时间:2018年03月20日 23:49:22

The first one to form is Hydrogen. Then, over the next 3 minutes the Universe begins to create two more elements, helium and lithium.We went from a Universe that was infinitely small to a Universe that was light-years in size. In the first 3 minutes, essentially everything interesting that was going to happen in the Universe happened.形成的第一种元素是氢。在接下来的3分钟里宇宙内开始形成其他两种元素:氦和锂。我们赖以生存的宇宙从无比渺小扩大到以光年来衡量大小。从本质上来说,在最初的3分钟宇宙内该发生的有趣的事情都发生了。 Well, not quite. If you were there, you couldnt see it.When we look at the night sky, we can see a literally billions of years into the past. And we think its always been that way. Nope, not true. 380 thousand years after the Big Bang, thats when the Universe began to become transparent. But before then, it was milky.其实,也未必。就算你在这里,也看不见。当我们望向夜空,我们能看见过去几十亿年前星球发出的光,从字面上来说是几十亿年前。而且我们认为自古以来就是这样。不,其实不是这样。宇宙大爆炸38万年后,宇宙开始变得透明起来。但是之前,宇宙内部则浑浊不清。There was a milky soup of loose electrons. The young Universe has to cool down enough for the electrons to slow down and stick to new atoms. It took a long time for all of the hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms in the Universe to form. Scientists calculate it took 380 thousand years for the electrons to slow down enough so that the Universe could start mass producing atoms. When that happens, the milky fog clears. The first light escapes and raises across the Universe.就像一锅充满松散电子的浓汤。年轻的宇宙渐渐冷却,电子也随之放慢速度,粘附于新生代原子。经过了很长时间,宇宙内氢原子,氦原子和锂原子才全部形成。科学家们计算,电子经过38万年才将速度减得足够慢,这样宇宙才开始大量生产原子。批量生产原子的同时,宇宙内浑浊的迷雾也开始消散。第一束光逃逸出来,在宇宙内无限延伸。Nearly 14 billion years later, two young scientists in New Jersey picked it up by accident.In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were mapping radio signals across our galaxy. Everywhere they looked, they picked up a strange background hum. They first suspected their equipment, maybe pigeon droppings on the antenna were causing the strange signal. But after cleaning the antenna, the mysterious hum remained, so much for pigeon droppers.大约140亿年后,两位年轻的科学家在新泽西偶然接收到这束光波。1964年,阿诺·彭齐亚斯和罗伯特·威尔逊在映射系的无线电信号。不论从哪个方向,他们都会接收到一种奇怪的背景辐射噪音。开始他们怀疑是设备的问题,也许是鸽子落到天线上的粪便导致的。但是清理完天线后,那种神秘的嗡嗡声依然存在,也就排除了鸽子粪便这一因素。Penzias delivered a talk at Princeton University. And according to law, one person in the back said,;either you have discovered the effects of bird-droppings or the creation of the Universe.;彭齐亚斯在普林斯顿大学的举行了一场讲座。根据物理定律,一位后排的人说道:“要么你发现了鸟粪的作用,要么你发现了宇宙的起源。”201205/184169

He eventually found one, here in Ramsgate, teaching French, German, arithmetic and dictation to young boys at a school opened in this building by a Mr. William Stokes.他最终找到了一份工作,在拉姆斯哥特,他在这位威廉·斯托克斯先生的建筑开办的学校内教男孩子们法语,德语,算术和听写。This job was unpaid, just board and lodging.这份工作没有报酬,只提供食宿。But he was teaching and that pressed Vincent’s vocational buzzer.但他的教学使文森特一鸣惊人。The school was crummy, Dickensian, one might say.这所学校非常肮脏, 有人可能会说是狄更斯式的。The floors of the bedroom in which the boys slept were rotten, the windows broken.男孩们睡的卧室的地板腐朽不堪而且窗户破旧。And Vincent complained desperately about the bedbugs.而文森特对于臭虫疯狂抱怨。He did a couple of drawings out of the school window, of this view.他透过窗户外的景点画了几幅画,而这一景致。They’re rather delightful.它们相当讨人喜欢。 注:听力文本来源于普特201208/194530

Business商业报道Power in Japan东京的电力The troubles of TEPCO东京电力公司的困难The fallout from the Fukushima nuclear disaster is sping throughout Japans energy industry福岛核电站的影响正在日本能源业蔓延THROW yourself into a nuclear reactor and die! one investor shouted.一位投资者叫喊到,死在核反应堆里吧!Japanese shareholders are usually more polite, but this was the annual meeting of TEPCO, the Japanese power company that owns the Fukushima nuclear plant.日本的股民一般应更有礼貌,但这次情况不同,这次是拥有福岛核电站的东京电力公司的年会。Since an earthquake in March caused a meltdown, TEPCO faces unlimited demands for compensation.自从三月地震以来,该公司股价一直走低,还面临是无穷无尽的赔偿要求。Its shares have fallen by nearly 90%.其股份已经跌了将近90%。A man at the meeting on June 28th suggested that the board take responsibility by committing seppuku, or ritual suicide.一个人在6月28日的会议上提议董事会引咎切腹。Not everything went wrong for TEPCO.东京电力公司不是每件事都有问题。A shareholder motion to close all its nuclear plants was defeated.所有核电站都关闭遭到了否决。But apart from that, things look grim.但是除此之外,事情就很糟糕了。TEPCO faces claims for compensation that, in a worst-case scenario, could exceed its assets of ¥15 trillion.一位股东提议将其东京电力公司面临的损失赔偿要求,在最坏情况下将超过其资产15万亿。No one knows how much it will have to pay.没人知道该公司将赔偿多少。Estimates of TEPCOs liabilities range between ¥4 trillion and ¥25 trillion.东京电力公司估计要承担4万亿到25万亿的赔偿责任。The firm also owes ¥7.8 trillion to bondholders and bank creditors.该公司仍欠持券人和债权人7.8万亿。If TEPCO goes bust, these people take precedence over those affected by the disaster, a fact that is politically radioactive.如果东京电力公司破产了,这些人先于那些事故受害者受到补偿,而这将在政治上有放射性的影响。Four months ago, TEPCO was the cornerstone of corporate Japan.四个月前,东京电力公司曾是日本公司的顶梁柱。Some 750,000 people, many of them elderly, still own its shares.大约有75万的人们仍然拥有它的股份,他们中有很大一部分是老年人。The company, which accounts for a hefty 8% of Japans total domestic debt market, had its bond rating cut to junk by Moodys on June 20th, following a similar downgrade by Standard amp; Poors in May.该公司的债券占据了日本国内市场8%的全部份额,在6月20日的Moodys排名中被列入垃圾债券一列,而且在标准普尔指数中也有下滑。Only the government can save TEPCO from bankruptcy.只有日本政府才可以挽救东京电力公司。A bill submitted on June 14th to the Diet, Japans parliament, aims to enable the firm to pay compensation without going under.6月14日在向日本国会提交的一项议案中提议公司在不破产的情况下进行赔偿。It would establish a mechanism for the government to channel truckloads of money to TEPCO, which the firm would then pass on to the victims.该议案将建立一种机制,即政府把钱流入东京电力公司,再由公司分发给受害者。This would be repaid from TEPCOs earnings, with help from other nuclear operators.这些钱将用该公司在其他核电站的收益偿还。The new entity could purchase TEPCO assets.这个新机制可以购买公司的财产。One insider thinks this will lead to partial nationalisation.一位业内人士认为,这一做法将会导致公司部分国有化。Another reckons that the new entity might buy fresh bonds that TEPCO could issue to meet its obligations.另有人士认为,这一举措可以使人们买到公司为了进行赔偿而发售的新债券。The bill has not been seriously debated in the Diet, in part because of political paralysis.由于政治瘫痪,该议案在国会中没有进行认真讨论。But officials believe it will be ratified before the end of the summer because the consequences of shelving it are unthinkable.但是官员认为这个议案最迟将在今夏得以通过,因为将这搁在一边的后果是不可想象的。Compensation must be paid, the recovery work at Fukushima must go on and the lights in Tokyo must stay on.赔偿一定要赔,福岛核电站的修复工作也必须进行,而且东京电力公司也不能倒闭。However, the bill is only a stop-gap.但是该议案只是一个权宜之计。It may soothe TEPCOs creditors.它可以安抚公司的债权人,It may even reassure the public that payouts wont lead to higher electricity bills.也可以使得公众不会为了高昂的电费而担心。But critics grumble that the plan protects shareholders at the expense of taxpayers.但是家指责该计划保护了股东而损害了纳税人的利益。The long-term solutions being considered include bankruptcy, temporary nationalisation for the purpose of selling off assets, or capping TEPCOs liability and making it, in addition to an energy provider, a vehicle for compensation payments.长期的解决方案包括破产,暂时收归国有变卖资产,或者对于东京电力公司限定责任上限,使其又提供能源又进行赔偿。TEPCO favours a liability cap.公司比较倾向于第三种方案,Only this, the thinking goes, will lure back investors and let TEPCO become a normal company again.因为只有通过这种方法才可以重新吸引投资者并且把公司再次变成普通公司。But this may scupper any chance of energy-sector liberalisation, since the company would need fistfuls of profits in order to make its payouts.但是由于公司需要大量的利润来付出,这一举措将使得能源产业自由化的希望破灭。When I meet with TEPCO officials, I dont see any change in mindset; its as if nothing has changed, sighs a nuclear-energy official.当我会见东京电力公司官员时,我发现他们的想法没有任何改变,就好像什么都没有发生过一样,一位核能源官员叹息道。Bankruptcy or temporary nationalisation would be bolder.破产倒闭或者暂时国有化会显得更加大胆。Either could herald energy deregulation, since a regional monopoly would be broken up and sold.采取任何一种方法都会标志着放宽能源管制的来临。The government could then separate energy generation and transmission, which the prime minister, Naoto Kan, supports but few other politicians do.因为一个地区垄断公司都将会被分化和出售,然后政府可以将能源生产与能源传输分开。Outsiders, such as Softbank, a mobile-phone operator, are keen to enter the energy business.一些业外人士,比如手机运营商Softbank公司,一直想进入能源产业。But big business, which ought to favour competition to lower energy prices, is against deregulation.但是对于那些更倾向于竞争而非更低能源价格的大公司来说,他们反对放宽能源管制。This may be because so many big firms act as suppliers to the utilities, which pay high prices to reward loyalty.这可能因为许多大公司是公用事业的提供商,这些提供商十分重视忠诚。Across Japan, regional power companies are caught in Fukushimas fallout.全日本的当地能源公司都受到福岛核事故的影响。Most prefectural governors are refusing to restart nuclear plants that shut for regular maintenance.大多数县官员不愿意重新启动经过日常维护后的核电站。Power shortages loom.能源短缺问题越发明显。Other shareholder meetings have been almost as stormy as TEPCOs.其他公司的股东大会与东京电力公司一样暴躁不安。The biggest shareholder of KEPCO, the utility in the Kansai region, is the city of Osaka, which has a 9% stake.在韩国电力公司是关西地区的公用事业公司,其最大股东是拥有9%股份的大阪市。Its mayor turned up at the annual general meeting and urged the firm to diversify away from nuclear energy.大阪市长在全体大会中催促韩国电力公司摆脱核能。Such demands are popular.这一要求受到广泛欢迎。Three-quarters of Japanese want to reduce or eliminate the countrys reliance on nuclear power—many more than before the accident.现在,有75%的日本市民希望国家减少或者消除对于核能的依赖,这比事故前任何时候都要强烈。The utilities now face more scrutiny and tighter energy supplies.公用事业单位现在面临着更严格的检查与能源供给,They are also unlikely to win permission to raise rates.而且他们也不太可能提高价格。Their solid credit ratings could liquefy.他们的良好的信用评级将会消失。KEPCO and another utility recently cancelled new corporate-bond offerings because yields soared.最近由于出飙升,东京电力公司和其他公用事业公司取消了新公司债券的发行。Firms that had cross-shareholdings in the utilities have also taken a hit.那些交叉持股的公司也受到影响。Even banks are affected: cabinet members have suggested they share the pain by forgiving a portion of TEPCOs pre-quake loans.即使是也受到影响,内阁成员建议,免除东京电力公司部分震前贷款,损失由他们承担。Naturally, this whacked their share prices.自然而然地,这将极大影响他们的股价。The Fukushima disaster presents an opportunity for radical reform.福岛的灾难提供了改革的机会。But in a crisis people often grow conservative.但是在危机中人们会变得保守。Since the government holds the purse-strings, it can more or less dictate terms to TEPCO.由于政府掌管着金钱,它将多多少少给东京电力公司发布指令。The fear is that it will bankroll a return to business as usual.令人担心的是政府会像平常一样给公司提供资金使其恢复经营。 /201302/225209

Ironically, to possibly revive some form of life on Mars, we need to introduce the same conditions that are threatening life here on earth. To establish human societies on Mars with significant industrial capacity. They could create these green house gases there. Warm the planet, it would cause the water thats frozen into soil to start melting out, running again in the streams and riverbeds of Mars filling the lakes and putting water vapour into the atmosphere. And water vapour is green house gas.讽刺的是,为了使火星重燃生命,我们需要引进一些条件,而这些条件在地球上却会威胁生命。为了利用强大的工业生产力在火星上建立人类社会,可能会在这里产生温室气体,从而将火星变暖。火星变暖就会导致冻在土里的冰层融化成水,重新汇聚成河流在火星上流淌,然后填满湖泊,将水蒸发到大气中。水蒸气就相当于温室气体。Mars would have an environment suitable for life, suitable for plants, trees, grasses insects. But before we can export cars, factories and other polluters to Mars, we need to get there and it wont be easy. We go to Mars, we are constrained by the position of the planets around the Sun. The Mars is our nearest neighbor. Its still very far away. At their closest, the earth and Mars are over 34 million miles from one another. And since the two planets move in different orbits at different speeds they are usually even further apart. A manned voyage to Mars will have to be time just right. The window of opportunity to go from earth to Mars or from Mars to earth opens up only once every two years.火星上应该有适合生命存在的环境,适于植物,树木,草和昆虫生长的环境。但是在我们引进汽车,工厂还有其它污染源前,我们需要确保安全抵达火星,这并不容易。我们要去火星,但我们被局限在环绕太阳公转的行星上。火星是我们最近的邻居,但仍然很遥远。即使靠的最近,但火星和地球之间的距离仍有3千4百万英里。因为这两个行星分别以不同的速度在不同的轨道上公转,他们经常会越离越远。人类登陆火星的时机需要把握准确。从火星到地球或者从地球到火星的最佳时机每两年才出现一次。So a trip to mars might involve taking six months to get there, and then staying on Mars for two years. Part of preparing to sent humans tomorrows is to test our equipment and procedures here on earth.因此一次火星之旅需要花六个月时间在路上,然后还需在火星上呆2年。送人类上火星的部分准备工作是在地球上测试设备和程序。Its safe to say that one day soon we will go to Mars. If you wanna be among the first humans to go, the time to prepare yourself is now, which is exactly what the Mars Society is doing.可以很有把握的说很快我们就会去火星。如果你想成为第一批去火星的人,那么现在就得准备了,这也正是火星协会正在做的。The Mars Society is an international organization of people committed to furthering the exploration and ultimately settlement of Mars.火星协会是一个志在进一步探索火星,最终在火星上建立定居点的国际性组织。The first step to going to Mars is acting as if you are aly there.去火星的第一步:表现地就像你已经在火星上一样。 原文译文属!201208/194203

Ive got about a quarter of a bottle now for later reserve. Urine is actually 95 percent water. And its sterile when fresh. But only drink it when you are hydrated. And drink it sooner rather than later as its a breeding ground for bacteria. The people who stand the best chances of survival are the ones prepared to push the limits. In 2006, three Mexican fishermen were rescued after a 9-month ordeal adrift on a Pacific ocean. They drank turtle blood and their own urine. So its only because they were prepared to go to these extremes that they are alive today. But urine alone is not gonna be enough in this heat. Youve got to find water and fast. Just at rest, you should be drinking two percent of your body weight in water every day. That means about one and a half litre minimum. But in these conditions, youll need that much just every hour.我留了1/4壶,过会再喝。尿液里有95%是水分,刚排除体外时无菌,最好尽快饮用,否则容易滋生细菌。最有可能逃出生天的人,是那些准备好挑战极限的人。2006年3名墨西哥渔民在太平洋上遇难,漫无目标地漂流了9个月后才获得营救。他们喝的是海龟血和自己的尿液。正因为他们准备好接受这些极限挑战,所以才活到今天。但是光凭尿液不足以在如此酷热的条件下维生,你必须尽快找到水源。就算歇着不动,我每天也得喝相当于自己体重2%的饮用水。也就是说至少要喝1.5升左右。但在这种条件下,我每小时都需要喝那么多水。Look at the scale of this. The combination of searing heat and high humidity will take their toll. Your sweat wont cool you down. And if you cant find enough fluids in this heat, youll die. Im walking through these baobab trees now. These are really typical of the whole Kimberley region. But what they do for me is offer me a little bit of this precious shade. Finding shades like this can be a life saver, as its up to 30 degrees cooler than when you are in the sun. The people who know how to cope best in this environment, though, are the native Australians, the Aborigines. The Aborigines have a very distinct attitude towards the land. And they dont see themselves as owners of the land, rather that the land owns them as if they are kind of custodians of it. And its this sort of respect and understanding that are so vital for staying alive in this sort of harsh environment.你看这个地方多大。灼热的高温再加上高湿度会逐渐影响到你。流汗无法帮我降温。在这样炎热的天气下,如果找不到饮用水,你就死定了。现在我正穿过猴面包树林。这种树是整个金伯利地区最典型的植物,它们能够给我提供一点点宝贵的阴凉。找到这样的阴凉可以救我一命,因为这里比骄阳下要凉快30多度。最懂得应付这种恶劣环境的人是澳洲土著。澳洲土著对待这片土地有一种特别的态度。他们不把自己当作土地的主人,而是土地的仆人,充当着土地护卫的角色。要在这么恶劣的环境生存,这样的尊重和理解绝对是至关重要的。201206/186577

Big Kid, Little Kid大孩子,小孩子Remember seesaws? Those things were great. But there was often a problem.还记得跷跷板吗?它可是伟大的发明,但仍然存在一个问题。Suppose theres a big kid on one side and a smaller kid on the other side. The seesaw just stays in one position: big kid on the ground, smaller kid up in the air. No fun. After a few different tries, you probably realized that moving the big kid in toward the center made it possible to rock a little. Move the big kid even more and you can achieve balance. Now the seesaw works.假设跷跷板的一边坐一个大点的孩子,而另一边坐一个 小点的孩子。跷跷板就只停留在一边:大孩子那边,小孩子则悬在空中。这样就失去了跷跷板的乐趣。几次尝试后,你也许会发现让大孩子往中间坐久可以摇动一点。再让大孩子让中间挪动直至平衡后跷跷板就可以摇动了。Whats going on here? The answer is in the ;center of mass;. The center of mass is a point somewhere along the plank that holds the two kids where their average weight falls. If you can get the center of mass to be over the pivot point, the seesaw will be balanced.这到底是怎么回事?就是“质心”。质心是跷跷板上撑两个孩子平均重量的一个点。如果找到了是新的点,跷跷板就平衡了。Theres a simple way to figure out where the center of mass is. If the big kid is two times as heavy as the little kid, then their mutual center of mass will be two times closer to the big kid than to the little kid. Three times heavier and the center of mass will be three times closer. And so on.有一个简单的方法找出质心。如果大孩子的重量是小孩子的2倍,那么质心的位置离大孩子的距离就比离小孩子距离近2倍。重三倍,质心的位置就进三倍,以此类推。So the reason the heavy kid sits on the ground while the light kid is up in the air is that their mutual center of mass is on the heavy kids side of the pivot. To make the seesaw work, the heavy kid must push that center of mass forward until it just touches the pivot. Then their average weight pushes right on the middle, letting the ends rock up and down.因此,重的小孩坐在地上而轻的小孩悬在空中的原因是,他们共同的质心在重的孩子这边。要想让跷跷板摇动,重的孩子就得往中间挪直到质心移到中心。然后当他们的平均质量正好在中间,这样两头就可以上下摇动了。 /201208/195299

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