明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年04月21日 04:12:58
To Pauline D. Loh, nothing spells festive like the spicy scent of gingerb baking. She shares the recipe and some decorating ideas.对于Pauline D. Loh而言,没有什么比烤姜饼飘出的辛香味道更有节日氛围了。她给大家分享了做姜饼的菜谱和一些装饰姜饼的创意。This is the second year I am writing about gingerb, breaking my own unwritten rule about not repeating recipes. But I have had too many questions about making gingerb to ignore the requests. Personally, I love gingerb. Characters from fairytales around the world peopled my own childhood, including a cheeky runaway gingerb boy who got eaten by a fox before he got too far away. It saddened me, that story, so I started baking gingerb boys and girls and decorated them in pants, skirts, pinafores and elaborate sweaters in a strangely compensatory way.这是我第二次写有关做姜饼的菜谱了,打破了自己不重复推荐菜谱这一不成文的规定。但是,我有太多做姜饼的疑问,不能忽视自身的内心需求。我本人喜欢姜饼。童话世界里的人物充斥着我的童年,有一个故事中,一个莽撞的姜饼小男孩从房子里逃跑出去,还没有跑得很远就被一只狐狸吃掉了。这个故事让我很难过,所以,我开始烘烤小男孩形状和小女孩形状的姜饼,给做好的姜饼小人装饰上裤子、短裙、连胸围裙和精致的毛衣。我用这种奇怪的方式寻求精神上的安慰。It was a lot more fun than Barbie-doll paper cutouts.这比做芭比娃娃的剪纸有趣多了。I have since taught many children the joys of making gingerb, including my vast menagerie of godchildren. Some of them are almost grown now, and I hope they will keep the tradition going for their own kids as a heartwarming bonding experience.我教许多孩子做姜饼,让他们体会做姜饼的乐趣,我的一群教子也是跟我学做的姜饼。现在,有些孩子已经长大了,我希望他们保留做姜饼的传统,将来和他们自己的孩子一起做这项亲子活动。A cold winter day spent baking and decorating will chase the indoor fidgets and chills away, and they get to eat their own creations. It#39;s also healthy (think ginger, honey and whole wheat flour) and better than fast food snacks full of preservatives and additives. The kitchen may need a good scrub later, but you can always make that fun as well. The secret is to delegate, delegate, delegate.烘烤和装饰姜饼能驱走冬日的严寒,安抚人们焦躁的情绪,孩子们做完姜饼还可以吃。姜饼是健康食品,想想姜饼的配料吧(姜、蜂蜜和全麦面粉),它比里面全是食品防腐剂和添加剂的快餐和小吃要好很多。做好姜饼后,厨房需要好好地擦洗一下。但是,你也可以让擦洗活动变得很有意思。秘诀就是,放手、放手、再放手,派孩子们去做。Entertain the children with some history as you bake. Apparently, an Armenian monk brought gingerb to France more than a thousand years ago and it sp to Germany and then Scandinavia. The spicy b used a lot of ginger, which was believed to aid digestion. I guess they needed it, for history indicated that medieval recipes were heavy and stodgy. We can only imagine.烤姜饼的时候给孩子们讲讲姜饼的历史。一千多年前,一位亚美尼亚僧侣把姜饼的制作技艺从法国传到德国,再传到斯堪的纳维亚半岛。辛香的姜饼里面放了许多姜,人们相信姜有助于消化。我猜想,当时的人们需要吃姜来帮助消化。因为史料记载,中世纪人们的食谱口味重、油腻。至于食谱到底是怎样的,我们只能想象了。When the gingerb finally migrated to the ed Kingdom via various Teutonic ancestors, it was embraced with great enthusiasm, and there is, according to Wikipedia, even a town that uses a gingerb sign to welcome visitors.日耳曼人的祖先把姜饼的制作技艺传到了英国,受到了英国人的热烈欢迎。维基百科上说,有一个英国小镇甚至用姜饼做的标识来欢迎客人。These days, gingerb seems to hibernate in various recipe folders until the year-end festivities come around. And then you see elaborate gingerb structures in hotel lobbies, and prettily packaged ginger cookies in the bakeries.最近,姜饼悄无声息地淹没在各色的菜谱中,像是在冬眠。直到年末的时候,这种有节日气息的甜品才会露面:酒店大堂里是制作精致的姜饼,面包店里是打包精美的姜饼。It seems a rather bewildering choice, since the gingerb house always triggers memories of the horrific tale of Hansel and Gretel, who were lured into a witch#39;s den precisely because it was a gingerb cottage decorated with candies. The thought-association boggles the mind.姜饼屋总使人想起童话故事《汉塞尔和格丽塔尔》(Hansel and Gretel)中的恐怖情节,弟俩就是因为看到了装饰糖果的姜饼小屋而被引诱到了女巫的小屋。要不要吃姜饼屋成了一个令人困惑的抉择,故事中和姜饼屋相关的情结萦绕在脑海里,挥之不去。Better to use gingerb as Christmas tree decorations. The gingerb smells delicious, and when it is warmed by the Christmas lights, it#39;s natural aromatherapy. Choose a theme for your tree and decide if you want stars, flowers, snowflakes or even bones.最好还是用姜饼来装饰圣诞树吧。圣诞灯通电后,被灯光照得暖暖的姜饼闻起来很美味。选择一个主题来装饰圣诞树,看看你想要什么形状的姜饼,是星星的、花朵的、雪花的还是骨头的。Just get the appropriate cookie cutters from specialist bakery suppliers in your area, or as I do, from the online shops.你可以从居住区里专门卖西饼店用具的商店里买点合适的饼干模具,或者,你也可以像我一样在网上购买。I always have a few gingerb bones decorated for my French bulldogs every year, too. It#39;s their treat, but I don#39;t hang it on the Christmas tree because they are very weak-willed puppies.我每年也会给我的法国斗牛犬做点骨头形状的姜饼。骨头形状的姜饼是慰劳的,我不会把它挂在圣诞树上,因为我的们意志力薄弱。And of course, there must always be a generous batch of gingerb boys and girls to distribute with care packages during Christmas.当然,圣诞节期间必须做一批装有小男孩和小女孩形状的姜饼爱心包裹来分发。Recipe: Gingerb cookies菜谱:姜饼Ingredients (makes plenty):配料(若干):Dry ingredients:干货食材:2 cups all-purpose flour2杯通用面粉1 cup whole wheat flour1杯全麦面粉1/2 tsp salt1/2茶匙盐1 tsp baking soda1茶匙小苏打粉1 tbsp ground ginger1汤匙生姜粉1 tsp fresh grated ginger1茶匙新鲜的生姜末1 tsp 5-spice powder1茶匙五香粉120 g butter, room temperature120克黄油,室温软化100 g soft brown sugar100克棕色绵糖1 large egg; 160 ml dark honey1大枚鸡蛋;160毫升深色蜂蜜Icing:糖霜:Lemon juice; Icing sugar; Silver or gold dragees柠檬汁;糖粉;银色或者金色的糖果Food coloring食物上色Method:方法:1. Sift dry ingredients together.1.把干货食料过筛后混合在一起。2. Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add the egg and honey and beat until well combined. Gradually beat in dry ingredients.2.把黄油和糖混在一起搅拌至松软起沫。加入鸡蛋和蜂蜜一起搅拌,直到混合均匀。然后,慢慢把干货食料加进去。3. Divide dough into two batches. Wrap in plastic and chill. (Cold dough is easier to work with.)3.把面团分成2部分。用塑料包好冷却。(凉面团更适合做姜饼。)4. Preheat oven to 175 C. Line baking sheets.4.把烤箱预热到175摄氏度,把烤盘摆好。5. Roll out dough between two large sheets of parchment paper. The dough becomes tacky quickly if you roll on it directly.5.在2大张烤盘纸上铺好面团,如果你直接在烤盘纸上铺开,面团很快就会变黏。6. Shape cookies and transfer to lined baking sheets.6.把在模具中成型的饼干排放在烤盘上。7. If you are using the gingerb as decor for the Christmas tree, you need to make a little hole in the cookies so you can hang them up. I find the best way is to use a drinking straw to poke a hole at the top of the cooking. It#39;s neat and quick.7.如果你要用姜饼装饰圣诞树,你需要在饼干上穿一个小洞,这样一来就可以往圣诞树上挂了。最好的办法就是,在用吸管在面饼顶部上戳一个小洞。这样做干脆利落。8. Bake cookies for about 12 to 15 minutes, depending on how large or small you have cut them. Watch the first batch to better estimate your timing. Cool cookies completely before icing.8.饼干大约烘烤12到15分钟,烘烤的具体时间根据饼干块的大小来把握。注意烘烤的第一批饼干,这能够帮助你估计烘烤的时间。给饼干上糖霜前要使饼干完全冷却。To make icing:上糖霜:1. Sift icing sugar into bowl and add just enough lemon juice to form a spable icing.1.把过筛的糖粉放入碗里,加入足量的柠檬汁,以便形成一层容易涂开的糖霜。Add less rather than more juice and adjust the consistency till you get it right.加入少量柠檬汁,调整稠度,直到你感觉刚刚好为止。2. To color the icing, use a toothpick to add drops of color to the icing. I know it#39;s Christmas, but please use less rather than more color, or it will all look like an Austin Powers Shagadelic party gone wrong.2.用牙签给糖霜滴上颜色。我知道这是圣诞节,但是请少用点颜色。否则,它看起来就会像影片《王牌大贱碟》(Austin Powers)里性感派对上的混乱状况了。3. Ice the gingerb cookies and decorate as you will.3.给姜饼上糖霜,想画什么装饰都行。 /201402/274816Snow was comingdown outside Charlie Bird, the wine-centric bistro in SoHo that#39;s become a tribal hub for New York City#39;s oenophiles. On this particular night, though, the place was crawling with winemakers from California.在Charlie Bird酒吧的外面,天空正飘着雪花。这家位于纽约SoHo区、以葡萄酒为主的酒吧已经成为了纽约葡萄酒爱好者们的聚集地。不过在这个特别的夜晚,这里挤满了来自加州的酿酒师。Seated at a table beside the window, former New Yorker Jamie Kutch and his wife, Kristen Green, who now run Kutch Wines on the Sonoma Coast, complimented Rajat Parr, the influential San Francisco sommelier-turned-winemaker, on his pink cashmere sweater and offered him a glass of 1978 La Pousse d#39;Or Clos l#39;Audignac Volnay. Hirsch Vineyards#39; Jasmine Hirsch, who had been wearing a torn and faded flannel shirt when I last saw her at her family vineyard, was dressed in a little black dress and kissing cheeks, including those of Ehren Jordan of Failla Wines in St. Helena, Calif. and Wells Guthrie of Copain Wines in Healdsburg, Calif.曾住在纽约的杰米#12539;库奇(Jamie Kutch)和妻子克里丝滕#12539;格林(Kristen Green)坐在靠窗的一张桌子旁,他们目前在索诺玛海岸(Sonoma Coast)经营库奇葡萄酒庄(Kutch Wines)。从侍酒师转行做酿酒师、在旧金山颇具影响力的拉雅#12539;帕尔(Rajat Parr)穿了件粉色羊绒衫。库奇夫妇对这件羊绒衫表示了称赞,并递给了他一杯1978年的La Pousse d#39;Or Clos l#39;Audignac Volnay。赫希葡萄园(Hirsch Vineyards)的贾丝明#12539;赫希(Jasmine Hirsch)穿着一条小黑裙,在跟人们亲吻脸颊打招呼,包括加州 海伦娜(St. Helena)Failla Wines酒庄的埃伦#12539;乔丹(Ehren Jordan)和加州希尔兹堡(Healdsburg) Copain Wines酒庄的韦尔斯#12539;格思里(Wells Guthrie)。上次我在赫希的家族葡萄园里见到她时,她穿的是一件破破烂烂而且已经褪色的法兰绒衬衫。The Californians, members of a group called In Pursuit of Balance (I.P.O.B.), founded in 2008 by Mr. Parr and Ms. Hirsch, were converging on New York to share with the city a new style of California wine. The following day, they would hold one of their buzzy, increasingly influential tastings at an event space in TriBeCa.这群加州的酿酒师聚集在纽约和人们分享令人耳目一新的加州葡萄酒。第二天,他们将会在翠贝卡区(TriBeCa)的一处活动场地举办一场品酒会。这些人都是一个名叫In Pursuit of Balance(I.P.O.B.,意为“追求平衡”)的组织的成员,该组织由帕尔和赫希建于2011年。他们举办的品酒会都很热闹,而且越来越有影响力。Ms. Hirsch and company are seeking to dismantle the stereotype of California wines as fruity, oaky and high in alcohol. The group was founded, in Ms. Hirsch#39;s words, #39;to support wineries who are striving to produce elegant, site-specific Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.#39; These are the signature grapes of Burgundy, and I.P.O.B. takes much of its inspiration from that region of France, which is dominated by independent growers who make some of the most sought-after wines on the planet.赫希及其公司正致力于打破加州葡萄酒果味浓、橡木味浓和酒精度高的刻板形象。用赫希的话说,这个组织的建立是“为了持致力于生产优雅的、特定产区黑皮诺(Pinot Noir)和霞多丽(Chardonnay)的酿酒厂”。这两种葡萄是法国勃艮第(Burgundy)的标志性品种,I.P.O.B.也从勃艮第获得了很多灵感,这个地区以独立的葡萄种植者为主,全球最受追捧的一些葡萄酒就是由他们生产的。These Californians are making wines for people who wouldn#39;t be caught dead drinking California wines, winning over tastemakers like the young Manhattan and Brooklyn sommeliers who would flock to their tasting the day after the snowstorm.这些加州酿酒师为那些不会喝加州葡萄酒喝得烂醉如泥的人生产葡萄酒,他们争取到了像年轻的曼哈顿和布鲁克林侍酒师这样的时尚引领者。这些侍酒师在暴风雪过后的那天都蜂拥而至参加了他们的品酒会。The impression that the cool kids had formed a wine club was reinforced when, around 1 a.m., the group at Charlie Bird moved on to Pearl amp; Ash, downtown New York#39;s other hip wine mecca, where they were greeted by managing partner and wine director Patrick Cappiello, wearing a black Misfits T-shirt. The winemakers downed multiple bottles of Savart, the cult grower Champagne of the moment. Sometimes, it seems, in pursuit of balance you have to get a little wobbly.到凌晨一点左右,Charlie Bird的这群人转移到了纽约市中心另外一个时尚葡萄酒 地Pearl amp; Ash餐厅,让人更加觉得这些酷酷的年轻人是成立了一个葡萄酒俱乐部。身穿黑色Misfits T恤的Pearl amp; Ash管理合伙人及葡萄酒总监帕特里克#12539;卡皮耶洛(Patrick Cappiello)迎接了他们。酿酒师们喝下了好几瓶Savart,这是一款当下受到热捧的独立酒庄香槟酒。有时,为了追求平衡,似乎需要让自己稍微有点摇晃。The idea for the group was cooked up in 2011 at RN74, the San Francisco restaurant where Mr. Parr, who was born in India and trained at the Culinary Institute of America, served as sommelier and mentor to a generation of young sommeliers. After several years at J.P. Morgan in New York, Ms. Hirsch had recently moved back to the West Coast to join the family business. Her father, David, owns one of the most celebrated vineyards on California#39;s Sonoma Coast, and was starting to produce his own wine. Ms. Hirsch had first met Mr. Parr when her father brought her as a young woman to New York for the celebration of the wines of Burgundy, known as La Paulee. She sought him out again when she moved West in 2008, and a romance developed. #39;Why don#39;t we have wines like this in California?#39; she asked him one night over a glass of Burgundy at RN74. #39;We do,#39; he said. He introduced her to some of the California Pinots that he believed shared a Burgundian aesthetic, like Littorai and Au Bon Climat. Mr. Parr had just started making wine in Santa Barbara county (his brands are called Sandhi and Domaine de la Cote), and the pair decided to stage a tasting of their favorite California Pinots as a learning experience for a small group.成立这个组织的想法是2011年在旧金山餐厅RN74形成的。帕尔当时在这家餐厅担任侍酒师,并且带着几个年轻的侍酒师。帕尔出生于印度,在美国烹饪学院(Culinary Institute of America)接受过培训。赫希在纽约根大通(J.P. Morgan)工作过几年,后来搬回了西海岸,加入了家族企业。他的父亲戴维(David)拥有加州索诺玛海岸上最知名的一座葡萄园,并且刚开始生产自己的葡萄酒。赫希第一次见到帕尔是在少女时代她跟父亲去纽约参加的一次La Paulee勃艮第葡萄酒庆祝会上。2008年她搬到西部时又找到了他,接着两人萌生了一段恋情。一天晚上在RN74时,她喝着一杯勃艮第酒问帕尔:“为什么我们在加州没有这样的葡萄酒?”帕尔说:“我们有的。”他给赫希介绍了Littorai和Au Bon Climat等几种他觉得有着勃艮第风味的加州黑皮诺。当时帕尔刚开始在 巴巴拉县酿酒(他的品牌名为Sandhi和Domaine de la Cote),二人决定给他们最喜欢的加州黑皮诺组织一次小范围的品酒会,让大家品鉴学习。#39;I wrote down a list of 10 or 12 I liked on the back of a cocktail napkin,#39; Mr. Parr told me as we shared a 1996 Dujac Gevrey Combottes at Charlie Bird. #39;The plan was to invite some friends, some somms, some people in the trade. It was packed. The next day there were lots of articles about the tasting and a lot of the discussion became heated. There was a feeling that I was creating division. I got hate mail.#39;在Charlie Bird分享一瓶1996年的Dujac Gevrey Combottes时,帕尔告诉我:“当时我在一张餐巾纸的背面写下了10种还是12种我喜欢的酒。计划是邀请一些朋友、一些侍酒师,还有一些业内人士。品酒会上来了很多人。第二天有很多关于品酒会的报道,很多讨论都成了热门话题。有一种我在制造分裂的感觉。我收到了恐吓信。”Boys and girls, please. How had a Pinot Noir tasting gotten so nasty? And how could the group that emerged with such a sensible sounding name generate such controversy? Balance seems like a fairly reasonable goal. And Mr. Parr is a courtly and gentle fellow. Part of the problem had to do with his long-standing advocacy, at RN74, of a certain style of wine: He refused to stock Pinots or Chardonnays that clocked in at more than 14% alcohol, a relatively low threshold in sunny California.拜托!好好的黑皮诺品酒会怎么落得这样的下场?名字这么理性而且好听的组织怎么会引发如此多的争议?平衡似乎是一个比较合理的目标。帕尔是一个温文尔雅、有绅士风度的家伙。问题部分和他在RN74长期推介特定类型的葡萄酒有关:他拒绝储存酒精度超过14%的黑皮诺或霞多丽,这样的酒精浓度在阳光明媚的加州是一个相对较低的标准。Many Golden State winemakers were outraged at his curating tactics, as were certain critics who championed big, ripe, powerful wines. #39;I think Raj is an unintentional lightning rod,#39; said Renee Bourassa, a sommelier who trained with him before moving to New York. Ms. Bourassa, who recently worked at the restaurant Chef#39;s Table at Brooklyn Fare, added, #39;He doesn#39;t criticize others but he has very particular taste.#39;很多加州酿酒师都对他的选酒策略不满,拥护大品牌、成熟、有影响力葡萄酒的一些酒评人也是如此。曾和他一起接受培训的侍酒师勒妮#12539;布拉萨(Renee Bourassa)说:“我觉得拉雅无意中成了一枚招来批评‘雷电’的避雷针。”布拉萨最近在纽约Brooklyn Fare的餐厅Chef#39;s Table工作。她接着说道:“他并不批评别人,但是有非常独特的品味。”What Mr. Parr likes, in his own words, are #39;freshness, vibrancy, acidity and crunchiness.#39; (That last word, I think, is best understood as the opposite of #39;syrupy.#39;) What he doesn#39;t go for so much is what wine writer Jon Bonne, in his excellent new book #39;The New California Wine,#39; calls #39;Big Flavor#39; (i.e., super-ripe, jammy, alcoholic wines). Especially when it comes to Pinot Noir, which, in its Burgundian incarnation, tends to be more savory than sweet.用帕尔自己的话说,他喜欢的是“新鲜、活力、酸度和脆爽度”。(我觉得最后一个词最好的理解是“粘稠”的反义词。)他不大喜欢的是葡萄酒作家乔恩#12539;邦内(Jon Bonne)在其精的新书《新加州葡萄酒》(The New California Wine)中所称的“大味道”(Big Flavor),也就是极其成熟、果酱味、酒精度较浓的葡萄酒。特别是黑皮诺,产自勃艮第的黑皮诺往往辛辣多过甜味。Mr. Parr insists there are no technical parameters, no strict cutoffs or exclusionary rules governing admission to I.P.O.B., which currently has 33 members. In fact, some of the members do make wines that clock in above 14% alcohol. The definition of balance is an ongoing project, Mr. Parr said. Each year a five-person committee blind tastes the wines of potential members and judges them. The wines that make the cut tend to be more restrained, less fruity, brighter and more acidic than the typical Cali Pinots and Chards. (Chardonnay was added to the program in 2012.)帕尔坚称I.P.O.B.的入会管理并没有技术参数,也没有严格的标准或排除规定。目前该组织有33名成员。事实上,有些成员会酿造酒精度超过14%的葡萄酒。帕尔说,平衡的定义是一个持续不断的工程。每年都有一个由五人组成的委员会盲品欲入会成员的葡萄酒然后做出评判。入围的葡萄酒往往都比较内敛,果味没那么浓,比普通加州黑皮诺和霞多丽更透亮、更酸。(霞多丽在2012年被列为品评对象。)Most member labels are too small to devote much money to marketing. They benefit from the exposure provided by semiannual tastings in California and New York, increasingly popular with industry professionals. Perhaps equally important is the growing cachet of being admitted to the I.P.O.B., whose members, in Mr. Parr#39;s words, #39;make wines that don#39;t tend to get huge scores in the Wine Spectator or the Wine Advocate.#39;大多数会员的品牌都太小了,不值得花很多钱来做营销。他们都得益于在加州和纽约半年一次的品酒会带来的曝光,日益受到业内专业人士的欢迎。也许还有很重要的一点是被准许加入I.P.O.B.对品牌品质的明越来越有力。用帕尔的话来说,该组织的成员“酿造的酒一般并不会在《葡萄酒观察家》(The Wine Spectator)杂志或《葡萄酒倡导家》(Wine Advocate)杂志得高分”。Personally, I think the group represents some of California#39;s most exciting Pinot Noir and Chardonnay producers. But I#39;m a Burgundy nut; if your palate skews toward ripe, intense fruit flavors, you may want to shop elsewhere.我个人认为这个组织代表了加州最令人惊喜的一些黑皮诺和霞多丽生产商。但我并不是一个勃艮第迷,如果你的味觉偏向于成熟的浓郁果味,就应该去别的地方买酒。California is no longer a punch line among New York#39;s wine cognoscenti, who generally reserve their praise for earthy Burgundies and high-acidity Mosel Rieslings.加州不再是纽约葡萄酒行家们的谈资,他们一般都会把溢美之词留给带泥土芳香的勃艮第酒和酸度较高的莫塞雷司令(Mosel Rieslings)。The day after the Pearl amp; Ash festivities, some of the city#39;s top somms, including Raj Vaidya of Daniel and Paul Grieco of Hearth Restaurant, were rubbing elbows at the group#39;s tasting in TriBeCa. Tasters were trading notes, arguing favorites. Drew Family Cellars and Ceritas were getting lots of buzz, as was Steve Matthiasson#39;s 2012 Linda Vista Vineyard Chardonnay. Many more people attended the raucous afterparty that followed the tasting, at Lafayette in NoHo. Aldo Sohm of Le Bernardin, who won the Best Sommelier in the World title in 2008, hugged Ms. Hirsch with one arm while holding out a glass to John Beaver Truax of Chambers Street Wines, who filled it with a rare #39;99 Fourrier Bourgogne Blanc. Winemaker Steve Matthiasson drank multiple glasses of 1969 Dr. Deinhard Deidesheimer Riesling. Wells Guthrie, of Copain Wines, was drinking a beer from Brooklyn Brewery.Pearl amp; Ash狂欢的第二天,包括Daniel餐厅的拉杰#12539;维迪雅(Raj Vaidya)和Hearth Restaurant餐厅的保罗#12539;格列科(Paul Grieco)在内的纽约顶级侍酒师在该组织在翠贝卡区的品酒会上觥筹交错。大家相互交流意见,讨论自己最喜欢的葡萄酒。Drew Family Cellars和Ceritas的酒极受关注,还有史蒂夫#12539;马西亚森(Steve Matthiasson) 的2012年Linda Vista Vineyard霞多丽。更多的人参加了随后在NoHo的Lafayette餐厅举行的热闹派对。2008年获得世界最佳侍酒师称号、Le Bernardin餐厅的侍酒师奥尔多#12539;索姆(Aldo Sohm)一只手拥抱赫希,另一只手把杯子递给Chambers Street Wines的约翰#12539;比弗#12539;特鲁瓦克斯(John Beaver Truax),后者给他倒了一杯稀有的99年Fourrier Bourgogne Blanc。酿酒师史蒂夫#12539;马西亚森喝了好几杯1969年的Dr. Deinhard Deidesheimer Riesling。Copain Wines的韦尔斯#12539;格思里喝的是Brooklyn Brewery的啤酒。The party was still going strong when I lolloped out sometime after one, and the I.P.O.B. crowd partied on, apparently attempting to prove that excess in the pursuit of balance is no vice.我在一点钟以后出去晃悠时,派对依然很热闹。I.P.O.B.一众人等继续聚会,显然是想明,为了追求平衡,就算过量也无大碍。Oenofile: Five Cool California Moderates葡萄酒入门:五款绝妙的中低度加州葡萄酒2011 Copain Tous Ensemble Pinot Noir, 2011年的Copain Tous Ensemble Pinot Noir,售价28美元Cool climate and a cool vintage make for a delicate, savory Anderson Valley Pinot with sour cherry and star anise flavors.凉爽的气候和凉爽的年份成就了这款柔和且极具风味的Anderson Valley Pinot,带酸樱桃和八角茴香味。2012 Lioco Chardonnay,2012年的Lioco Chardonnay,售价35美元This naked (i.e., unoaked) chard from the Russian River Valley has great bone structure and plenty of curves as well. Pleasant acidity and lively pear fruit.这款来自Russian River Valley的未经橡木桶陈酿的霞多丽有很棒的骨架,同时也有很多曲线。酸度宜人,散发着轻盈的梨香。2012 Failla Pinot Noir Sonoma Coast,2012年的Failla Pinot Noir Sonoma Coast,售价35美元This bottling contains nicely balancing sweet and savory notes, with an emphasis on the latter. Intriguing sage and bay leaf notes play on top of ripe red fruit.这款酒的甜味和香味有着巧妙的均衡,其中的香味尤其突出。有着浓郁的成熟红色水果味,并散发出诱人的鼠尾草和月桂叶香气。2011 Domaine de la Cote Bloom#39;s Field Pinot Noir,2011年的Domaine de la Cote Bloom#39;s Field Pinot Noir,售价55美元Piercing red fruit with a mineral core, bright but not heavy. This Santa Rita Hills pinot is a titanium fist in a velvet glove. Lower alcohol than most: 12.5%.浓郁的红色水果味,主调是矿物香,酒体颜色明亮而不厚重。这款Santa Rita Hills的黑皮诺外柔内刚,酒精度为12.5%,低于大多数葡萄酒。2011 Hirsch Vineyards San Andreas Fault Pinot Noir,2011年的Hirsch Vineyards San Andreas Fault Pinot Noir,售价60美元This tightly coiled Pinot from one of Sonoma#39;s finest vineyards blends tart raspberry fruit with herbal grace notes. It#39;s still a baby; try to cellar this for a year or two if you can resist.这款结构紧凑的黑皮诺来自索诺玛最好的葡萄园之一,融合了酸酸的覆盆子果香和香草味。这款酒还很年轻,如果你能抵得住诱惑,不妨再存放个一两年。 /201403/280288

U.S. government data reveals that up to 44% of the U.S. workforce single -- and it may be because of work. Here are four reasons why your job might be keeping you single and what to do about it.美国政府公布的数据显示有接近44%的职场人士是单身,而单身的原因很有可能是工作。以下列举了工作可能造成单身的四点原因以及应对措施:1. ;I don#39;t have time to date.;我没时间去约会。Many people who are single say their jobs don#39;t leave them with enough time to meet Mr. or Mrs. Right. You may have made a conscious decision to make career your No. 1 priority. Or it may be that pursuing your dream job is easier than pursuing your dream partner. Whatever the reason, dedicating too much of your time and energy to your career will cause your dating life to flounder.很多单身的人都说自己的工作忙得没有足够的时间去认识真命天子(天女)。你可能下意识的将工作当成第一优先事项。也可能是因为找到梦想中的工作比找到梦中情人更容易。不管理由如何,如果你在工作中花费太多的时间和精力的话,就会使得你的约会生活毫无进展。Solution: Make dating your work. Approach your social life with the same determination and commitment you apply to your career. You wouldn#39;t expect to get ahead at work if you didn#39;t put in the time. Make an investment in your coupled future by setting dating goals, like committing a certain number of hours a week to dating.解决之道:将约会当成工作。将你在工作中的决心和果断同样应用到你的社交生活中。在工作中如果不花时间的话就无法取得进步。设立约会的目标(比如每周哪些固定的时间去约会),为未来的二人世界投资。2. ;My boss knows I#39;m single and singles me out.;上司因为知道我单身给了我很多工作任务,搞得我一直单身。Singles are often expected to work late, travel for business, and take on last minute assignments because they don#39;t have ;family commitments.; For example, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell stated last year that the choice of Janet Napolitano as Homeland Security Secretary was an excellentone because she has ;no family and no life; and could devote 19-20 hours a day to the job.上司通常会因为单身的员工没有家庭负担,而期望他们工作到更晚、出差、承担最后一分钟的任务。比如,宾夕法尼亚州的州长Ed Rendell声称,Janet Napolitano作为国家安全部长是一个非常明智的选择,因为她没有家庭生活,每天可以工作19-20小时。Solution: Value your dating commitments. If your boss asks you to work late, you don#39;t always have to say ;yes.; Saying that you aly have plans is an acceptable excuse. It#39;s great to be able to put in the hours to get ahead at work, but make sure that you#39;re not allowing work to get in the way of your other life goals.解决之道:重视约会承诺。如果上司叫你加班,你不必每次都答应。告诉上司你已经有安排了,这个是很正当的拒绝理由。在工作中投入更多的时间让自己遥遥领先固然好,但是要确保你没有让工作挡住了你实现生活目标的道路。3. ;Everyone I know is taken/married/coupled up.;我认识的每个人都名花有主/结婚了。While this may not seem to be a job-related issue, it could be. Statistics show that nearly half of all married couples met at work. So you#39;re at a disadvantage if your work doesn#39;t provide you with opportunities to meet and hang out with other singles.这点看起来和工作无关,但实际上是有关系的。数据显示差不多有一半以上的结婚夫妇是在工作上认识的。所以,如果工作让你无法认识其他单身人士,更没办法和他们约会的话,你就处于不利的地位。Solution: Create your own dating pool. Branch out and try different approaches to meeting other singles. Join a local group/club, attend a different restaurant/bar, or join 40 million Americans using online dating and social networking sites to meet available singles.解决之道:建立自己的交际圈。拓展你的交际圈,试试用不同的方法去认识其他单身人士。加入一家当地的团体或俱乐部,去不同的餐馆/酒吧,或利用在线约会或网上的社交网站去认识不错的单身人士。Going back to school can help you advance your career and give you a chance to interact with like-minded people. Use the free education-decision test to find out if going back to school is the right move for you.重回学校深造不仅可以帮助你事业取得进步,也可以让你有机会结识志同道合的人。利用免费的教育决策测试来看看你是否适合重返学校深造。Unfortunately, some jobs come with certain stereotypes that can make a prospective date run for the hills. For example, being a lawyer or therapist could make you a dating pariah because nobody#39;s idea of a good date is to argue or be psychoanalyzed!很不幸,有些刻板的工作让约会离你远远的。比如,律师或临床医学家的工作可能让你和约会无缘,因为没人会认为好的约会是辩论或被进行精神治疗。Solution: Be yourself, not your job. If you have a job with a poor career dating profile, don#39;t reinforce these prejudgments. Be aware of the stereotypes that go along with your job title and avoid discussing work-related topics until you and your date have a better understanding of each other.解决之道:做你自己,而不是你的工作。如果你本来的工作就会给别人一种不适合约会的形象,那自己就不要再增加这一负面影响了。要注意你工作职位中的那些陈腔滥调,直到你和约会对象有更好的了解之前不要谈和工作相关的事情。 /201403/281245




  Google Glass has been touted for its ability to help users send hands-free texts and empower everyone from physicians to cyclers. Could it also help the image of China#39;s urban pari-police, known for their strong-arm tactics with protesters and street vendors? 谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)一直被宣传为可使用户无需动手便可发送文字信息,为医生和单车一族等各类用户提供强大功能。它是否也能提升以粗暴对待抗议者和街头小贩著称的中国城管的形象呢?When Google Glass went on sale in China earlier this year --thanks to some enterprising folks on Taobao--Jiang Yifan, a chengguan in the city of Changzhou in southern Jiangsu province, was among those snapping them up. 今年早些时候谷歌眼镜在中国开卖时(这要归功于一些有魄力的淘宝卖家),江苏省常州市城管蒋佚凡就抢购了一副。The reason? He hopes it might help him avoid on-the-job incidents such as one over the weekend in Cangnan county, Zhejiang province where state media reported that protesters clashed with chengguan after an onlooker continued to photograph on-duty officers despite requests that the individual stop, prompting a crowd to form. Online, rumors that a chengguan had beaten the photographer to death further fueled anger, although the circumstances of what actually happened are unclear. 他为何要买这个产品呢?他希望谷歌眼镜能帮他避免工作中出现暴力事件。在刚过去的这个周末,浙江苍南县就发生了城管与群众的冲突事件,据官方媒体报道,此前一名过路的群众在城管人员予以阻止后仍继续对城管人员执法现场进行拍照,双方的冲突引来了围观人群。在网上,有谣言称一名城管打死了这名拍照者,尽管真实情况如何尚不清楚,但这还是进一步点燃了群众的愤怒情绪。Unverified photos purportedly taken in Cangnan and posted on social media showed hundreds of people mobbing a van in which bloodied officers had taken refuge. Five officers were surrounded, and state media reported that two sustained life-threatening wounds. 有未经实的据称是在苍南县拍摄的照片(已被发布在社交媒体上)显示,有上百人围攻一辆车,血迹斑斑的城管人员躲在车内。五名城管人员遭到围攻,据官方媒体报道,其中两人伤情危重。The events were the latest in a series of violent incidents involving chengguan, including one high-profile case last year in which a watermelon seller was killed in a brawl in Hunan province. Several officers received prison sentences in that case. 这次事件是最新一起涉及城管人员的暴力事件,在去年一起备受关注的类似事件中,湖南一名瓜农在与城管的争执中被打死,有多名城管人员因该事件被判处有期徒刑。Chengguan like Mr. Jiang are charged with keeping China#39;s streets clean and orderly. But the number of violent situations they#39;ve been involved in has prompted plenty of introspection, as well as concern by nonprofit Human Rights Watch and others about limited checks on their power. Accordingly, Chinese cities have tried a number of tactics to try to improve chengguan-resident relations--apparently including hiring attractive female chengguan. 在中国,像蒋佚凡这样的城管负责维护市容。但城管涉及暴力事件的数量已经带来了许多反思,同时也引发了非营利组织人权观察(Human Rights Watch)及其他机构对城管权力约束不够的担忧。有鉴于此,中国各城市已经尝试了一些措施,力争改善城管与居民的关系。显然,这些措施就包括聘用有吸引力的女城管。Mr. Jiang paid 13,500 yuan (,166) for the Google glasses earlier this month on Taobao. He said his own geekiness, as well as a desire for greater professionalism, played a role in his purchase. “I admire the characters in “Iron Man” and “Dragon Ball” who own the most advanced technologies,” he said in an interview with China Real Time.本月早些时候,蒋佚凡花了人民币13,500元(约合2,166美元)在淘宝(Taobao)上买了一副谷歌眼镜。蒋佚凡还说,他之所以购买谷歌眼镜,部分原因是自己有著书呆子的个性和变得更职业的渴望。他在接受中国实时报(China Real Time)采访时说,他喜欢《钢铁侠》(Iron Man)和《七龙珠》(Dragon Ball)里拥有最先进科技的角色。In a Monday editorial, the state-run Global Times urged the government to address the frequency of chengguan conflicts. The paper cited poor training as an underlying cause for many incidents. #39;Most chengguan are as grassroots as other ordinary people...They take the heaviest burden of urban management, but they are treated with prejudice and bias,#39; the paper said. 《环球时报》英文版(Global Times)周一在一篇社论中敦促政府处理城市管理纠纷频发的问题。该报认为缺乏职业训练是许多事故背后的原因。该报写道,多数城管都是与其他普通人一样的“草根”,他们承受了城市管理中最重的负担,但对待他们的却是歧视和偏见。Mr. Jiang#39;s bosses hope their plucky comrade#39;s choice of tech accessory might help forestall such events in the future. #39;It can help prevent some city residents from making unfounded accusations,#39; the Changzhou chengguan department wrote on its verified Weibo account on Monday. #39;Law enforcement needs to be open and transparent.#39; 领导们希望蒋佚凡对数码设备的大胆选择能有助于在未来避免这类事件。常州市城市周一说,这有助于避免一些市民做出毫无根据的指控。常州市城市还说,执法需要公开和透明。 /201404/290498

  A woman has documented her incredible 88lb weight loss with a series of photos showing just how dramatically her body - and self-confidence - has changed.一名女子用一系列照片记录下了自己不可思议的减肥经历:一年内她瘦了88磅(约为79.8斤)!这些照片表现出了她是如何戏剧般地改变了她的身材,并重建自信。26-year-old Amanda, who did not reveal her last name, embarked on a high-fat, moderate protein and low-carbohydrate diet in 2011 in a bid to shrink her then-222lb frame.26岁的阿曼达(未透露姓氏)在2011年开始了高脂、适量蛋白以及低碳水化合物的饮食,希望能减掉一些体重,当时她重达222磅(约为201斤)。In just a year, the five-foot-four brunette lost 88lbs, taking monthly pictures throughout the process, which one of her impressed viewers compiled into a five-second GIF.仅仅一年后,这个身高5.4英尺(约为1.64米)留着深褐色头发的姑娘减掉了88磅,并在整个减肥过程中每个月都拍下了照片。一位被她感染的网友将这些照片制作成了一张5秒的GIF动图。Amanda told A News that the transformation took place in her mind as well as her body. The GIF clearly shows how the weight loss affected every inch of her body, from her shrunken waist to her thinned-out neck and flattened tummy.阿曼达告诉A新闻,这个改变不仅发生在她的身形上,还在她的心里。GIF动图也清晰地表现出减肥是如何影响她的每一寸身体的,从更纤细的腰身到细长的脖子和更平坦的腹部。#39;In the early stages of taking progress pictures, I literally only took one photo of myself. I hated the way I looked, I had so little self-confidence .#39; she wrote.她在网上写道,“早些时候我拍摄照片,只会为自己拍一张。我讨厌自己那时的样子。我当时几乎没有自信。”But as the images - which garnered a staggering 3million views - progress in time, Amanda is seen looking happier, healthier and much more self-assured.但是当照片上呈现的效果慢慢进步后,阿曼达看起来更高兴、健康也更自信了。这些照片的浏览量达到了惊人的300万。 /201309/256996A preschooler asked his mother, ;Mom, tomorrow our teacher is going to ask who my father is. What should I say?;有一个上幼稚园的小孩问他妈妈:“妈妈,明天老师会问我们,我爸爸是谁,那我应该怎么回答呢?”The mother said, ;Just tell her that God is your father!;妈妈说:“那你就说,上帝就是你的爸爸啊!”The next day, the boy went to school, and the teacher asked him, ;Who is your father?; Scratching his scalp, the boy could not find an answer to the question.隔天他来到学校,老师问他:“你爸爸是谁?”那个小孩在那边抓头抓脚,想不出来。The teacher asked again, ;Who is your father?; The child confessed, ;I used to think that Mr. Smith was my father. But yesterday my mother told me that I am the son of another person, and I cannot remember his name!;老师再问一次:“你爸爸到底是谁?”那个小孩就说:“我本来认为我爸爸是史密斯先生,不过昨天我妈妈又说我是另外一个人的儿子, 我一下子忘记他的名字了。”

  ;Almost all other animals are clearly observed to partake in sleep, whether they are aquatic, aerial, or terrestrial,; wrote Aristotle in his work On Sleep and Sleeplessness. But do other animals dream? On that the Greek philosopher also had an opinion. In The History of Animals, he wrote: ;It would appear that not only do men dream, but horses also, and dogs, and oxen; aye, and sheep, and goats, and all viviparous quadrupeds; and dogs show their dreaming by barking in their sleep.; His research methods may lack sophistication, but Aristotle may not have been too far off the mark.亚里士多德在文章《论睡和醒》中写道:“人们清楚地观察到,几乎所有的动物都会睡觉,不论是水生、陆生还是在空中飞翔的动物。”但是动物会做梦吗?在这个问题上,这个希腊哲学家也有自己的看法。在专著《动物志》中,他写道:“看来不只人会做梦,马、、牛也都会做梦;同样,绵羊、山羊以及所有的胎生四足动物也都会做梦;并且,在睡眠中吠叫就是做梦的表现。”亚里士多德的研究方法也许不够完善成熟,但和事实或许也已经相去不远了。We certainly can#39;t ask animals if they dream, but we can at least observe the evidence that they might. There are two ways in which scientists have gone about this seemingly impossible task. One is to look at their physical behaviour during the various phases of the sleep cycle. The second is to see whether their sleeping brains work similarly to our own sleeping brains.我们当然不能直接问动物它们是否做梦,但我们至少可以观察到它们可能做梦的据。对于这个看似不可能的任务,科学家们已经尝试了两种方法。一种是观察动物在睡眠周期各个阶段中的身体行为,另一种是观测动物和人类在睡眠时的大脑状态是否相似。The story of how we worked out how to peer into the minds of sleeping animals begins in the 1960s. Back then, scattered reports began to appear in medical journals describing people acting out movements in their dreams. This was curious, because during so-called REM sleep (rapid eye movement), our muscles are usually paralysed.人们从上世纪60年代开始研究如何窥探动物睡眠时的大脑活动。那时,医学杂志上开始零星出现描述人在睡梦中“表演”动作的报告。这在当时是很新奇的,因为在所谓的REM(rapid eye movement快速眼球运动)* 睡眠中,我们的肌肉通常是处于麻痹状态的。Researchers realised that inducing a similar state in animals could allow them to probe how they dream. In 1965, French scientists Michel Jouvet and J F Delorme found that removing a part of the brainstem, called the pons, from a cat#39;s brain prevented it becoming paralysed when in REM. The researchers called the condition ;REM without atonia; or REM-A. Instead of lying still, the cats walked around and behaved aggressively.研究者们意识到,如果能引导动物产生和人类相似的状态,那么他们就可以探查动物是如何做梦的了。在1965年,法国科学家米歇尔·朱费(Michel Jouvet)和J·F·德罗尔姆(J F Delorme)发现,如果把猫脑中脑干的脑桥部分移除,就可以防止其在REM睡眠中出现麻痹状态。研究者把这种情况称作“REM肌张力缺失现象消失(REM without atonia)”或REM-A。在这种情况下,猫不会静静地躺着,反而会四处走动并表现出攻击性。This hinted they were dreaming of activities from their waking hours. And studies since have revealed similar behaviour. According to veterinary neurologist Adrian Morrison, who has written a review of this research, cats in REM-A will move their heads as if following stimuli. Some cats also show behaviour identical to predatory attacks, as if they were chasing mice in their dreams. Similar dream activity has been seen in dogs.这表明,猫正在做醒时活动的梦。自那以后的研究也都揭示了相似的行为表现。根据兽神经学家阿德里安·莫里森(Adrian Morrison)对这项研究的评述,处于REM-A状态中的猫会像有刺激物一样摇晃脑袋。一些猫还会表现出等同于捕食性攻击的行为,就像它们在梦境中追逐老鼠一样。而也表现出了相似的梦中活动。Some humans have been found to ‘act out’ their dreams too – if they suffer from a condition called REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder. ;Punching, kicking, leaping, and running from the bed during attempted dream enactment are frequent manifestations and usually correlate with the reported imagery,; according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Injuries are common among these people and those sleeping with them, the ICSD adds.一些人类也被发现有“表演”梦境的行为——如果它们患上了“REM睡眠行为障碍”。根据国际睡眠障碍分类(ICSD)描述,“这种情况的常见表现是表演出梦境中的行为,如拳打脚踢、跳跃奔跑,并且通常能与报告中描绘的画面对应。”ICSD还补充道,这些人常会自伤或伤及同床者。Physical movement is not the only way of peering into dreams, though. Researchers can now humanely peer into the electrical and chemical activities of brain cells in animals while they sleep. In 2007, MIT scientists Kenway Louise and Matthew Wilson recorded the activity of neurons in a part of the rat brain called the hippocampus, a structure known to be involved in the formation and encoding of memories. They first recorded the activity of those brain cells while the rats ran in their mazes. Then they looked at the activity of the very same neurons while they slept. Louise and Wilson discovered identical patterns of firing during running and during REM. In other words, it was as if the rats were running the maze in their minds while they were snoozing. The results were so clear that the researchers could infer the rats#39; precise location within their mental dream mazes and map them to actual spots within the actual maze.然而,身体行为并不是窥探梦境的唯一方法。现在,研究者们可以在不伤害动物的情况下探查其睡眠时脑细胞内的电流和化学活动。2007年,麻省理工大学的科学家肯威·路易斯(Kenway Louise)和马修·威尔森(Matthew Wilson)记录下了老鼠脑内“海马体”部位的神经细胞活动,而“海马体”是与记忆的形成转换有关的结构。当老鼠在迷宫里奔跑时,他们第一次记录下了它们脑细胞内的活动。之后在老鼠睡眠时,他们又观察相同神经细胞的活动。路易斯和威尔森发现,在奔跑和睡眠时,老鼠脑细胞内的活动模式是相同的。也就是说,当老鼠在酣睡时,它们脑内活动就像还在迷宫里奔跑一样。结果是如此明确,以至于研究者们可以推测出老鼠在脑内梦中迷宫里的准确位置,并且能在现实迷宫中把它们的实际位置标出来。University of Chicago biologists Amish Dave and Daniel Margoliash looked into the brains of zebra finches and discovered something similar. These birds are not born with the melodies of their songs hardwired into the brains; instead, they have to learn to sing their songs. When they#39;re awake, the neurons in part of the finches#39; forebrain called the robutus archistriatalis fire following their singing of particular notes. Researchers can determine which note was sung based on the firing patterns of those neurons. By piecing together the electrical patterns in those neurons over time, Dave and Margoliash can reconstruct the entire song from start to finish.芝加哥大学的生物学家阿米什·戴夫(Amish Dave)和丹尼尔·马格赖许(Daniel Margoliash)观察了斑胸草雀的大脑,并有了类似的发现。这些鸟并不是天生脑子里就有歌曲的旋律,相反,它们要通过学习才能唱歌。当斑胸草雀醒着的时候,在它们唱到某些特定音符时,其前脑中古纹状体粗核部位的神经细胞就会开始活动。研究者们基于这些神经细胞的活动模式就可以判定斑胸草雀唱到了哪个音符。通过把这些神经细胞中的电流模式拼合,戴夫和马格赖许就能把整首歌从头到尾地重现了。Later, when the birds were asleep, Dave and Margoliash looked again at the electrical activity in that part of their brains. The firing of those neurons wasn#39;t entirely random. Instead, the neurons fired in order, as if the bird was audibly singing the song, note for note. It might be said that the zebra finches were practising their songs while they slumbered.随后,在这些鸟睡眠时,戴夫和马格赖许再一次观察其脑内相同部位的电流活动。这些神经细胞的活动并不是完全随机的。相反,这些神经细胞在有秩序地活动,就像这些鸟把歌曲一个音符一个音符地唱出声来一样。这可能说明,斑胸草雀在睡眠中也在练习唱歌。Does the behaviour of cats in science experiments actually qualify as dreaming? Do rats have any subjective awareness that they#39;re running their mazes in their minds while they nap? Do the songbirds realise that they#39;re singing in their sleep? These questions are as hard to answer as the question of consciousness. It#39;s tricky. We humans do not usually realise we#39;re dreaming while we#39;re dreaming, but it becomes clear as soon as we wake up. Do zebra finches remember their dreams as dreams when they#39;re shaken out of their sleep? Can they distinguish the real world from the one in their dreams? We can say with a reasonable amount of certainty that the physiological and behavioural features of dreaming in humans have now been observed in cats, rats, birds, and other animals. Yet what it’s actually like to experience a dream if you’re not human remains a mystery.科学实验中猫的行为表现是否可看作是真正在做梦呢?对于睡眠时脑内在迷宫中奔跑的状态,老鼠自身有客观意识吗?这些唱歌的鸟又是否意识到自己在睡眠中唱歌呢?这些问题和与意识相关的问题一样难以回答。这很棘手。我们人类在做梦时通常都不能意识到自己是在做梦,但是在醒来后就能马上清楚地意识到这件事。那么,斑胸草雀从梦中醒来后是否记得自己的梦呢?它们能把现实世界和梦境区分开吗?我们可以非常确定地说,如今在猫、鼠、鸟等动物中都能观察到与人类相同的做梦时的身体行为特征。然而,非人类在做梦时是怎样的感觉,这依然是个谜。 /201404/292970

  Son: Dad, give me a dime.Father: Son, don#39;t you think you#39;re getting too big to be forever begging for dimes?Son: I guess you#39;re right, Dad. Give me a dollar, will you?儿子:爸爸,给我一角钱。父亲:儿子,你不认为你已经长大了,不该再老是一角一角地要钱了,不是吗?儿子:爸爸,我想你是对的,那给我一块钱行吗?。

  If you’re trying to commit a set of items to memory, you may want to give your brain a bit of caffeine. But how you time it matters, finds a new study out today in Nature Neuroscience. The researchers found that giving people caffeine after they memorized a series of pictures significantly boosted their ability to remember the subtler details, compared to people who’d been given dummy pills. Before you down a six-shot Americano, though, be aware that there’s a sweet spot: A 200-milligram dose of caffeine – about the amount in a large cup of coffee – was the only one to do the trick.如果你想记住什么事情,你或许该给自己的大脑一些咖啡因。但是你在何时给它咖啡因相当重要,这是《自然神经科学》(Nature Neuroscience)在1月13日发布的一份新研究报告中所发现的。研究者们发现,在人们记住一系列图片之后给予他们咖啡因(相较于给予安慰剂的对比组),能够极大地提高记住更细微细节的能力。不过,在你狂灌六杯美式咖啡之前,请先记住最有效剂量是:200毫克的咖啡因——大概是一大杯咖啡中的咖啡因含量——才能起到这个效果。The researchers had participants – who were not regular caffeine consumers – try to memorize a series of pictures. Afterwards, they were given a caffeine pill or a placebo (dummy) pill. Twenty-four hours later, when the caffeine was fully out of their systems, they were asked to determine which pictures in a new set had also been shown the day before. The tricky part was that some of the new items were similar but not identical to the old ones, meaning that the participants had to recall the initial items in some amount of detail.研究者们让不经常摄入咖啡因的受试者尝试记住一系列图片。然后给予他们咖啡因药丸或安慰剂。24小时之后,咖啡因完全排出体外,这些受试者被要求在一套新的图片中挑出哪些图片在前一天出现过。这里容易出错的地方在于,有些图片只是和之前的图片相类似,但并不完全一样,这意味着受试者必须要回忆起原来那些图片上的某些细节。It turned out that people in the caffeine group were much better than their non-caffeinated counterparts at recognizing the new items that were similar but not the same as old ones. And this is cool because it suggests that caffeine may influence how the brain consolidates memories.结果明,在辨识和旧有图片类似却又不尽相同的图片方面,咖啡因组的表现比对照组的表现要好得多。这个结果很酷,因为它表明,咖啡因能影响大脑巩固记忆的方式。“We’ve always known that caffeine has cognitive-enhancing effects, ” said study author Michael Yassa, “but its particular effects on strengthening memories and making them resistant to forgetting has never been examined in detail in humans. We report for the first time a specific effect of caffeine on reducing forgetting over 24 hours.”“我们一直都知道,咖啡因有提高认知力的效果,”该研究报告的作者迈克尔·亚萨(Michael Yassa)说,“但其对加强、防止遗忘的特定效果却从未在人类身上加以详细地验过。我们是首次对24小时内咖啡因对减少遗忘所产生的特定效果进行汇报。”A key aspect was the caffeine was administered after the memory task, rather than before it, which ensures that other caffeine-related factors, like attention, anxiety or energy are not what’s driving the phenomenon.重要的一点是,咖啡因是在任务之后给予的,而不是之前,这确保了其他和咖啡因相关的因素,如注意力、焦虑或能量等,并不是造成这种现象的原因。Yassa added that what’s really interesting is that the study focuses on a more detailed form of memory. “If we used a standard recognition memory task without these tricky similar items, we would have found no effect of caffeine, ” he said. “However, using these items requires the brain to make a more difficult discrimination — what we call pattern separation, which seems to be the process that is enhanced by caffeine in our case.”亚萨补充表示,真正有趣的是,这项研究专注于的一个更为细枝末节的形式。“如果我们采用一种标准辨识任务,没有这些个容易混淆的相似点,我们可能发现的结果是,咖啡因没有效果,”他说,“而采用这些相似图片之后,就要求大脑做出更困难的辨识——这就是我们所称之为的‘模式分辨’,在我们的研究中,咖啡因似乎就是加强了这一过程。”Now the and his team just have to unravel why the caffeine effect occurs at all, and which brain mechanisms are responsible. “We can use brain-imaging techniques to address these questions, ” said Yassa. “We also know that caffeine is associated with healthy longevity and may have some protective effects from cognitive decline like Alzheimer’s disease. These are certainly important questions for the future.”现在,亚萨和他的团队只需阐述为什么会产生这种咖啡因效果,以及哪部分大脑机制对其负责的问题。“我们可以使用大脑成像技术来解决这些问题,”亚萨说,“我们还知道,咖啡因和长寿联系在一起,也可能对老年痴呆症等认知力衰退疾病具有防护作用。这些都是未来相当重要的问题。”You can do an informal caffeine experiment on yourself, but again, remember that it’s the 200 mg dose – the equivalent of about two small cups or one tall Starbucks你可以自己尝试一下非正式的咖啡因实验,不过请记住,剂量是200毫克——相当于两小杯咖啡或是一杯星巴克中杯咖啡——这一剂量的效果似乎是最大的。更大的剂量很有可能阻碍学习能力,因为会带来各种副作用(很难知道你到底是处于不安还是焦虑状态)。这项研究无疑是激动人心的,因为它指出了适量咖啡因有助于大脑健康的另一个方面——不仅仅是长期的,更是日常的。 /201402/275700

  In the wake of an Ebola outbreak in West Africa that has resulted in nearly 900 deaths, a tiny pharmaceutical maker has allowed an experimental treatment to be used for two Americans infected with the deadly virus.西非地区爆发的埃拉病毒已经导致近900人死亡,现在,一家小型制药公司研制出了一款试验性药物,该药物已经用于治疗两名被感染的美国人。California-based Mapp Biopharmaceutical has released its experimental ZMapp drug, which had only been tested on infected animals, to treat Kent Brantly and Nancy Writebol, according to Bloomberg News. The two health workers were infected while working in Liberia. The treatments for now appear to be working, Bloomberg said, citing relatives and supporters.据彭社报道,总部位于加利福尼亚州的Mapp生物制药公司最近推出了一款名叫ZMapp的试验性药物,该药之前只在感染了埃拉病毒的动物身上测试过,现在正用于治疗肯特o布兰特利和南茜o莱特尔,这两位医务人员在利比里亚工作期间感染了埃拉病毒。据彭社(Bloomberg News)从病人家属和看护人员那里了解到的情况看,目前这种药物已经起效了。Here are five things to know about Mapp and its efforts to develop a potential treatment for the Ebola virus.关于Mapp生物制药公司,以及它推出的这款抗埃拉病毒药物,有五点值得我们了解。1) The Ebola virus has no cure. The disease is a severe illness in humans, with a fatality rate of up to 90%. Outbreaks often occur in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rain forests, according to the World Health Organization. It is introduced into the human population through close contact with blood or other bodily fluids of infected animals, WHO says.(1)埃拉病毒目前无法治愈。该病毒会导致人体的严重疾病,致死率高达90%。据世界健康组织介绍,该病毒通常在中非和西非的边远农村地爆发。它一般是通过与被感染动物的血液或其它体液的密切接触而传播到人体的。2) Mapp, which was founded in 2003, has no commercially available treatments on the market. The company focuses on “unmet needs in global health and biodefense,” and currently has 10 antibody product development programs, with one of those focusing on the Ebola virus.(2)Mapp生物制药公司创立于2003年,目前市场上尚无该公司生产的药品出售。该公司主要关注“全球健康和生化防御领域尚未满足的需求”,现有10个抗体产品开发项目,其中之一就是针对埃拉病毒。3) Mapp and a few other biopharmaceutical companies earlier this year were awarded a five-year grant of up to million for a project to fight the Ebola virus. The grant, awarded by the National Institutes of Health, is meant to be a global collaboration to develop cocktails to fight Ebola and other hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Marburg, Sudan and Lassa viruses. The program is meant to encourage all participates to contribute antibodies to develop the best possible treatment.(3)今年年初,Mapp等几家生物制药公司获得了一笔五年期最高2800万美元的奖金,用于一个抗击埃拉病毒的项目。这笔奖金是由美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)提供的,旨在通过全球合作开发出抗击埃拉病毒和青猴病、苏丹亚型埃拉病毒、拉沙病毒等出血热病毒的鸡尾酒疗法。这笔奖金意在激励所有参与方贡献抗体,以开发最佳治疗方案。4) That grant was awarded after research from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases showed that a mix of antibodies can stop the Ebola virus. Scientists were able to successfully treat infected primates following the onset of disease symptoms. Around that time, Mapp had consolidated its antibody programs with Canada-based Defyrus, aiming to streamline the development of more potent treatments.(4)就在这笔奖金发放之前,美国陆军传染病医学研究院(U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases)的研究显示,一系列抗体的组合可以阻止埃拉病毒的恶化。在试验中,科学家们已经成功地治疗了开始出现病毒症状的灵长类动物。与此同时,Mapp公司也已经和加拿大的Defyrus公司展开合作,以优化更多专利疗法的研发过程。5) The potential success of Mapp’s drug in treating Americans infected with the disease does raise questions about the limited use of experimental treatments after hundreds of Africans have died. Bloomberg reported the Food and Drug Administration can approve an emergency application to provide access to unapproved drugs, a request that can be granted within 24 hours.(5)在治疗两名美国医务人员时,Mapp公司的新药表现出良好的疗效。因此,很多人质疑说,在几百名非洲人已经死亡的情况下,为什么美国政府还要限制这款试验性药物?据彭社报道,美国食品与药品监督局(FDA)可以在24小时之内,通过一项使用未获批准药物的紧急决议。 /201408/319403

  Here’s a thing that’s quickly becoming a part of our shared reality: human beings — normal, red-blooded, humans, many of them god-fearing — have embraced a new tool of self-expression, designed to enhance our fragile planet’s favorite past-time. It’s called the “selfie stick” and people are going absolutely crazy over it.自拍是普通人最喜欢的一种消遣方式,而目前有一种提升自拍效果的新神器正迅速成为我们大家生活的一部分。它就是 “自拍杆”,人们简直为它而疯狂。You’ve probably noticed a few of these new type of photos popping up in your Instagram feed. Much like a selfie, the composition is generally of one or more people mugging for their phone’s front-facing camera, only this time these photos are different, taking on what I can only describe as a more dramatic, almost fish-eye quality. Like crossing a photo trend with a 2-liter bottle of Mountain Dew, the result adds a certain level of X-TREME? to what is, most likely, an otherwise mundane photo. In some cases, it turns an impressive picture into a stunning image.也许你在刷Instagram的时候已经看到过一些这样的新式照片。自拍照通常是一两个人挤到手机前置摄像头前摆表情扮鬼脸,这些照片也差不多,只不过它们的品质更高,几乎可以与鱼眼镜头的拍摄效果媲美。就像是给自拍开了外挂一样,一幅可能很一般的照片一下子就有了质的飞跃,而本来已不错的照片有时就成了神级照片。While the selfie stick’s origins seem to come from the extreme sports community — mostly Go-Pro users — the trend is quickly sping to the everyday, smartphone wielding populace. A quick Instagram search for #selfiestick doesn’t return sky-divers and base jumpers, but regular people uploading performance-enhanced selfies of everyday activities. In most cases, the appeal seems to be simply fitting more people into the frame.自拍杆可能来源于极限运动爱好者(大多数使用GoPro相机),然而这股风潮很快便走进了使用智能手机的大众的每日生活。在Instagram上搜索#selfiestick,你看到的不是高空跳伞的照片,而是一般人上传的更高品质的日常生活照。很多情况下,人们使用自拍杆只是想让镜头塞下更多的人。Regardless of the reason, the trend is very real, according to camera and photo retailers. “It’s sold so well we’ve had trouble keeping it in stock,” Darrick Olson, a buyer at National Camera Exchange, told BuzzFeed.照相器材零售商表示,无论什么原因,它确实火了。在美国照相设备交易所采购的德里克?奥森说,“自拍杆卖得非常好,我们的货基本不够。”Debate be damned, they are coming. You’ve been warned.不管怎么说,这可是最新流行趋势。我已经告诉你了哦。 /201407/315796

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