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2017年10月23日 07:02:06
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Science and technology科学技术Intelligence testing智力测试Who are you calling bird-brained?叫谁是笨蛋呢?An attempt is being made to devise a universal intelligence test人类正尝试设计一种通用的智力测验WHAT is the IQ of a chimpanzee? Or a worm? Or a game-show-winning computer program? Or even an alien from the planet Zaarg who can learn any human language in a day, can beat grandmasters ten at a time and can instantly factor the products of large prime numbers?黑猩猩、蠕虫或用于智力竞赛的计算机程序,甚至是来自Zaarg星球的外星人外星人能在一天内学会任何一门人类语言,每次都能赢棋类大师10分,能立即分解出大质数的因子,它们的智商是多少呢?At the moment it is impossible to say.当问到这类问题,没有人能回答出来。IQ tests depend on language, and even Watson, a computer program that beat two human contestants in a special edition of “Jeopardy!”on February 16th, does not have a perfect command of English.IQ测试依赖于语言,而且就算是Watson系统对英语也不是了如指掌2月16日,Watson系统在美国智力竞赛;Jeopardy!;的特别节目中击败了两名人类对手。In any case there is, at the moment, no meaningful scale on which non-human intelligence can be compared with the human sort.但不管怎么样,现在还没有一个有意义的标尺能用于任何非人类和人类智商的比较。The most famous test for artificial intelligence is that devised by Alan Turing, a British computing pioneer.最著名的人工智力测试是由英国计算科学先驱阿兰图灵设计的。To pass the Turing test, and thus be considered intelligent, a program must fool a human being into believing that it is another human being. 为了通过图灵测试,机器中的程序必须使对方误以为它也是一个人类,But the Turing test still requires the program to share a language with the tester and, because it is all or nothing, cannot be used to rank different forms of artificial intelligence against one another.且如果机器通过了测试,该机器就被认为是人工智能。但图灵测试仍要求程序和测试者使用相同的语言。并且由于测试的结果是“是”或者“否”,因此不能用于不同形式人工智能间的评级。José Hernández-Orallo of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, in Spain, and David Dowe of Monash University, in Australia, think they can do better than this.来自西班牙瓦伦西亚理工大学的José Hernández-Orallo和澳大利亚莫纳什大学的David Dowe认为他们能设计出比图灵更完善的测试。They believe not only that a universal scale of intelligence can be devised, but also that it can be assessed without reference to language.他们相信不仅能设计出可通用的智商标尺,而且测试可以与语言无关。If they are right, an insult like “bird-brained” will, in the future, be finely calibrated.如果真能如他们所说,那么将来就可以精确计算出“愚蠢”的程度了。Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe, both computer scientists, propose to make their measurement by borrowing a concept called Kolmogorov complexity from information theory, a branch of computer science. The Kolmogorov complexity of a computers output is the shortest possible program that could produce that output.Hernández-Orallo士和Dr Dowe士都是计算机科学家,他们提出:借用信息论中的Kolmogorov复杂度概念来实现测量。计算机输出的Kolmogorov复杂度是指能产生该输出的可能最短程序基于计算机代码的二进制位数。On this measure, an entitys intelligence would be measured by the Kolmogorov complexity of the most complex tests it can solve—a clear, numerical value.在这种设计下,可以通过最复杂测试的Kolmogorov复杂度来测量一个实体的智商。In practice, calculating the true Kolmogorov complexity of a system is almost impossible. But an approximation can be made. And that, the researchers reckon, will be good enough.实际上,要正确计算出系统的Kolmogorov复杂度几乎是不可能的。但可以计算出它的近似值。而对研究人员的估算工作而言,近似值也就足够了。The actual tests would employ the well-honed methods of operant conditioning, developed initially on pigeons, in which the test subject has first to work out what is going on by trial and error.实际的测试会采用精确的操作性条件反射方法,测试对象首先要清楚实验的过程和错误。As in operant conditioning, correct responses would be ewarded—by money, perhaps, for a human being; by bananas for a chimpanzee or by the numerical value itself for an appropriately programmed computer.在操作性条件反射中,正确的反射响应将得到奖励—对人而言可能是金钱,对黑猩猩而言是香蕉,对可编程计算机而言则可能是数值本身。If the test were noughts and crosses, the test-taker would first have to work out that the game is won by getting three in a row on a 3-by-3 grid, before actually going on to play.如果测验是画圈叉游戏,则在进行游戏之前测试参与者首要要弄懂在3X3的网格中,3个格连成一行就赢得游戏了。A chimpanzee might not manage a test of this level of complexity, but could, maybe, work out the idea of three-in-a-row when only a single row was involved. Chess, though, would surely be beyond it.黑猩猩可能没办法理解这种复杂度等级的测验,但当只有一行时,它们也许就可以明白;3格-1行;的概念了。Games like draughts and dominoes would lie somewhere in between.而象棋的难易度远超过黑猩猩的理解程度。西洋跳棋和多米诺骨牌这类游戏的难易程度则介于圈叉和象棋之间。In fact Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe do not plan to use existing games. Instead they are employing a computer to enerate novel games and patterns.实际上,Hernández-Orallo士和Dowe士计划采用计算机产生的新游戏和新花样来代替已有的游戏。Their approach eliminates human bias.他们的方法消除了人类的偏见,It also allows them to generate tests with any level of complexity they like—even ones that are far beyond the ability of humans to complete.同时也允许产生任何复杂度等级的测验—甚至可以是远超过人类能力的。When it comes to testing the tests, then, aliens from the planet Zaarg will be particularly welcome to apply.当可以进行测试时,特别欢迎来自Zaarg星球的外星人。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231157彭水苗族土家族自治县流产手术多少钱重庆爱德华综合医院孕前检测多少钱Science and Technology科技Art criticism and computers艺术和计算机Painting by numbers数字图画Digital analysis is invading the world of the connoisseur数字分析正侵蚀艺术品鉴赏界JUDGING artistic styles, and the similarities between them, might be thought one bastion of human skill that machines could never storm.对艺术风格,跟他们之间的相似之处的评价,可能被认为是一块机器无法侵犯的人类技艺圣地。Not so, if Lior Shamir at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan is correct.并非如此,加入密歇根州老孙死理工大学的Lior Shamir没错的话。A paper he has just published in Leonardo suggests that computers may have just as good an eye for style as humans do-and, in some cases, may see connections between artists that human critics have missed.他刚刚在李奥纳多发表的一篇文章之处电脑的眼力可能不必人类差——而且,某些情况下,电脑甚至能够发现一些家忽略的,艺术家之间的相似之处。Dr Shamir, a computer scientist, presented 57 images by each of nine painters-Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko and Vincent van Gogh-to a computer, to see what it made of them.Shamir士,一位计算机专家,将Salvador Dali, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Vasily Kandinsky, Claude Monet, Jackson Pollock, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko和 Vincent van Gogh九位画家的每人57幅作品扫描到计算机中,看看它能得出什么。The computer broke the images into a number of so-called numerical descriptors.于是电脑将图像分解为许多所谓的数字描述符。These descriptors quantified textures and colours, the statistical distribution of edges across a canvas, the distributions of particular types of shape, the intensity of the colour of individual points on a painting, and also the nature of any fractal-like patterns within it (fractals are features that reproduce similar shapes at different scales; the edges of snowflakes, for example).这些符将质地和颜色量化,帆布的边缘的统计分布,特定种类的形状的分布,一幅作品上独立的点的颜色的深浅,还有任何蕾丝不规则碎片的本质,不规则碎片是指大小不同形状相似的特质,比如雪花的边缘。All told, the computer identified 4,027 different numerical descriptors.结果,电脑总共确认了4027种不同的符。Once their values had been established for each of the 513 artworks that had been fed into it, it was y to do the analysis.一旦它们对于这513件被反哺给电脑的每件艺术品的价值被确立,计算机马上可以开始分析。Dr Shamirs aim was to look for quantifiable ways of distinguishing between the work of different artists.Shamir士的目的事项寻找区分不同艺术家作品的可量化的方法。If such things could be established, it might make the task of deciding who painted what a little easier.如果上述事实能够被实成立,区分各个画家的作品的工作将会简单一点儿。Such decisions matter because, even excluding deliberate forgeries, there are many paintings in existence that cannot conclusively be attributed to a master rather than his pupils, or that may be honestly made copies whose provenance is now lost.这样的决定对我们很重要,因为即使是在排除有意伪造之后,任然有许多作品不能被确认出自某位画家,而非他的学生,或是某个出处无可探寻的逼真的复制品。To look for such distinguishing features, Dr Shamir programmed the computer to use a statistical method that scores the strength of the distance between the values of two or more descriptors for each pair of artists.为了寻找这种能有助于区分的特质,Shamir士设法使计算机能利用一个统计学方法来评价用来比较每两位画家的两个以上的描述符的价值之间距离的大小。As a result, he was able to rank each of the 4,027 descriptors by how useful it was at discriminating between artists.最后,他就能根据描述符分辨艺术家的能力来给它们打分。Surprisingly, the values of 19 of the 20 most informative descriptors showed dramatically higher similarities between Van Gogh (left below) and Pollock (right) than between Van Gogh and painters such as Monet and Renoir, who conventional art criticism would think more closely related to Van Goghs oeuvre than Pollocks is. (Dali and Ernst, by contrast, were farther apart then expected.)令人吃惊的是,在提供的消息最有用的20种描述符中,有19种显示出梵高和波洛克作品之间的相似度,要远远高于梵高和像莫内和雷诺瓦的画家之间,而传统的家认为后者的作品与梵高作品更接近。相反地,达利和恩斯特的作品的差距却比预期要大。What is interesting, according to Dr Shamir, is that no single feature makes Pollocks artistic style similar to Van Goghs.有趣的是,Shamir士指出,没有一个特质能单独明波洛克的艺术风格与梵高的相似。Instead, the connection is based on a broad set of image-content descriptors which reflect many aspects of the two artists styles, including a shared preference for low-level textures and shapes, and similarities in the ways they employed lines and edges.相反,他们的联系是在长长的一系列反映了这两名画家的许多艺术风格的图像内容符的基础上形成的,风格中包括,他们都偏爱低档面料跟外形,他们勾勒线和边的方式相似。What was intended, then, as a way of improving the ability to distinguish between different hands has also thrown up a new way of looking for stylistic similarities.于是,原本用来宜于区分不同画家的作品的方法,也能用来寻找艺术家的不同风格。Whether Pollock was actually influenced by Van Gogh, or merely happened upon a similar way of doing things through a similar artistic sensibility, is not clear.虽然波洛克实际上到底是受到了梵高的影响,还是仅仅是由于在处在相似的艺术风气下,不得而知。But it gives art historians a new line of investigation to pursue.但是它给艺术历史学家提供了一条新的线索。 /201211/210030重庆市爱德华医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱

重庆市爱德华医院输卵管再通术多少钱重庆什么医院人工流产好Science and Technolgy科技What dinosaurs ate恐龙吃什么The belly of the beast腹中发现A chance discovery from China suggests some dinosaurs lived in trees在中国的一次偶然发现暗示着有些恐龙在树上生活WHAT dinosaurs ate is, of course, a question as interesting and illuminating as what ate dinosaurs (see article).恐龙吃什么?当然,这个问题与“什么吃恐龙?”一样有趣,一样具有启发性。In the case of one particular dinosaur,Microraptor, the matter was addressed in a presentation to the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology by Jingmai OConnor of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, in Beijing.但就“小盗龙吃什么”这一问题(见文章),北京中国科学院古脊椎动物和古人类研究所的Jingmai OConnor在古脊椎动物学会年会上发表了演说。Microraptor (see photograph) is one of many small, feathered dinosaurs found in what is now China that were alive during the Cretaceous period more than 66m years ago.小盗龙(见图),生活在距今六千六百多万年前的白垩纪,是现今中国境内发现的众多体型娇小、长有羽毛的恐龙之一。Being feathered, it and its kind were cousins to birds.这一种恐龙身着羽毛,是鸟类的近亲。The actual split between the two groups, though, had happened much earlier, during the Jurassic period (the first known bird is Archaeopteryx, from 150m years ago), and by the late Cretaceous there were many species of bird around.尽管,这两种物种早在侏罗纪时期(已知的最早鸟类是始祖鸟,生活在一亿五千万年前)就已分道扬镳,而且,到了白垩纪后期,已出现了许多种的鸟类。What Dr OConnor and her colleagues have found is the remains of one of those birds, of an as-yet-unidentified species, in the stomach of a specimen of Microraptor.OConnor士和她同事在小盗龙样本的胃中发现了那时期鸟类的残骸,但其种类还未得到鉴别。That is interesting. Discovering direct evidence of what a fossil animal ate, rather than having to infer it from details such as the shape of its teeth, is always valuable.比起根据其牙齿形状等细节来推测出结果,找出古生物吃什么的直接据是有价值的。But the finds true significance is a small detail of the preys anatomy: the third toe of its foot.但是,这个发现真正重要之处却是其骨骼的一个细微之处:它脚掌的第三个脚趾。那是非常有趣的。The size of the preys third toe is important because, among birds, long third toes are helpful for grasping branches and perching in trees.捕食者第三个脚趾的大小是很重要的,因为,对于鸟来说,长长的第三趾可以帮助其抓紧树枝,在树上栖息。Indeed, the trait is so useful for arboreal life that it is used by many avian palaeontologists to decide whether newly excavated species of fossil birds lived in trees or on the ground.的确,对于树栖生物这一特点是相当有用的,而许多鸟类古生物学家也利用这一特点来确定新挖掘出的鸟类化石是栖息在树上还是生活在地面上。And the last meal of this particular specimen of Microraptor did, indeed, have a long third toe.而小盗龙的最后一餐显然长有长长的第三个脚趾。That elongated toe suggests to Dr OConnor that Microraptor, too, was arboreal, and hints that its feathers may have helped it to move through an environment where hops, jumps and flaps between branches were a regular part of its daily activity.那细长的脚趾暗示着OConnor士小盗龙也是树栖的。在一个需在枝桠间跳跃、滑行的生活环境中,它的羽毛可能对它的日常活动有所帮助。Whether the first birds evolved from arboreal or terrestrial ancestors is a matter of lively debate among palaeontologists.关于第一只鸟是从树栖还是陆生的祖先进化而来,一直是古生物学家激烈争论的话题。A fossil formed so long after birds emerged does not, in truth, shed much light on that debate.事实上,一个在鸟类出现很久之后形成的化石并没有使得这一论战明朗化。But it does suggest feathers may have helped promote life in the trees, even for creatures that could not actually fly.但是,这的确说明对于居于树上、即使是那些根本不能飞的树栖生物来说,羽毛可能真的有助于它们的生活。 /201210/206469重庆爱德华收费好不好重庆爱德华医院做腹腔镜手术多少钱

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