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上海曙光医院东院做双眼皮开眼角手术多少钱

2017年10月19日 16:59:13
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A: I hear smokeless tobacco has been bannedA:我听说无烟烟草已经被禁止了。B:Great!That’ll really helped clumsyB:太好了!正好帮助了那些笨人。A:How is that?A:怎么说?B:He can’t chew and play at the same time, anyway.B:无论如何,他总算不能一边吸一边玩了。 /201504/371659上海玻尿酸注射丰太阳穴价格A new class of experimental cholesterol drugs might sharply reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes, researchers reported on Sunday, citing what they described as preliminary evidence.周日,研究人员援引“初步据”称,一类新的实验性降胆固醇药物可能会大幅降低心肌梗死和中风风险。The drugs, one being developed by Amgen and the other by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, are aly known to sharply reduce so-called bad cholesterol, sometimes to levels lower than those achieved by statins like Lipitor, the mainstay lipid-lowering medicines.上述报告中的药物是指由美国安进公司(Amgen)以及赛诺菲(Sanofi)和瑞泽恩制药公司(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)研发的。目前已经确知它们可以大幅减少所谓的“坏胆固醇”(即LDL胆固醇[低密度脂蛋白胆固醇]——译注),有时其效力甚至会超过主流降脂药物,如立普妥(Lipitor)等他汀类药物。What has not been known, however, is whether the drugs do what patients and doctors really care about: protect against heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular problems or “events.”然而,对于医生和患者真正关心的问题——预防心肌梗死、中风和其他心血管疾病或“事件”——这些药物的效果如何,目前尚不十分清楚。The early results suggest that there might be such a benefit, maybe even a big one. In small studies sponsored by the manufacturers, both drugs reduced the rate of such cardiovascular problems by about half.早期的研究结果表明,它们非但有益,甚至还可能是大有益处。在由药品制造商赞助的两项小型研究中,这两种药物分别将此类心血管问题的发生率减少了一半左右。“To see a reduction in cardiovascular events aly is very encouraging that we’re on the right track,” Dr. Jennifer G. Robinson, the lead investigator in the trial of the Sanofi drug, said in an interview.赛诺菲药物试验的研究负责人,珍妮弗·G·鲁宾逊(Jennifer G. Robinson)士在接受采访时说:“看到心血管事件的减少真是非常令人鼓舞,这说明我们是走在正确的道路上。”The studies were published in The New England Journal of Medicine and were being presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology taking place through Monday in San Diego.该研究发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上。从周一起在圣地亚哥举行的美国心脏病学会(American College of Cardiology)年会上,也对其进行了介绍。Researchers cautioned, however, that the studies were small and intended to assess whether the drugs lowered the bad cholesterol and were safe, not whether they staved off heart attacks. That could make the conclusions about heart attack and stroke risk less trustworthy. Judging those effects will require larger trials involving tens of thousands of people; such studies are underway and are expected to be completed by 2017.但是,研究人员警告说,上述研究规模较小,且研究目的是评估这些药物的安全性以及它们能否降低“坏胆固醇”,而不是它们能否避免心肌梗死。因此,据此得出心肌梗死和中风风险降低的结论,可能并不足信。要对上述效果做出可信的判断,需要进行涉及数万人的大规模试验。目前这些研究还在进行当中,预计将于2017年完成。“I do not think that either study answers the question definitively of cardiovascular benefit,” said Dr. Steven E. Nissen, chairman of cardiovascular medicine at the Cleveland Clinic, referring to the drug makers’ research. He was not involved in either study.未参与上述任何一项研究的科学家,克利夫兰诊所(Cleveland Clinic)心血管医学部主任史蒂文·E·尼森(Steven E. Nissen)表示:“我认为(药品制造商的)这两项研究都未能明确回答这些药物是否对心血管有益。”Researchers said long-term safety still must be assessed, especially since these drugs are reducing LDL cholesterol to levels never achieved by medicines before. While the drugs appeared generally safe, there was evidence that they could cause memory problems.研究人员表示仍须对这些药物的长期安全性进行评估,鉴于它们可将LDL胆固醇降低到此前通过药物从未达到的水平,尤其应当如此。虽然大体上应该是安全的,但也有据表明,它们可能会导致记忆问题。Still, the findings could help smooth the way for regulatory approval, wider use of the drugs by doctors and possibly reimbursement by insurers.尽管如此,上述研究结果很可能有助于为这些药物获得监管部门的批准,被医生广泛应用,并纳入保险公司的报销范围铺平道路。The drugs, evolocumab from Amgen and alirocumab from Sanofi and Regeneron, inhibit a protein in the body called PCSK9 that helps regulate cholesterol. In the studies detailed on Sunday, both drugs reduced the bad cholesterol by about 60 percent, to about 50 milligrams per deciliter from about 120 at the start of the studies. In many cases such big reductions were achieved even though the patients were aly taking statins.这两种新药分别是安进公司(Amgen)研发的evolocumab,以及赛诺菲和瑞泽恩(Sanofi and Regeneron)制药公司的alirocumab,它们的作用机理都是抑制PCSK9——体内的一种协助调节胆固醇的蛋白质。周日发表的文章对两项研究都进行了详细的介绍:这两种药物将“坏胆固醇”从研究开始时的每分升约120毫克降到了约50毫克,降幅达60%左右。在许多病例中,甚至在患者已在用他汀类药物的情况下,仍然实现了如此大的降幅。Both drugs could win approval from the Food and Drug Administration by this summer. Analysts say the drugs will have billions of dollars in annual sales and will be taken by millions of people who cannot lower their cholesterol enough using statins alone or cannot tolerate statins. (However, the PCSK9 drugs are taken by injection every two weeks or four weeks, which could deter some users.)这两种药物有望在今年夏天赢得美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration)的批准。分析人士预计其年销售额将达到数十亿美元,数以百万计单靠他汀类药物无法将胆固醇降低至满意水平或不能耐受他汀类药物的患者都可能选用这些药物(然而,每两周或四周一次注射给药的方式,却也会令某些用户对这些PCSK9药物望而却步)。Statins reduce cardiovascular risk and scientists believe it is because they decrease low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol. But merely looking at cholesterol levels can be misleading. The drug niacin did not protect against heart attacks and strokes even though it raised so-called good cholesterol and modestly lowered bad cholesterol.科学家们认为,他汀类药物之所以可以降低心血管问题的风险,是因为它们可降低“坏胆固醇”,既即LDL低密度脂蛋白胆固醇的水平。然而,单以胆固醇水平论事可能会造成误导。例如,烟酸这种药物可以提高“好胆固醇”的水平,并可适度降低“坏胆固醇”水平,但它对心肌梗死和中风就没有预防作用。Insurers in particular might demand proof that the PCSK9 drugs stave off heart attacks, strokes, deaths from coronary disease and procedures to open arteries before agreeing to pay for them for many patients. Executives at CVS Health, a leading pharmacy benefits manager, recently said that PCSK9 inhibitors might cost ,000 to ,000 a year and would strain health care budgets because so many people might use them.保险公司对此尤其关注。在同意替患者为这些药物埋单之前,他们将要求研究提供明确的据,实PCSK9药物确实可以预防心肌梗死、中风、因冠心病死亡以及动脉扩张手术等。CVS健康公司(CVS Health)是美国名列前茅的一家医药福利管理公司,其高管最近表示,在PCSK9抑制剂上的年花费预计达7000美元至12000美元,由于使用者人数众多,它将给医疗预算带来沉重的压力。“Managed care pharmacy, indeed the health care system, has never seen a challenge like this to our resilience in absorbing costs,” they wrote in the Health Affairs blog.他们在健康事务(Health Affairs)网站的客中写道:“保健药学管理,实际上,整个卫生系统都未曾面临过像这样的对吸纳成本适应能力的严峻挑战。”Whether the results from these two small studies will be persuasive enough remains to be seen.至于这两项小型研究的结果是否具有足够的说力,还有待观察。The study of Amgen’s evolocumab involved 4,465 patients with various degrees of risk, two-thirds of whom were randomly chosen to get the drug in addition to the medication they were aly taking. After one year, 0.95 percent of those in the group that received the drug had suffered a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular problem, compared with 2.18 percent in the group that did not take the drug. By a measure known as the hazard ratio, the risk of cardiovascular events was reduced by 53 percent.安进公司的evolocumab研究纳入了4465名风险程度不一的患者,从中随机选择了三分之二在已用药物的基础上使用新药。一年后,接受新药的那组患者中只有0.95%发生过心肌梗死、中风或其他心血管问题,相比之下,未用此药的那组患者中该比例为2.18%。以风险比(hazard ratio)这一指标衡量时,心血管事件的风险降低了53%。The alirocumab study involved 2,341 patients. After one and a half years, the rate of cardiovascular events was 1.7 percent in those who received the drug, versus 3.3 percent in those who received a placebo, a risk reduction of 48 percent.关于alirocumab的研究入组了2341名患者。一年半之后,在接受该药的患者中心血管事件的发生率为1.7%,而在接受安慰剂的患者中为3.3%,风险降低了48%。Dr. Sanjay Kaul, a cardiologist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, said analyses of one measure from trials meant to assess other things were “notorious for not being reliable.” He said the results would not be sufficient to support widesp use of and reimbursement for the drugs.希德斯-西奈医疗中心(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center,位于美国洛杉矶)的心脏病专家桑贾伊·考尔(Sanjay Kaul)士表示,拿一项对旨在评估其他问题的试验中的指标来说事儿“实在不靠谱”。他认为这些结果不足以持广泛使用这些药物并将其纳入报销范围。He noted, for instance, that the alirocumab trial used a narrower definition of cardiovascular events than the evolocumab trial used. Using a broader definition, alirocumab did not provide a statistically significant reduction in cardiovascular problems.例如,他指出,alirocumab试验中使用的心血管事件定义要比evolocumab试验中的窄。如果使用更宽泛的定义,那么alirocumab减少心血管问题的效果就失去了统计学显著意义。The evolocumab study, for its part, did not use a placebo, so patients and doctors knew who was getting the drug, which could have affected the outcome.至于evolocumab研究,由于它没有使用安慰剂,患者和医生们都知道哪些人接受了新药而哪些人没有,这也可能对患者的预后造成影响。But Dr. Marc S. Sabatine, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the lead investigator of the evolocumab study, said the fact that both trials had similar results was reassuring, suggesting the effect was real. The results were also plausible, he said, because people who have genetic mutations that reduce their PCSK9 levels have very low rates of heart attacks.但evolocumab研究的负责人,布莱根妇女医院(Brigham and Women’s Hospital)的马克·S·萨巴蒂尼(Marc S. Sabatine)士称,这两项试验得到了类似的结果,这项事实本身就说明结果可靠,那些效果是真实存在的。他还说,会发生这些结果也尤其合理性,因为带有基因突变,致使PCSK9水平偏低的人心肌梗死的发生率就很低。Dr. Sabatine and Dr. Robinson have been paid consultants to the companies sponsoring the trials they led.萨巴蒂尼士和鲁宾逊士均在资助他们负责的研究的那些公司中担任有酬顾问。 /201504/370010上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院割双眼皮手术多少钱交通大学医学院附属同仁医院去痘价格费用

九院祛除腋臭多少钱徐汇去痣多少钱一颗Baking Er Kuai烧饵块One morning, a young farmer named Cu Kangbao carried a basket of local goods to Kunming for sale. When entering the East Gate, he saw crowds of angry people standing there and cursing. And little babies were crying with an open mouth in their mothers’ arms. Cu stood by until he understood what was going on. Last night, the government’s second interrogation room was on fire and the cause was yet to be identified. The officer was angry to death and assumed that it must be a mob messing around. He ordered that announcements be put on the six gates of Kunming and that all people should not cook at home using fire for three months.Anyone who violates it would be severely punished.一天清晨,粗糠宝挑着一担山货到昆明去卖。刚刚走进大东门,就看见城门口站着不少老百姓,一个个怒气冲天,叫骂之声不绝于耳。有的娃娃躺在妈妈的怀里张着小嘴哇哇直哭,粗糠宝站在旁边听了一会儿,才明白了事情的原委。原来,昨天晚上知府衙门二堂不知什么原因突然起火,知府气得暴跳如雷,认定是大胆刁民故意捣乱。他马上下令,在昆明六道城门张贴布告,从今天开始,所有百姓一律不准在家生火做饭。此项禁令有效期三个月,违者严加惩处,绝不宽容。Cu waved to the crowd, and patiently explained to them how to deal with the matter. After hearing his words, people all put on happy smiles. When they arrived home, people carried out their stoves one after another and started baking Baba, a snack made of rice, over the stoves. All enjoyed a good meal.粗糠宝向乡亲们招招手,如此这般地嘱咐了一通,大伙儿顿时乐得眉开眼笑。回去以后,大伙儿纷纷从家里搬出炉子,在上面烤起粑粑来,一个个吃得香极了。Knowing this, the officer hurried to inspect. He caught an old man, questioning him with threat. Cu went up and made faces to the officer saying “Sir, the announcement said “no cooking at home using fire”, but it did not ban the people from baking Baba out of home using fire. We all cook and bake our Baba out of our homes. The officer regretted deeply. He had not expected the situation would become so unmanageable.知府老爷知道了,急忙出来查看。他揪住一个老倌吹胡子瞪眼睛。粗糠宝走上前去,冲着知府扮了个鬼脸,“知府大人,布告上禁止在家里生火煮饭,可没有禁止在家门口烤粑粑吃呀!”知府懊恼不已,事先怎么就没想到粗糠宝会来这一手呢!Sa Mei people, a branch of Yi ethnic group, call Baba Er Kuai. This is the story how baked Er Kuai was passed on.撒梅人把粑粑叫饵块,烧饵块就这样流传了下来。注:中央民族大学外国语学院北京市大学生创新项目“云南美食故事的收集与传播”项目组供稿。 /201504/370881松江区妇幼保健医院整形美容Throughout history, human hair has been the subject of much vanity, research, and stereotyping. Hair traits and associated medical and social implications influence our perceptions of each other and ourselves. In this sometimes hair-raising account, we explore some of the most fascinating facts in the study of human hair.纵观历史,人类的头发一直是虚荣心、科学研究和刻板印象的主题。头发的特征和它在医学及社会交际上的隐含意义影响着我们对他人和自我的认知。在这份有点令人恐惧的报告中,我们探究了一些关于人的头发最令人感兴趣的事实。1.Blonde Women Have More Estrogen1.金发女郎体内有更多的雌激素Hair color might not instinctively seem applicable as an indicator of human traits. However, hair color is an outward indicator and genetic phenotype component that means different things according to the gender of the person bearing it. For example, blondes are sometimes perceived as especially feminine. In fact, scientific investigation indicates that blondes have higher levels of estrogen than other females.Blondes may thus have finer features and a more ;youthful; personality than darker-haired women. Surprisingly, blond hair does not seem to relate as much, if at all, to male hormone levels, although more research could always uncover surprises. Both male and female blonds have more hair, with an average of 130,000 hairs, compared to 100,000 for brunettes and 80,000 for redheads.头发的颜色通常不会被当做人类特征的表现。但其实,头发的颜色既是一种外在的展现,也是基因显性成分的表现,并且根据携带者的性别不同,会有不同的表现。例如,金发美女通常被认为是极具女人味的。事实上,科学研究发现,金发美女比一般女性拥有更多的雌激素。因此,金发美女可能比那些深色头发的女性具有更出众的外表和更“朝气蓬勃”的个性。令人吃惊的是,金发似乎与男性荷尔蒙水平的联系并不很大,如果有的话,尽管更多的研究总是能有令人惊喜的发现。金发的男性和女性平均有130,000根头发,明显多于深色头发人的100,000根和红头发人的80,000根。2.Redheads Get Hurt Easily2.红头发的人更容易受伤Redheads are often stereotyped as hot-tempered. While the jury may still be out on that particular personality trait, the science is fairly strong on the fact that redheads are definitely prone to getting sore—referring, of course, to how they perceive pain. Dentists and scientific researchers have noted that natural redheads are in fact more sensitive to pain than blonds or brunettes.At the same time, redheads are hit with an unfair and ironic combination—they are less sensitive to the effects of painkillers than blonds or brunettes. Redheads often avoid going to the dentist, and it turns out that a dose of painkillers 20 percent higher than the norm may be needed to properly inhibit their pain reception, according to a study recently published in the British Medical Journal. Redheads are also more susceptible to skin cancer, and, oddly, never develop gray hair. Redheads may eventually turn blondish, and then pure white.红头发的人经常被认为脾气火爆,这应该是大众长久以来对这种类型的人的特点所持有的判断。科学也清楚有力地明了这一点:红头发的人更容易发怒,当然这涉及到他们如何看待痛苦。牙医和科学研究者已经注意到,事实上红头发的人比金发或者深色头发的人对痛苦更敏感。同时,红头发的人是一个饱受不公平待遇和讽刺的集合体——比起金发或者深色头发的人,他们对止痛药比较不敏感。据一个近期发表在《英国医学杂志》(the British Medical Journal)的研究表明,红头发的人通常逃避去看牙医,这样造成的结果是,他们要用比普通人多20%剂量的止痛药才能止住疼痛。另外,红头发的人更容易患上皮肤癌,而且他们从来不长灰色的头发。他们最终可能变成金发,然后再变成满头白发。3.Learning Disabilities And Hair Color3.学习障碍症和头发颜色Blond hair and blue eyes might be seen as a striking combination, but they could also be correlated with an increased incidence of certain medical conditions. In a study of 50 learning disabled children, 20 percent were blond. However, only 11 percent of non-disabled children were blond. The blond hair and blue eyes combination is also often seen in patients affected by phenylketonuria, where phenylalanine builds up in the body. Behan et al. (1985) suggest a higher rate of blue-eyed blonds in the dyslexic population (they were also more likely to be left-handed). Another study noted a slightly increased incidence of learning disabilities reported by blond professionals. It is believed that melanin may play a role in the development of neural circuits, and some blonds may be more subject to certain conditions as a result of their reduced melanin levels.金发和碧眼也许看起来是最美妙的结合,但是它们也和特定的医疗条件下增加的发病率有关。在一项研究中,50个有学习障碍的孩子中,20%的是金发。相反,在没有学习障碍的孩子中仅仅有11%的是金发。金发和碧眼的组合在苯丙酮酸尿症患者中是常见的,这些患者体内的苯基丙氨酸积累过多。Behan等人(1985)认为大部分金发碧眼的人有诵读困难症(他们很多是左撇子)。另一项研究显示,金发研究专家认为学习障碍症的发病率在金发碧眼的人中有轻微的增长。众所周知,黑色素在神经回路的发展中起着重要作用,一些金发的人由于缺少黑色素,会对某些特定条件更加抗拒。4.Baldness Is Linked To Heart Disease4.头顶脱发和心脏病有关The loss of hair, whether as a result of a medical condition or aging, is often a great source of concern. It is usually males who go bald, while women almost always keep their hair, a fact related to testosterone levels. Baldness might seem cosmetic, but a recent medical study of 40,000 men has linked balding to a much greater risk of coronary heart disease. The risk of heart disease in men with male pattern baldness was found to be 70 percent greater than in non-balding males. Different levels of baldness carried differing risk levels, from 18 percent at mild to 48 percent for serious balding. The correlation between top of the head baldness and heart disease is believed to relate to multiple factors, potentially including insulin and hormone-related variables. Interestingly, a receding hairline and hair-loss away from the top of the head was not associated with heart disease.脱发,不管是药物还是年龄原因造成,都是人们忧虑的一大根源。最近一项医学研究调查了4万名头顶脱发的男性,结果表明秃顶的人有很大可能患上冠心病。秃顶男性比正常男性患心脏病的风险高70%。另外,秃顶的程度不同,患病的风险也不同,轻微秃顶的男性患病几率为18%,而严重秃顶的男性患病几率则高达48%。这种头部秃顶和心脏病的联系和许多因素有关,包括体内胰岛素和雌激素相关含量的变化。有趣的是,逐渐后退的发际线和头顶部分以外的脱发和心脏病没多大关系。翻译:王珊 listverse /201507/384325上海曙光医院东院切眼袋多少钱

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