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上海市第六人民医院金山分院修眉多少钱Science and technology科学技术The rise of the dinosaurs恐龙的崛起Pardon!恕我直言!A geological burp may have led to the dinosaursdomination地质上的甲烷释放可能是恐龙称霸地球的原因THE dinosaurs, famously, went out with a bang.众所周知,恐龙在地球上是突然消失的。Some 65.5m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period, the Earth collided with an asteroid and the biggest terrestrial beasts in history were no more.大约在6500万年前的白垩纪末期,地球与小行星相撞导致最大的陆地兽类全部灭绝。That left things clear for the rise of the mammals.此次灭绝事件为哺乳动物的崛起提供了契机。But how did the dinosaurs rise to power in the first place?但首要的是恐龙是如何崛起的呢?Some light on this question has just been shed by a paper published in Science by Micha Ruhl of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands, and his colleagues.荷兰乌得勒大学迈克尔·鲁尔及其同事在最近一期科学杂志上撰文对此问题进行了阐述。Dinosaurs first appear in the fossil record during the Triassic period, some 230m years ago.恐龙最早出现在三叠纪时期的化石记录中。They do not take over, though, until the end of the Triassic, 201m years ago.但直至三叠纪末期恐龙才取得地球霸主地位。That date marks one of five recognised mass extinctions in history.历史公认的5次物种大灭绝事件之一就是以三叠纪末期为标志的。In it, half the world’s known species disappeared.在此期间,世界上的半数已知物种都灭绝了。Until now, the end of the Triassic has been blamed on massive volcanic eruptions that went on for 600,000 years.直到现在,人们都一直将三叠纪的终结归因于持续了60万年的大规模火山喷发。Dr Ruhl, however, reckons that was not the cause—or, at least, not directly.然而鲁尔士却认为火山喷发不是导致三叠纪终结的原因或者至少不是直接原因。By analysing the isotopic composition of hydrocarbon molecules from plant waxes of the period,通过分析该时期植物腊的碳氢分子同位素组成,he found what looks like a spike in the amount of recently non-biological carbon, lasting between 10,000 and 20,000 years.他发现有种类似最近非生物碳的碳元素在数量上激增,这种现象持续了1万到2万年。He thinks the liberation of methane stored at the bottom of the ocean in structures called clathrates is the most likely culprit.他认为出现这种现象的最可能诱因是甲烷气体的释放,这些甲烷气体释放前存储在海底称作;笼形包合物;的结构中。The alternative, that the carbon came from the volcanoes, is unlikely because the spike is much shorter than the period of volcanic activity.另一种说法是这种碳元素来自于火山,但这不可能,因为碳数量激增期比火山活动期要短得多。Methane is a greenhouse gas far stronger than carbon dioxide, so the consequence would have been a rapid warming of the climate—a phenomenon that the rocks suggest did actually happen.甲烷是一种比二氧化碳浓烈得多的温室气体,它的释放会导致地球气候迅速升温—岩石层研究也表明这种现象确实发生过。This is not the first time a methane burp has been blamed for an extinction.人类已经不是第一次将物种灭绝归因于甲烷气体的脉冲式释放。Though the Cretaceous asteroid cleared the stage,尽管白垩纪时期的小行星灭绝了居统治地位的恐龙,mammals did not really get going until 10m years later, in the Eocene epoch.但哺乳动物却一直到1000万年后的始新世才真正兴起繁盛起来。The preceding Palaeocene epoch was also brought to an end, the rocks suggest, by a sudden release of methane.岩石层研究表明甲烷的突然释放导致了之前的古新世时期结束。The burp could, of course, have been provoked by the eruptions, so the volcanoes are not off the hook completely.当然甲烷的脉冲式释放可能是火山喷发所致,因此火山始终难辞其咎。But, for those of a nervous disposition, the tying of an ancient greenhouse warming to an ancient mass extinction might suggest lessons for the future.但是对于这些性情冲动的火山,古代的温室变暖和古代大量物种灭绝之间的联系或许对未来有诸多的借鉴意义。 /201305/238705上海复旦大学附属华东医院做祛眼袋手术多少钱 交通大学医学院附属新华医院修眉价格费用

九院整形美容科打溶脂针价格费用Can animals count?动物能数数吗?People count easily, from the time we are little kids and learn our one-two-threes.数数对人类而言易如反掌,孩提时代就开始数一二三了。But what about other species?但是其它物种如何呢?Careful observations in the wild support the idea that some can.通过对于自然环境中一些物种的仔细观察发现它们真的具有这项技能。The American coot is a duck-like North American bird.美洲骨顶是一种生活在北美而且长得像野鸭的鸟类。Sometimes a coot will try and sneak one of its eggs into a neighbors nest.有时骨顶会试着把自己的蛋偷偷放到邻居的巢中。Some coots recognize the deception, and roll the strangers egg out again.有的骨顶能识破诡计,剔除这个不明来路的蛋。Others dont catch on, and raise the strangers egg as their own.而有的则丈二和尚摸不着头脑,干脆当作自己的后代抚养长大。Researcher Bruce Lyon at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and his team observed a series of coot nests for four seasons, noting which birds could spot a strangers eggs and which couldnt.加利福利亚圣克鲁斯大学研究员的布鲁斯·里昂和他的团队四个季节以来一直致力于观察骨顶巢。他们记录下了哪些鸟能认出陌生的鸟蛋,哪些不能认出。Then they compared how many eggs each kind laid.然后他们比较了这些鸟各生了多少蛋。201312/268948 GE and Alstom通用电气和阿尔斯通Soft power软实力How to open doors and influence people in France如何打开法国的大门并进一步影响法国人Indispensable for Immelt对伊梅尔特不可或缺THERE is a lull before the renewed storm in the battle for Alstom, a French group whose turbines power generators around the world and whose high-speed trains sprint across the countryside. Too small to compete in a tough global market, Alstom had all but agreed to sell its energy operations to General Electric, an American conglomerate with complementary interests. Fearing a loss of jobs, Frances government encouraged Siemens, a German firm, to take a different tack, offering to swap its transport activities for Alstoms energy operations and turning the rivals into a pair of European champions. Siemens says it may see its way to making a firm offer by June 16th. Meanwhile GE is in and out of the Elysee palace, chatting with President Franois Hollande and his aides, improving its offer in the light of their concerns and, it seems, winning supporters.这是阿尔斯通争夺战的风暴卷土重来前的宁静。阿尔斯通作为一家法国集团,它的涡轮机组为全球的发电机提供电力,而它生产的高铁也疾驰在乡间。在残酷的全球市场下太过于微不足道,阿尔斯通除了把它的能源运营部分出售给美国综合性集团通用电气之外别无选择。担心失业,法国政府鼓励德国企业西门子采取一项不同的措施—提出用西门子的交通活动来交换阿尔斯通的能源经营部分以此将对手分成一对欧洲的盟友。西门子称其会在6月16号根据具体情况发出实盘。同时通用电气也在积极与爱丽舍宫方面联系,通过与法国总统奥朗德以及其助手沟通,根据他们关心的方面进行发盘的改进,这好像是在赢取持者。All this says something about how France operates and how foreign firms must adapt to it. Political support for the acquisition is important, for Alstom is seen as one of Frances industrial crown jewels. Even if the government hesitates to invoke the powers it conferred on itself in May to block such a deal in defence of its strategic interests, the public sector is still Alstoms main customer in France. So communication and building trust are vital.这些都反映了法国是如何运作的并且国外企业必须适应这样的情况。收购的政治持是非常重要的,因为阿尔斯通被视作法国工业桂冠上的明珠之一。即使政府犹豫五月份调用它的自己授予的能量阻止交易以保护它的战略性利益,在法国国营部门经济仍然是阿尔斯通的主要客户。因此沟通和信任的构建是至关重要的。GE understands the importance of soft power. It should: it has been in France for more than 40 years, and its joint venture with Frances Safran making jet engines has worked smoothly for almost as long.通用电气理解软实力的重要性。它应该了解:它已经在法国经营了超过40年,它和法国的赛峰集团的联合风投使得飞机引擎产业平稳运行了很多年。Accompanying Jeffrey Immelt, GEs boss, on his rounds in Paris is Clara Gaymard, an author and mother of nine with a quick wit, several languages and the fattest address book in town. The president of GE in France since 2006, she does not make big operational decisions. But as ambassador for the firm she is important, for she brings to the job her membership of three networks.在其巴黎行程中陪伴着通用电气老总杰弗瑞·伊梅尔特的是克拉拉·盖马尔,她是一名作者同时也是九岁孩子的母亲,有急智、掌握多门语言、并且十分了解当地情况。自06年起担任法国通用总裁,她并没有做大的运营决定。但是作为这家公司的大使,她是很重要的,因为她为这项工作带来她的三个关系网络。The first is that bedrock of the French meritocratic establishment, the Ecole Nationale dAdministration. It churns out presidents and prime ministers along with company bosses and senior public administrators, and they are only a telephone call away from each other. Mrs Gaymard married a fellow enarque, who was briefly economy minister under Jacques Chirac until a housing scandal felled him. Mrs Gaymards career has included a prestigious job at the Cour des Comptes, the national auditors office, followed by a series of senior administrative posts.第一个是法国精英建立的基石—国家行政学院。该校培养出了总统、总理还有公司老总以及高级公共行政人员。他们之间经常能互相联系。盖马尔女士曾经嫁给一位国家行政学院的成员,他曾经短暂担任雅克·希拉克时期的财政部长直到因为房地产丑闻下台。盖马尔女士曾在法国审计署、国家审计办公室担任要职,有一系列高级行政职位。Mrs Gaymards three years at the head of the Invest in France agency produced her second network, consisting of many of the worlds top businessmen. From 2003 to 2006 she travelled the globe, often in the company of the heads of big French companies, trying to sell the likes of Warren Buffett and Apples Steve Jobs on France as an investment destination.盖马尔女士在法国政府投资部担任领导3年的经历带来了她的第二个关系网络,连接着世界上许多的顶尖商人。从2003年到2006年,她全球旅行,经常有法国大公司的领导同行,她试图劝说沃伦·巴菲特和苹果的乔布斯这类人将法国作为投资地Her third network includes some of the relatively few women who are powerful in French business. Mrs Gaymard is a leading light in the Womens Forum at Deauville, an annual gathering often called “Davos for women”. So are Christine Lagarde, currently head of the International Monetary Fund, Laurence Parisot, recently retired as head of Medef, the employers lobby, and others. The old girls network is not as strong as the bond amongenarques but there is, as an observer puts it, “respect, and a certain solidarity”.她的第三个网络包括一些法国商界相对较少的女强人。盖马尔女士是多维尔女性论坛的领袖性人物,该年度聚会也被称为“女性达沃斯”。 现任国际货币基金组织总裁克里斯蒂娜·拉加德、最近退休的雇主游说团体法国雇主协会会长劳伦斯·派瑞索女士以及其他的都是这个组织的成员。这些老女孩的网络并不像国家行政学院那样的坚实,就像一个观察员所说的,“尊重,以及一定的稳固性”。What does all this add up to in practice? GE does not always get what it wants: in , for example, it lost an attempt to take over state-owned Arevas power-transmission and distribution business to home-grown Schneider Electric and Alstom. And Mrs Gaymard is not GEs only emissary in its bid to win approval to buy Alstom.这些全部运用到实践中怎么样呢?通用并不是总能得到它想要的:例如年,它输给了本土的施耐德电气以及阿尔斯通,失去了接管国有的阿海珐输电和配电业务的机会。并且盖马尔女士并不是通用投标购买阿尔斯通许可行动中的唯一特使。Yet she may, with her insiders knowledge of how to play the game, have earned GE a slightly more sympathetic hearing in the corridors of power. While Alstom stayed mum about the talks until the news broke in April, incurring ministerial ire, Mrs Gaymard tipped off the government in February that GE was interested, a gesture that was later appreciated. Although GEs chances look good, its bid may still fail. If it does, it will not be because the firm lacked the opportunity to make its case.但是她可能已经用她对于如何进行操作内情的熟悉,帮助通用在高层赢得了一些的同情的声音。但是阿尔斯通知道媒体四月份曝光之前始终保持沉默,招致了内阁的愤怒,盖马尔女士安抚政府称通用对于这个项目有兴趣,这是一个在后来被赞扬的信号。尽管通用电气看起来机会不错,它的投标仍然可能失败。如果失败了,这不会是因为企业缺少机会导致的。 /201406/305807上海市徐汇区宛平地段医院整形美容上海复旦大学附属华东医院激光去痣多少钱

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