱乐部(Republican Guard Club)外的击案负责。据传,穆尔西当时就软禁于此。无论如何,守卫士兵的行为看上去显然是过分了。临时总统阿兹利#8226;曼苏尔(Adly Mansour)下令调查此案,但他并没表达自己的立场(or 详细部署?),似乎有种想把案子压下去的意味。而安全部队从未掩饰过他们对穆兄会的敌意。In response the Brotherhood’s leaders called for an uprising against the army and its head, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who launched the coup. The public prosecutor then issued arrest warrants for the organisation’s leaders, including its supreme guide, charging them with incitement to violence. Several hundred Brothers, including Mr Morsi, are behind bars, raising the spectre of Egypt’s “deep state”, as the security establishment is known, making a comeback.作为回应,穆兄会的领导人号召民众起义,反对军方和发动政变的军方领导人——阿卜杜勒#8226;法塔赫#8226;西萨将军(General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi)。埃及检方随即对该组织领导(包括最高领导人在内)发出逮捕令,指控他们煽动暴乱。如今,包括穆尔西在内的几百名穆兄会成员锒铛入狱,恐惧的氛围已在酝酿,有着“暗深势力集团(deep state)”之名的国家安全部官员(穆巴拉克政权残余)似乎要卷土重来。Keen to bring back stability and to persuade people that he sincerely wants to cede power as soon as possible, General Sisi moved fast to prod Mr Mansour into setting a rapid return to democracy. Along with his speedy timetable, the interim president issued a set of articles to replace the suspended constitution until a new one is drawn up. He gave ten lawyers a month to amend the constitution, to be reviewed within two months by 50 civil-society figures and put to a national referendum a month later. All being well, parliamentary elections would be followed by a presidential one early in the new year.西撒将军迫切希望国家能恢复稳定,也急于让民众相信,自己是真心打算尽快交出权力,所以很快他便敦促曼苏尔制定了一套快速重返民主之路的方案。除了他那张日程紧张的时间表,临时总统还同时颁布了一系列条款。因之前宪法暂停,这些条款在新宪法出台前将充当临时宪法。根据他的安排,十名律师将花一个月修改宪法;在之后两个月内,50位民众代表将对宪法进行审核;一个月后,对新宪法公投。如果一切进展顺利,明年初将举行总统大选,随后选举议会。Mr Mansour also appointed Hazem al-Beblawi, a 77-year-old economist, as prime minister. Mohamed ElBaradei, a former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN’s nuclear watchdog, who is now a leader of the secular opposition, has been appointed deputy president during the transition. Mr Beblawi has embarked on negotiations to form a cabinet of technocrats, promising posts to members of the Brotherhood and of the Salafists’ Nour party.曼苏尔还任命77岁的经济学家——哈齐姆#8226;贝卜拉维(Hazem al-Beblawi)为总理。前国际原子能机构(联合国核监督机构)总干事穆罕穆德#8226;巴拉迪(Mohamed ElBaradei),如今作为世俗反对派领导人之一,被任命为过渡政府副总统。贝卜拉维为了组建一个由专家构成的内阁,已着手谈判。他承诺,将邀请穆兄会和萨斯特光明党(Salafists’ Nour)人士加入内阁。The Brothers have so far rejected Mr Mansour’s proposals in their entirety. Since their senior members have been rounded up and their television stations shut down, they are in no mood for compromise. “All the elections we won have been thrown into the rubbish bin and we have been excluded from the political process, so why would we accept this?” asks Abdullah al-Keryoni, a youth member of the Brotherhood, protesting outside Cairo’s Rabea al-Adawiya mosque.目前为止,穆兄会拒绝了曼苏尔的全部提议。自从他们的资深成员被捕、电视台遭关闭,穆兄会是没心情妥协的。“我们赢得的所有选举都遭人唾弃,政治议程也没我们参加的份儿,既然这样,我们凭什么要接受?“年轻的穆兄会成员阿布达拉哈#8226;阿克约尼(Abdullah al-Keryoni)在开罗拉比亚#8226; 阿达维亚(Rabea al-Adawiya)清真寺外抗议时问道。Meanwhile, the National Salvation Front, a grouping of liberal opposition parties under Mr ElBaradei’s co-chairmanship, said Mr Mansour had not consulted it before making his declaration and would suggest changes. Tamarod (Rebellion), the youth movement that led the protests to oust Mr Morsi, also criticised the sweeping powers reserved for Mr Mansour. And liberals nervously noted the reaffirmation in the interim president’s statement that sharia should be the basis of law, presumably as an inducement to bring the Islamists back into peaceful politics. The Nour party, which had distanced itself from the Brotherhood after the coup, also objected to the content of Mr Mansour’s proclamation.与此同时,由巴拉迪与他人共同领导的自由派反对党联盟“埃及救国阵线(National Salvation Front)”表示,曼苏尔在发布声明前并没征求他们的意见。联盟将针对该声明提交一些修改建议。发起抗议、罢黜穆尔西的新兴反叛组织塔马洛德(Tamarod),也谴责曼苏尔不应拥有这么大的权利。自由派人士则心有不安,他们注意到,临时总统在声明中再三强调法律应以伊斯兰教法为基础。这似乎会诱使伊斯兰主义者重新打破和平政治的局面。光明党自从政变起,就与穆兄会划清界限。而他们也反对曼苏尔声明中的规定。So further clashes are likely. Ahmed el-Tayeb, the grand imam of the al-Azhar mosque and rector of the university of the same name, who is by tradition the leading authority of Sunni Islam, has called for more serious efforts to reconcile the main camps and has warned that Egypt could be heading towards civil war. “The Muslim Brotherhood will adopt self-restraint as a strategy because they know violence allows their opponents to frame them as terrorists,” says Khalil Anani, an Egyptian expert in Islamist movements. “But they may not be able to rein in young members.” The killing of a Coptic priest and violence in Sinai suggest that other groups are keen to stir up trouble.所以,未来很可能会发生进一步冲突。爱兹哈尔(al-Azhar)清真寺的大伊玛目及同名大学校长(依照传统,他是逊尼派穆斯林的顶级权威人士)呼吁付出更多切实努力,与埃及的主要阵营和解。他们还警告说,埃及可能正向内战的方向发展。“穆兄会将把‘自制’作为一项战略,因为他们知道,诉诸暴力会被敌人冠上‘恐怖分子’之名,”伊斯兰运动的埃及专家卡哈里#8226;阿纳尼(Khalil Anani)说道,“但他们可能无法管束年轻成员。”西奈半岛(Sinai)发生暴力事件,一名科普特牧师被杀,看来有些组织是诚心滋扰生事。If the army can reimpose order on the streets with little more bloodshed and start meeting its promises to restore democracy, it will also have to set about rescuing the country’s shattered economy as a matter of extreme urgency. On July 9th Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the ed Arab Emirates, pleased to see Mr Morsi go, offered up to billion in cash, deposits and oil—more than the amount given to Mr Morsi by Qatar, his chief financier, during his year-long stint in power. Big business has broadly rallied to the new regime.如果军方能在尽量不杀戮的情况下再次迫使民间恢复有序状态,并着手兑现它许下的的承诺——恢复民主,那它也必须像处理头等紧急大事一样,开始拯救埃及离破碎的经济。穆尔西下台,科威特、沙特阿拉伯、阿联酋喜闻乐见。这三个国家于7月9日宣布,将为埃及提供价值120亿美元的现金、存款和石油。穆尔西在位的一年之中,埃及最大的投资国——卡塔尔都没有提供这么多资助。大型企业也普遍表示持新政权。But the generals, who performed dismally during their period as caretakers after Mr Mubarak’s fall two-and-a-half years ago, know that millions may come out onto the streets again if they do not move faster and more cleverly than they did before. As street demonstrations subside, Egyptians are holding their breath.但军方将领心里清楚,如果不能在之前的基础上加快步伐、更明智地决策,街道上就又会涌现无数抗议民众。两年半前穆巴拉克下台后,他们作为过渡期代理人,表现得就不尽人意。如今,街道已慢慢恢复平静,而埃及人正屏息以待。201307/248598重庆市第三军医大学大坪医院妇科地址 Arts of Cambodia柬埔寨艺术Out of adversity摆脱困境An ambitious festival of Cambodian arts is about to hit New York别有深意的柬埔寨艺术节将空袭纽约ON HIS lightning tour of South-East Asia last year, Barack Obama made a point of criticising Cambodias prime minister, Hun Sen, for his dismal human-rights record. Cambodians have indeed done horrifying things to each other. But what of Americas own legacy in the country? Cambodians have not forgotten the sustained American bombing campaign between 1970 and 1973, which drove so many people into the arms of Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge army.在去年的东南亚一行中,巴拉克奥巴马因指责了柬埔寨首相洪森在人权上的可怕记录。的确,柬埔寨人对同胞做了一些令人发指的事。但美国又留下了些什么呢?柬埔寨人不能忘记美国在1970至1973年间持续的狂轰乱炸,致使很多人加入波尔波特的大军及其红色高棉军。“Parachute Skirt with Flowers”, an art installation made of military detritus collected over three decades, offers a disturbing reminder of that era. At its heart is a ed States Air Force parachute that landed in Prey Veng village, the home of Leang Seckon, a Cambodian artist. It was known locally as chhat, Cambodian for umbrella, and Mr Leang remembers how it was used to cover leaky houses during the rains.“带花的降落伞裙”是一种由收集了三十多年的军用碎石制成的艺术装置,总让人不安地想起那个年代。在其中心是降落在波萝勉村的美国空军降落伞,这个村子是一位柬埔寨艺术家Leang Seckon 的家乡。当地称之为chhat ,柬埔寨语是伞的意思,梁先生记得在雨天的时候漏雨的人家用伞来遮挡房屋。Mr Leangs artwork arrives at the Bronx Museum this month as part of “Season of Cambodia”, a 2.6m arts festival involving more than 125 artists of different disciplines, performing or exhibiting in 30 New York institutions, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Asia Society. The catalyst behind the festival is Arn Chorn-Pond, a human-rights activist and outspoken critic of Americas foreign policy during that period. Orphaned as a boy, Mr Pond became a child soldier with the Khmer Rouge. After the war he was rescued from a Thai refugee camp by an American pastor, who adopted him. At Brown University Mr Pond met Amy Carter. It was partly through her father, former President Jimmy Carter, that he began working with Amnesty International.梁先生的艺术品在这个月到达布朗克斯物馆,作为“柬埔寨季节”的展览作品。这个耗资2600万美元的艺术节容纳超过125位来自不同流派的艺术家,这些作品将在纽约30个机构中被展出,从大都会艺术物馆到亚洲协会等。这次艺术节的背后始作俑者是阿恩乔恩-庞德,一位人权活动家,也是那段时期对美国外交政策的公开批评家。孩童时代就成了孤儿的他成为了红色高棉军的娃娃兵。战后,他在泰国难民营被一位美国牧师解救,随后被牧师领养。在布朗大学,庞德先生遇见了艾米卡特。他的父亲,前总统吉米卡特,对他产生的影响让他开始在国际特赦组织工作。During the Pol Pot years Mr Chorn-Pond was stationed in the north-western city of Battambang where he witnessed horrific violence every day. He was saved by his skill in entertaining Khmer soldiers on the khim, a dulcimer-like instrument used to play propaganda songs. Mr Chorn-Ponds search for his khim teacher, Yoeun Mek, and their eventual reunion led to the creation of what is now known as Cambodia Living Arts. This Phnom Penh-based organisation tracked down 20 other master musicians, many of them destitute. It gave them housing, food and a small allowance to encourage them to pass on their musical techniques and traditions to future generations. CLA initiated the New York festival.在波尔布特的那些年里,乔恩庞德驻扎在马德望西北部的一个城市,他在那目睹了每天爆发的恐怖暴力事件。他依靠“金”,一种用来弹奏宣传歌声的洋琴,为高棉军表演而逃过一劫。乔恩庞德找到了他的“金”老师,Yoeun Mek ,他们两的重聚创造了现今为人所知的柬埔寨生活艺术。以金边为基地的这个组织拉拢了20位音乐大师,他们当中很多都穷困潦倒。该组织给予他们住所,食物以及一点点津贴,鼓励他们将自己的音乐技术和习俗传递给下一代。CLA开创了纽约艺术节。Cambodia has a long tradition of classical music, dance and film. King Norodom Sihanouk, who ruled the country until 1970, used to appoint artists to Cambodias diplomatic missions. Sihamoni, his youngest son and the current king, trained as a ballet dancer in Paris and Prague. Norodoms eldest daughter, Buppha Devi, specialised in a classical dance style known as robam boran, and performed for General de Gaulle and Marshall Tito.柬埔寨在古典音乐、舞蹈和电影上有着悠久的传统。统治柬埔寨直到1970年的诺罗顿西哈努克曾任命艺术家们为柬埔寨的外交使团,他最年幼的儿子即现任国王西哈莫尼,曾在巴黎和布拉格接受过芭蕾舞的训练。诺罗顿最年长的女儿,布法提毗则专门从事一种现被称为robam boran的古典舞蹈,她还为法国戴高乐将军和马歇尔提托表演过。All that changed with the arrival of Pol Pot in 1975. He regarded artists as superfluous. One of his favourite sayings was, tuk min chamnen, dak chenh ka, min kat—“to keep you is no gain, to kill you no loss”. Thousands died before Pol Pot fled in 1979 and the terror ended. It took another decade for cultural life to recover.这些都在1975年波尔布特到来的时候发生了改变。波尔布特认为艺术家们是多余的。他的一句至理名言是“多你一个不多,差你一个也不少”。1979年波尔布特逃亡恐慌终结前,有数千名艺术家身亡。又过了十年,文化生活才得以复苏。Identifying survivors was just the first challenge. Robam boran dancers start training when they are six years old, and have to learn thousands of different positions to achieve the required balance of technical perfection and spiritual poise. One of the festivals highlights—to be shown at the Brooklyn Academy of Music—is “The Legend of Apsara Mera”, which includes a dance that Princess Buppha Devi made famous. Among the performers are two young stars of the genre, Chap Chamroeun Mina and Chey Sophea.第一项挑战就是确认幸存者。Robam boran 舞蹈家在6岁的时候就开始接受训练,并且得学习数千种不同的姿势以达到技术上的完美和心灵上的镇静所需的平衡。这次艺术节的一个亮点—将在布鲁克林音乐学院上演—是“仙女梅拉的传奇”,当中包括因布法提毗而成名的一种舞蹈。在表演者中有两位风俗画的新星,章姜米娜和谢伊索菲亚。The Joyce Theatre in Chelsea will host the Khmer Arts Ensemble, a privately funded company created by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro, who trained with the Royal Ballet. The ensemble gives modern twists to classical dances, folk legends and even Western plays and operas. “A Bend in the River” (pictured), from a popular Cambodian story of village love and revenge, receives its world premiere in New York. This event has brought together for the first time three of Cambodias most important artists—Ms Shapiro, a Moscow-trained composer, Him Sophy, and Pich Sopheap, a sculptor who is working for the first time as a stage designer.切尔西的乔伊斯剧院将接待高棉艺术团,这是一家由与英国皇家芭蕾舞团有来往的索菲丽娜奇姆夏皮罗私下创建的团队。该团队把现代扭动加入到古典舞蹈、民间传说甚至是西方戏剧和歌剧中。来自柬埔寨有名的乡村爱情与复仇故事“大河湾”在纽约全球首映。该事件首次集齐了三位柬埔寨最重要的艺术家—在莫斯科受过训练的作曲家夏皮罗先生、伊姆索菲以及雕刻家皮奇梭熙,后者首次担任舞台设计师。Mr Pich aly has an international reputation. A child during the final days of the Khmer Rouge, he emigrated to America and enrolled at the Art Institute of Chicago. Mr Pichs works, with their broken Buddhas and undetonated bombs, have a strong autobiographical feel. He was the first Cambodian artist to be offered a solo show at the quinquennial dOCUMENTA exhibition in Kassel, in Germany. During the festival Mr Pichs work will be shown at Tyler Rollins Fine Art, the Metropolitan Museum and the World Financial Centre.皮奇先生早已享有世界声誉。在红色高棉军最后的日子里,还是孩童的他移民到了美国并进入了芝加哥艺术学院。皮奇先生的作品,破碎的佛像和没有爆炸的炸弹,带有一种强烈的自传色。他是首位能在德国每五年一次的卡塞尔文献展上个人表演的柬埔寨艺术家。在艺术节期间,皮奇先生的作品将在泰勒罗林斯美术馆、大都会物馆和环球金融中心展出。Amrita Performing Arts promotes contemporary dance in Phnom Penh with the help of several Westerners, including Peter Chin of Canada and a German choreographer, Arco Renz. Chey Chankethyas 15-minute solo, “My Mother and I”, which opens at the Abrons Art Centre on April 18th shows both her classical Cambodian roots and the influence of these choreographers.仙露表演艺术团与几位西方艺术家将在金边共同表演现代舞,这几位西方艺术家包括加拿大的彼得陈及德国编舞者阿科伦兹。谢伊15分钟的个人表演“我和我的母亲”4月18号将在Abrons艺术中心上演,同时展现了她的古典柬埔寨根源和这些编舞者们的影响。Only two shadow-puppet companies survived the war. Wat Bo, a Siem Reap-based troupe, will perform scenes from the “Ramayana” at the World Financial Centres Winter Garden. An unlikely setting perhaps, but the organisers are confident that the atrium with its giant palms is as close to the puppeteers natural environment as can be found in New York.只有两个皮影戏公司从战争中存活下来。在暹粒市创建的剧团笏公司将在环球金融中心的冬季花园表演“罗传”的场景。也许是一个不太可能的环境,但组织方相信长有巨大棕榈树的中庭是在纽约能够找到的最贴近皮影戏表演自然环境的地方。Cambodia had a vibrant film industry during the 1960s and Asias first international film festival was held in Phnom Penh in 1968. Its best-known director, Panh Rithy, has put together a programme of ten full-length feature films to be shown in New York, along with four shorts.在20世纪60年代,柬埔寨拥有着充满朝气的电影工业,1968年亚洲第一届国际电影节就在金边举行。柬埔寨最有名的一位导演是潘瑞希,他的一个将在美国上映的节目是由十部未删减的剧情片和四个短片。The link between creativity and memory is raised repeatedly by Mr Panh, who lost almost his entire family during the Khmer Rouge era. How to revive a culture after a holocaust is a question that he would like to see more widely discussed. The festival will introduce new audiences to Cambodian culture, and remind Americans of their governments checkered role in Cambodias history.潘先生反复突出创造性和记忆的连接,他在红色高棉军时代几乎失去了所有家人。怎样复原一次大屠杀之后的文化是他想要看到被广泛研究的一个问题。这次艺术节会给柬埔寨文化带来很多新的观众,也能提醒美国政府曾在柬埔寨历史中扮演的多变角色。 /201405/299304重庆精子不液化治疗

重庆三峡中心医院百安分院无精子症治疗Science and technology科学技术New transistors新型晶体管Mechanical advantage机械优势Two new types of transistor may lead to simpler, more efficient computers两种新型晶体管或许会导致更加便捷高效计算机的出现WHEN baking a cake it helps to have all the ingredients within reach,当你在烧烤蛋糕的时候,它有会让所有的一切都变得触手可及,rather than wasting time and energy making frequent trips to the pantry.而不是让你在食品柜繁琐的开关之间浪费时间与精力。Something similar is true of the logic circuits in computersmicroprocessors.这也同样会真正应用于电脑微处理器中的某些逻辑电路。These could be made faster, and would consume less energy, if they were able to store information themselves instead of fetching it from separate memory chips or hard drives.如果这些微处理器自己能够储存一些信息,用来取代从原来相互独立的芯片或手工操作中获得的信息,它们的速度将会变得更快,能耗将会更低。The problem is that the transistors used to make logic circuits hold their electronic state, and therefore any data they contain, only when powered up.问题是,用来制造逻辑电路的晶体管中保留着它们的电子态,因此当这些晶体管通电的时候,它们会包含任何可能的数据。The choice engineers face is thus between supplying continuous power to a transistor, so that it can retain its memory,因此,工程师们面临的选择就是要么对晶体管提供一个持续的电源,让晶体管保持自己的记忆,and ferrying data that would otherwise be lost to and from so-called non-volatile memory devices that do not require continuous power.否则从所谓的非易失性半导体存储器中传输的数据就有可能丢失,不过它不需要持续的电源。Cracking this problem—so that transistors can act as their own non-volatile memory—would make all computers faster.解决这个问题——以便于让晶体管使用自身的非易失性半导体存储器—将会让所有的电脑运行速度更快。It would be particularly valuable, though, for mobile devices.虽然这对于移动设备来说,显得特别昂贵。These could be made smaller and lighter, since they would require fewer components.不过移动设备因此可以做得更小,更轻盈,因为它们需要的元件更小。And they could go for longer between charges.并且两次充电的时间间隔将会变得更长。To this end, Hiroshi Mizuta of the University of Southampton, in England, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa of the National Institute for Material Science in Tsukuba, Japan, are proposing a marriage between two novel types of transistor that could hardly be more different.为此,英国南安普顿大学的Hiroshi Mizuta和日本筑波国立材料科学研究所的Tsuyoshi Hasegawa提出了将两种完全不同新型材料混合起来。One, the atomic transistor, draws on the latest advances in nanoscience.其中一种就是原子晶体管,它利用了最新的纳米科技。The other, the mechanical transistor, sounds as if it has been lifted from the annals of the industrial revolution.另外一种就是机械晶体管,这听起来就像是从工业革命史册中发掘出来的玩意儿。The atomic transistor works, as its name suggests, by shuffling individual atoms around within the device.原子晶体管的工作方式就像它名字所示的那样,是通过移动该元件内部的单个原子进行工作的。The atoms in question are copper, and the result of the shuffling is to create or destroy a conductive pathway between two crucial bits of the transistor, the source and the drain, thus switching the device on or off.这里所说的原子指的是铜原子,移动的结果主是在晶体管的两个十字位置构建或消除一个传导通路,它的源极和漏极因此就会开启或关闭。That is possible because this part of the transistor is made of tantalum pentoxide, a material whose atoms are arranged in a lattice which contains holes large enough for copper atoms to squeeze through.这是有可能实现的,因为这部分晶体管是由五氧化二钽制造的—这种材料可以将它自身的原子排布在晶格中,这些晶格包括一些足够大的孔,可以让铜原子挤过去。The mechanical transistor, more properly called a nano-electromechanical systems transistor, creates and destroys the connection between source and drain mechanically.机械晶体管,更确切地可以称之为纳米电子机械系统晶体管,它可以在源极和漏极之间机械地构建或消除连接。When a voltage is applied across two beamlike electrodes made of aluminium, which are separated by a gap of around 50 nanometres,两个柱状的铝电极间隔约50纳米,当电压加在这两个电极之间时,它们就会相互通电,charge builds up on each, creating an attractive force between them, until a critical point is reached.在二者之间会形成一股引力,直至达到一个临界点。At that moment one of the electrodes flips towards the other, causing the two to make contact.在达到临界点的那一刻,其中一个电极就会移向另一个电极,这两个电极就会形成通路。This closes the circuit and turns the transistor on. Apply the opposite charge and the electrode flips back, breaking the circuit.这样就会接通电路,打开晶体管。利用相反的电荷,电极就会复位,进而断开电路。What makes these two very different types of transistor attractive is that both the copper and the aluminium stay put when the power is turned off.这两种完全不同类型的晶体管如此吸引人的地方就在于断电后,如何让铜原子和铝电极待在原地。They can thus act as memories as well as processors.它们可以应用于储存芯片和处理器。The on state represents one type of binary digit and the off state represents the other.开的状态表示二进制中的一个数字,关的状态可以表示另一个数字。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa are therefore using the novel transistors to try to make the worlds first non-volatile processor chip.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士因此都在使用新型的晶体管,力图制造出世界上第一个非易失性处理器芯片。Ideally, such a chip would have only one sort of transistor, since that would mean it was much easier to manufacture.理想的这种芯片将只有一种晶体管类型,因为这意味着它将会更加容易制造。However, transistors come in two varieties, n-type and p-type.不过,晶体管却有两种,一种是N型,一种是P型。Both are needed in a logic circuit, but atomic devices can be only n-type.逻辑电路都需要这两种晶体管,不过在原子设备中,只需要N型。The alternatives, then, are to make the circuit entirely out of NEMS transistors,那么另一个方案就是完全用NEMS晶体管制造电路,or to mix the two by using atomic devices where an n-type transistor is needed and NEMS ones where a p-type is required.或者是将利用N型晶体管的原子设备和利用P型晶体管的NEMS晶体管混合起来。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa have opted for a mixture,士Mizuta和Hasegawa士选择了二者的混合,because atomic transistors are much smaller than NEMS ones, and the saving of space outweighs the awkwardness of mixing them together.因为原子晶体管比NEMS更加小巧,这样节省的空间就会消除二者的混合的尴尬。If their recipe works, it will mean far fewer electronic trips to the pantry and a quicker baking time for whatever answer the new chip is trying to cook up.如果他们的方案成功的话,这意味着食品柜中的开关将会大大减小,实现更短的烹饪时间。 /201305/239036重庆市第四人民医院婚前检查价格 重庆做人流的费用

丰都县人民医院妇科专家大夫 By the mid 1800s, the horse and the cowboy had come to symbolize the wild west. And of course, with the cowboys came cattle. As the bison quickly vanished from the landscape, cattle filled their place. 到19世纪中叶,马与牛仔成为了辽阔西部的象征。当然,既然提到牛仔,那么一定会提到牛。随着北美野牛快速地从大陆上消失,家牛取代了他们的位置。Meanwhile increasing numbers of the tame horses escaped into the wild. These feral horses became known by the Spanish name, mustang. They put extra pressure on the dwindling bison numbers by competing for their grazing sites and drinking holes. 与此同时,越来越多的被驯的马儿逃到了西部。这些野马成为了西班牙语中所称的“木斯塘马(mustang)”,它们数量的上升也给北美野牛的存活增添不少压力,它们与北美野牛争抢草原和水源。Mustangs form social groups led by a dominant stallion, echoing their prehistoric relatives that lived here during the Ice Age. 木斯塘马是一个群居的种族,由一匹占统治地位的公马领导整个族群,这一点和它们冰河时代栖息于此的史前亲戚相同。Bred to carry the weight of a rider, mustangs are larger than those early wild horses, but they still display the same kind of behavior. 木斯塘马是供人骑乘的,从体重看,他们比那些之前的野马体型更大,但是两种马匹的行为有很多相同之处。By the early 1800s, the wild horse was well and truly back in North America, but how did other wildlife on the continent survive alongside growing human populations?19世纪早期,野马真正回归北美大陆,但是大陆上其他的野外生物是怎么在人类数量速度增加的情况下存活的呢?Some wild creatures did the reverse of mustangs by becoming tame and choosing to live close to people. The purple martin became an unofficial mascot for native inhabitants in the eastern half of the continent. Here people erected special nesting sites to encourage the birds to stay.一些野外生物也和木斯塘马一样选择了追随人类并被其驯。在大陆的东半侧,北美洲紫燕在当地居民眼中是一种吉祥物。在这里,人类为紫燕建巢并希望这些鸟儿留在这里。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/266549重庆爱德华医院输卵管粘连重庆处女膜修复手术多少钱



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