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重庆市爱德华医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱东方知名

2017年10月21日 00:22:06|来源:国际在线|编辑:家庭医生分类
U.S. Fed started a program with Mexico to enable money service businesses to send money to Mexico for a fixed cost of only 67 cents per transaction.美国联邦政府和墨西哥之间启动了一个项目,使得汇款公司往墨西哥寄钱时只需要每笔67美分的手续费。And yet, these faster, cheaper, better options cant be applied internationally because of the fear of money laundering,even though there is little data to support any connection, any significant connection between money laundering and these small remittance transactions.但是这些更快,更便宜,更好的办法,还不能在国际上通用,因为担心被人利用来洗钱。虽然没有什么数据明这两者之间有什么联系,就是说洗钱和小额的移民汇款之间有什么联系。Many international banks now are wary of hosting bank accounts of money service businesses, especially those serving Somalia.很多跨国现在害怕拥有汇款公司的账户,特别是那些业务涉及到索马里的公司。Somalia, a country where the per capita income is only 250 dollars per year.索马里人均年收入才250美元。Monthly remittances, on average, to Somalia is larger than that amount.按月寄往索马里的移民汇款平均都大于这个数。Remittances are the lifeblood of Somalia.移民汇款成了索马里的血脉。And yet, this is an example of the right hand giving a lot of aid,while the left hand is cutting the lifeblood to that economy, through regulations.索马里的情况就是个典型的例子,一方面右手给予很多援助,另一方面左手又通过各种条规切断它的经济血脉。Then there is the case of poor people from villages, like me.像我这样来自乡村的穷人还会遇到另一个问题。In the villages, the only place where you can get money is through the post office.在乡村里,唯一能收到汇款的地方是邮局。Most of the governments in the world have allowed their post offices to have exclusive partnerships with money transfer companies.世界上多数国家的政府都允许邮局和某个汇款公司之间建立唯一的合作关系。So, if I have to send money to my father in the village, I must send money through that particular money transfer company,even if the cost is high.所以如果我要寄钱给乡下的父亲,我就必须得去特定的那一家汇款公司寄。即使它收费较高,I cannot go to a cheaper option.我也没有其它的选择。This has to go.这种情况必须要改变。So, what can international organizations and social entrepreneurs do to reduce the cost of sending money home?那么,国际组织和社会企业家们可以做些什么来降低寄钱回家的费用呢?First, relax regulations on small remittances under 1,000 dollars.首先,放宽关于一千美元以下的小额移民汇款的法规,Governments should recognize that small remittances are not money laundering.政府应该意识到,小额汇款不是洗钱。Second, governments should abolish exclusive partnerships between their post office and the money transfer company.第二,政府应该禁止邮局和某个汇款公司建立唯一的合作关系。For that matter, between the post office and any national banking system that has a large network that serves the poor.最好是禁止邮局和任何全国性的系统之间建立这种关系,In fact, they should promote competition,open up the partnership so that we will bring down costs like we did,like they did, in the telecommunications industry. 实际上,他们应该鼓励竞争,开放合作伙伴,这样就可以降低费用,就像电话业那样。You have seen what has happened there.你们都知道电话业的情况了。Third, large nonprofit philanthropic organizations should create a remittance platform on a nonprofit basis.第三,大型非营利性组织应该在非营利的基础上创建一个移民汇款平台。They should create a nonprofit remittance platform to serve the money transfer companies so that they can send money at a low cost,while complying with all the complex regulations all over the world.他们应该创建一个非营利的移民汇款平台来务于汇款公司,使他们能降低寄钱的费用,同时还能不违反世界各地各种复杂的条规。The development community should set a goal of reducing remittance costs to one percent from the current eight percent.发展中的社区应该朝着将移民汇款费率从现在的8%降到1%的目标努力。If we reduce costs to one percent,that would release a saving of 30 billion dollars per year.如果我们能把费用降到1%,将每年省下300亿美元。Thirty billion dollars, thats larger than the entire bilateral aid budget going to Africa per year.比每年给非洲的全部双边资助预算还多,That is larger than, or almost similar to,the total aid budget of the ed States government,the largest donor on the planet.而且也比美国政府的全部援助预算还多,或着几乎相当。这可是全球最大的捐助国。Actually, the savings would be larger than that 30 billion because remittance channels are also used for aid, trade and investment purposes.实际上,省下的还不止那三百亿,因为移民汇款渠道还可以用于救援,贸易和投资。Another major impediment to the flow of remittances reaching the family is the large and exorbitant and illegal cost of recruitment,fees that migrants pay, migrant workers pay to laborers who found them the job.另一个严重阻碍移民汇款到达家人手中的因素,是高额的非法招工费。这些费是移民工人付给给他们找到工作的人的。I was in Dubai a few years ago.几年前我去过迪拜I visited a camp for workers.我去了一个劳工的营地。201505/377599So I go over there and this guy says 于是我去找到那个人I said yeah, I want to be a comedian 我跟他说 我想当一名喜剧演员I said, Ive been trying to do it for about a year 我说我尝试一年了He said, a year, youre supposed to be if you join the union in three months 他说 一年 入协会三个月就行了I could find you right now, you could be a violation 我可以马上破格加你I said, well, how much does it take to join 我问 加入要多少钱He said, 0 I said, I dont have 0 and then 他说 300美元 我说 我没有那么多钱 然后he said those magic words, how much you got 他说了那些骗子常说的话 那你有多少You know, I knew I was making a mistake you know you just wanted to believe 我当时就知道 这很有可能是骗局 我只是想给自己一些憧憬I just knew I was making a mistake, I just wanted to believe 我知道自己错了 但还是希望这是真的So I gave him all the money that I have 于是我把所有的钱都给了他I said, I have . 我说 我有75美元He said, oh, give me that.他说 好 给我吧Then he gives me his business card, there writes back on the business card, union man 然后他就给我名片 背面写有协会成员He says, you show this card to any club 他说 你可以把它出示给任何俱乐部I felt like cocoa and fame, remember that movie 我感觉就像名扬四海中的科科 记得那部电影吗So I got this card that says union man 我拿着这张写有协会成员的卡片and I go back to the nightclub and I handed it to the guy 回到夜总会 给那里的人看and the guy breaks out laughing and he says we dont hire comedians, get lost 夜总会的人忍不住大笑出来 他说 我们不招喜剧演员 走开Okay, now Im stupid and broke这时 我不仅显得愚蠢 而且身无分文I used to drive to New York every single night 我曾每晚都开车去纽约to try and get out the improv in New York City 尝试在纽约市找到即兴演出机会At the time, that was the only place that featured unknown comedians 当时 纽约是唯一让不知名的喜剧演员演出的地方That drive to New York every night or everyday after class rather 每天下课 我都会驱车去纽约and I sleep in the alley a couple blocks from the improv 我睡在离即兴演出地点一两个街区远的小巷子里It was the only dead end alley around 这是附近唯一的死胡同So it was pretty quiet until midnight 一直都很安静 直到午夜when the prostitutes who bring their customers there 们带着她们的客人回来and Im sleeping, Im like 50 feet away, Im going 我就睡在五十英尺外的地方 我心想really is this show business? 这就是脱口秀表演业吗This is what a college degree gets me? 这就是大学文凭给我的吗but my saving grace was Emerson College because no matter how awful gives were 不过爱默生学院挽救了我 无论我的境况有多糟201512/418495Now if you have trouble maintaining your diet,it might help to have some extra imagery to remind you how many calories are going to be coming at you.如果你不能保持节食,一些图像也许会有助于提醒你食物里有多少热量。How about enabling the pathologist to use their cell phone again to see at a microscopic level and to lumber that data back to the cloud and make better diagnostics?让病理学家能用他们的手机在显微水平观察把数据放回云端信息来做更好的诊断会怎样?In fact, the whole era of laboratory medicine is completely changing.实际上,整个实验医学时代完全变了。We can now leverage microfluidics,like this chip made by Steve Quake at Stanford. 我们能利用微流体,像斯坦福的Steve Quake公司制造的芯片。Microfluidics can replace an entire lab of technicians.微流体能替代整个实验室的技术员。Put it on a chip, enable thousands of tests to be done at the point of care, anywhere in the world.把它放在一个芯片上,能做几千个测试在世界任何地方都可以做。And this is really going to leverage technology to the rural and the under-served and enable what used to be thousand-dollar tests to be done at pennies and at the point of care.这将真正地从技术上获益,那些农村和保障不发达地区能让过去上千块的测试减到几分钱在护理方面上讲。If we go down the small pathway a little bit farther,were entering the era of nanomedicine,the ability to make devices super small to the point where we can design red blood cells or microrobots that will monitor our blood system or immune system,or even those that might clear out the clots from our arteries. 如果在这条小路上走得稍微远一点,我们将来到纳米医学时代,能将装置做得超小小到我们可以设计血红细胞或者微型机器人来监测我们的血液系统或免疫系统,或者甚至清除动脉里的血栓。Now how about exponentially cheaper?如果指数更加便宜会怎样?Not something we usually think about in the era of medicine,but hard disks used to be 3,400 dollars for 10 megabytes-exponentially cheaper. 在医学领域,这种便宜不是我们通常认为的那样,而是10MB硬盘过去3400美元-指数便宜。In genomics now,the genome cost about a billion dollars about 10 years ago when the first one came out. 在基因组学,基因组价值约10亿美元10年前当第一个基因组出现的时候。Were now approaching essentially a thousand-dollar genome-probably next year to two years, probably a hundred-dollar genome.我们现在基本上可以1000美元买到。也许今后一两年,100美元的基因组会出现。What are we going to do with hundred-dollar genomes?我们能用100美元的基因组做什么呢?And soon well have millions of these tests available.不久以后我们可以进行上百万的测试。And thats when it gets interesting, when we start to crowdsource that information.那就是当它变得有趣的时候,当我们开始集中信息资源的时候。And we enter the era of true personalized medicine,the right drug for the right person at the right time,instead of what were doing today, which is the same drug for everybody,sort of blockbuster drug medications,medications which dont work for you, the individual. 我们进入了真正的个人化医学时代,在正确的时间为正确的人制造正确的药,而不是像现在我们这样,给每个人同样的药物,一种药物治疗的混乱,对你个人不一定有效。And many, many different companies are working on leveraging these approaches.很多不同的公司正在利用这些方法。And Ill also show you a simple example, from 23andMe again.我会给你一个简单的例子,还是来自23andMe。My data indicates that Ive got about average risk for developing macular degeneration, a kind of blindness.我的数据表明我已经达到平均风险系数对于黄斑病变,一种失明病。But if I take that same data, upload it to deCODEme,I can look at my risk for sample type 2 diabetes. 但是如果我把同样的数据上传到deCODEme,比如我能看到我得2型糖尿病的风险指数。Im at almost twice the risk for type 2 diabetes.我现在差不多有2倍的风险得2型糖尿病。I might want to watch how much dessert I have at the lunch break for example.例如我也许想看到午饭的时候吃多少甜点。It might change my behavior.这也许能改变我的行为。Leveraging my knowledge of my pharmacogenomics,how my genes modulate, what my drugs do and what doses I need are going to become increasingly important,and once in the hands of the individual and the patient,will make better drug dosing and selection available. 利用我基因测试学的知识,我的基因怎样调整,我的药物作用是什么和我需要什么将变得越来越重要,在个人和患者手中的时候,将使得可用的药物选择和用更好。So again, its not just genes, its multiple details our habits, our environmental exposure.所以不仅是基因,有多种因素,我们的习惯,我们的环境。When was the last time your physician asked you where youve lived?上次医生问你住在哪里是什么时间?Geomedicine: where youve lived, what youve been exposed to,can dramatically affect your health. 风土医学:你住在哪里,你接触过什么能极大影响你的健康。We can capture that information.我们能抓住这些信息。So genomics, proteomics, the environment,all this data streaming at us individually and us, as poor physicians,how do we manage it? 因此基因组学,蛋白组学,环境,所有数据涌向我们作为个体人和医生们。我们怎样管理它们呢?Well were now entering the era of systems medicine, or systems biology,where we can start to integrate all of this information. 我们正在进入系统医学或者系统生物学时代,我们能开始集成这些信息。And by looking at the patterns, for example, in our blood of 10,000 biomarkers in a single test,we can start to look at these little patterns and detect disease at a much earlier stage.通过这些式样,例如,在我们的血液中一个测试中有10000个生物标记,我们能看这些小的式样在非常早期发现疾病。This has been called by Lee Hood, the father of the field,P4 medicine.这个领域的创始人,李?胡德叫这种方法为P4医学。Were going to be predictive; were going to know what youre likely to have.我们将能预测;我们能知道我们可能会怎样。We can be preventative; that prevention can be personalized;and more importantly, its going to become increasingly participatory. 我们能预防;这种预防性可以个人化;更重要的是,它将变得共享。Through websites like Patients Like Me or managing your data on Microsoft HealthVault or Google Health,leveraging this together in participatory ways is going to become increasingly important. 虽然一些网站像Patients Like Me,微软HealthVault或者谷歌Health可以管理数据,用共享的方式利用数据将变得越来越重要。So Ill finish up with exponentially better.我将以指数地更好前景来做结束。Wed like to get therapies better and more effective.我们会得到更好更有效的治疗。Now today we treat high blood pressure mostly with pills.如今我们通常通过吃药治疗高血压。What if we take a new device and knock out the nerve vessels that help mediate blood pressure and in a single therapy to cure hypertension?如果我们用一种新装置敲打神经血管帮助调节血压一次治疗就能治愈高血压。This is a new device that is essentially doing that.这是做这种治疗的一种新装置。It should be on the market within a year or two.它应该能在一两年内投放市场。How about more targeted therapies for cancer?更具目标性的癌症治疗会怎样呢?Right, Im an oncologist and I have to say most of what we give is actually poison.对,我是肿瘤学家,我不得不说大多数我们开的药实际上是毒药。Weve learned at Stanford and other places that we can discover cancer stem cells,the ones that seem to be really responsible for disease relapse. 我们在斯坦福和其他地方学到,我们可以发现癌症干细胞,可能是癌症复发的真正原因。So if you think of cancer as a weed,we often can whack the weed away. 如果你把癌症看作一个种子,我们通常能够去除这个种子。It seems to shrink, but it often comes back.它好像萎缩了,但它经常又重新复发。So were attacking the wrong target.所以我们正在去除错误的目标体。The cancer stem cells remain,and the tumor can return months or years later. 癌症干细胞仍存在,肿瘤能在几个月或几年后重新长出来。Were now learning to identify the cancer stem cells and identify those as targets and go for the long-term cure.我们现在学会了鉴定癌症干细胞作为鉴定目标体来进行长期治疗。And were entering the era of personalized oncology,the ability to leverage all of this data together,analyze the tumor and come up with a real, specific cocktail for the individual patient. 我们正在进入个人化肿瘤学时代,利用汇集所有数据的能力,分析肿瘤并提出来针对每一个患者而采用的一个真正的,明确的鸡尾酒疗法。Now Ill close with regenerative medicine.最后我会讲讲再生医学。So Ive studied a lot about stem cells embryonic stem cells are particularly powerful.我对干细胞研究很多,胚胎干细胞尤其强大。We also have adult stem cells throughout our body.我们有遍布我们身体的成体干细胞。201504/370332

But, if every one of you changed the lives of just ten people 但是 如果你们每个人能够改变十个人的命运and each one of those people changed the lives of another ten people 然后这十个人中的每一个再改变另外十个人的命运and another ten 依此类推then in five generations, 125 years 那么五代人后 125年以后the class of 2014 作为2014届毕业生will have changed the lives of 800 million people你们将总共能改变八亿人的命运800 million people八亿人think about it over twice the population of the ed States 想想 这超过了美国人口的两倍Go one more generation and you can change the entire population of the world 再往前一代 你们将能够改变全世界所有人的命运8 billion people 八十亿人If you think its hard to change the lives of ten people不要认为自己没能力改变十个人的命运change their lives forever youre wrong 这种想法绝对是错误的I saw it happen every day in Iraq and Afghanistan我在伊拉克和阿富汗每天都在碰到这样的例子A young Army officer makes a decision to go left 一位年轻的军官决定往左走instead of right down a road in Baghdad 而不是朝巴格达的道路直走and the ten soldiers with his are saved from close-in ambush 十位战士就因此免受了敌人的伏击In Kandahar province, Afghanistan 在阿富汗坎大哈省a non-commissioned officer from the Female Engagement Team senses something isnt right来自女性战斗小队的一位士官察觉到了异常and directs the infantry platoon away from a 500 pound IED 指挥步兵小组远离了一颗500磅的IED炸弹saving the lives of a dozen soldiers 这就挽救了十多位士兵的生命But, if you think about it 想想这些not only were these soldiers saved by the decisions of one person一个人的决策并不是只挽救了这些士兵的生命but their children were saved and their childrens children 他们的子女也会由此得救 还有他们子女的子女Generations were saved by one decision of one person 一个人的一个决定 就挽救了数代人But changing the world can happen anywhere and anyone can do it 任何人 在任何地方 都可以改变世界So, what starts here can indeed change the world 从这里开始 我们确实能够改变世界but the question is, what will the world look like after you change it? 不过问题是 世界被改变后 会变成怎样201601/423990

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