原标题: 上海市第六人民医院金山分院治疗痘痘多少钱
“CYBER” sounds scary. Cyber-criminals can empty your bank account; cyberterrorists are the stuff of Hollywood thrillers. Cyber-espionage involves stealing state secrets or intellectual property. You do not have to understand how computers work to be worried about the damage to you, your work or your country.“网络”听起来很恐怖。网络罪犯能掏空你的帐户;网络恐怖分子是好莱坞惊悚片的常客;网络间谍会盗取国家机密或知识产权。就算你不懂电脑的工作原理,你也得担心它对你,对你的工作以及你的国家造成的伤害。Yet businesses seeking to increase their sales, and officials and politicians who want more money and power, love tales of doom and gloom. Trade is booming for what some have dubbed the “cyber-industrial complex”. State agencies demand more power to fend off a dful attack by a foreign enemy—a kind of “digital Pearl Harbour”. Companies peddle security advice and software, often with a hefty price tag. The difficulty for the citizen and taxpayer is to decide: are people being too paranoid, or too complacent?然而,公司企业想要提高销售额,官员政客渴望增加金钱和权利,所以他们乐意听到黑暗和毁灭的故事。某些人口中所称的“网络工业综合体”销售额蒸蒸日上。国家机构需要更多的权力来抵御外来敌人的猛烈攻击,这算得上一场“数字珍珠港大战”。各公司纷纷叫卖安全建议和软件,通常要价不菲。公民和纳税人的难题在于判断:人民是太过紧张,还是太过安于现状?Two new books provide some useful perspective. “A Fierce Domain” is a collection of essays edited by Jason Healey, a former cyber-policy chief in the Obama White House. His main point is that this is not a new problem: the first big cyber-attack dates back to 1986, when a bunch of German hackers in Hanover, working for the KGB, sneaked into American military networks. Named “Cuckoos Egg”, it was caught only because a sharp-eyed official noted a tiny 75-cent billing error, revealing unauthorised use of a computer network.两本新书提供了一些有益的视角。《务域激战》是一本由奥巴马白宫前任网络政策主管杰森希雷编辑的论文集。他的主要论点在于阐述,这并不是一个新问题:第一场大型网络攻击可以追溯到1986年,当时一拨在汉诺威的德国黑客,受命于克伯格,偷潜入美国军事网络。行动代号为“杜鹃蛋”,它的败露仅仅是由于一名眼尖的官员,发现了一个区区75美分的帐目错误,因为恰恰是这个错误,暴露了曾有人未经授权使用了电脑网络。Many more attacks have followed: Moonlight Maze, Solar Sunrise, Titan Rain and Byzantine Hades. None is a household name, though from the gripping accounts in Mr Healeys book many ers will feel they all should be.更多网络攻击接踵而至:“月光迷宫”,“太阳能日出”,“泰坦雨”还有“拜占庭偃角”。没有一次是家喻户晓的行动,但是希雷的书引人入胜地娓娓道来,让众多读者感到它们应该变得家喻户晓。One especially damaging operation involved the theft of top-secret material from the most classified NATO networks. The attackers had used infected memory sticks, which were left lying around in car parks near sensitive buildings. Careless or thrifty officials picked them up, and some used them to copy material between classified computer networks and those connected to the internet. A clever bit of software then copied, encrypted, compressed and dispatched the material—probably, spooks think, to Moscow.有一次行动破坏力尤其巨大,它包含从 NATO最高密级的网络中窃取最顶级的机密材料。黑客们利用已感染病毒的记忆棒,把它们撒放在敏感大楼旁边的车库地上。一些粗心或节俭的官员就会把它们拣起来,还有一些会用它们在加密电脑网和互联网之间拷贝资料。一小块智能软件兴许就此把资料复制、加密、压缩然后传送至莫斯科,想来就令人毛骨悚然。Mr Healeys main message is to urge policymakers to be less secretive and more humble. Too many past attacks remain classified. Officials continue to burble the same warnings and assurances as they did 20 years ago; the public is left in the dark.希雷主要是想敦促政策制定者更加公开,更加谦卑。历史上太多网络攻击仍处于保密状态。而官员还是和20年前一样,空谈着同样的警告和保,公众还是被蒙在鼓里。Thomas Rid is a German-born academic, now at Kings College London. He is one of Britains leading authorities on, and sceptics about, cyber-warfare. His provocatively titled book attacks the hype and mystique about sabotage, espionage, subversion and other mischief on the internet. He agrees that these present urgent security problems. But he dislikes talk of “warfare” and the militarisation of the debate about dangers in cyberspace. Computer code can do lots of things, but it is not a weapon of war. He criticises the American air force for using a “lobbying gimmick” with talk of “cyber” as a fifth domain of warfare, after land, sea, air and space.托马斯瑞德是一名出生于德国学者,现在在伦敦的国王学院。在网络战争方面,他是伦敦首席权威之一,也是怀疑者。他的书名颇具挑衅意味,书中抨击了关于破坏、间谍、颠覆以及其他网络恶行的炒作和神秘主义论调。他同意,这些确实代表了社会安全问题。但是他反感谈到“战争”,反感军事化地辩论网络空间里的威胁。电脑编码确实作用很大,但是它不是一项战争武器。他批评美国空军,因为他们把谈及“网络”的“游说手段”作为继陆、海、空、太空之后的第五战争领域。However much the military brass may hype up the threat, states are in fact highly unlikely to use cyber-weapons against each other, Mr Rid argues. They are expensive to acquire, unreliable and fiddly. That does not mean they are useless. Malicious code, “malware”, can do shocking damage, destroying machines, starting fires, spewing pollution or jamming communications. Cleverer weapons could be more dangerous still, such as malicious code that adapts to its environment, rewriting itself to evade pursuers. They will be used, but as part of sabotage or terrorism rather than all-out war, he argues.但是,瑞德称,不论军方要员如何炒作网络威胁,各国政府实际上几乎不可能使用网络武器互相攻击。网络武器成本高,可靠性低,且因太过精细而难以操作。这并不意味着网络武器就毫无用处。恶意编码,恶意软件的破坏力惊人,它们能够摧毁机器,点燃火灾,喷出污染物,还能阻塞通信。更智能的网络武器还会更危险,比如能适应环境的恶意编码,能够通过自动重新编写来避过追踪者。他表示,这些武器自有用处,但是是用在破坏行动和恐怖行动上,而不是用在全面战争上。Both books leave the er feeling gloomy. People worry too much about the wrong things, and not enough about the real problems. Digital weapons are growing more sophisticated; the response has been self-interested, slow and crude.读完两本书,读者都会感到沮丧。人们总是在错误的事情上操碎了心,对问题的症结却不够关心。数字武器日趋复杂先进,应对之策却一直缓慢、粗糙且只是为了私利。 /201404/289947

Business商业报道Opening a business in Brazil在巴西做生意Why make it simple?何等简单Setting up shop has just got easier. But not much开店变得简单。却没有很多BRAZIL is not an easy place to start a business.巴西并不是开店的好地方。The World Bank ranks it 120th out of 183 countries—worse than Burkina Faso or Nigeria.世界将其在183个国家中列为第120位—比布基纳法索及尼日利亚还糟糕。Take one small example.试举一例,Until recently, you needed at least two partners to form a limited-liability company.至今,仍需三人才能成立一家有限责任公司。Sole traders had to find a 1% sócio—an employee, friend or family member willing to lend his name to the articles of association, or a shell company set up solely to hold a tiny share.一人投资者必须寻求一名1% 合作伙伴—雇员、朋友或家庭成员同意将他们的姓名列入公司章程或令其占有极少股份而成立的空壳公司中。Things may have just got a little easier.要求可能放宽了些。A new law, which supposedly came into effect on January 9th, allows a lone business-owner to set up an Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada:据说一部新法将于1月生效,a single-holder limited-liability firm.其中允许一人设立有限责任公司。The main requirement is capital of 62,200 reais.主要的规定是资产额为62,200雷亚尔。This is a big deal. Alas, it may not happen as planned.此举意义重大,唉,或许会事与愿违。In December the federal body that oversees state business registries told them to turn away firms trying to register Eirelis, as well as foreigners without permanent right of residence.12月监管公司注册的联邦机构回避关于试图注册一人有限责任公司,以及不具有永久居留身份的外国人所提出的申请。No reason was given.对此并未公布相关的理由。Later, lawyers were briefed that the laws aim was to let Brazilian sole traders protect their personal goods against lawsuits or bankruptcy—not to make life easier for big business or foreigners.随后,律师被简要告知律师事务所意在保护巴西个体经营者免受诉讼或破产之灾—并不是保障大公司或外国投资者。Since the restrictions have no basis in the law, challenges are inevitable. Husam Abboud of Establish Brazil, a company-formation specialist, is thinking of Brazilian-style direct action: simply trying to register an Eireli for a firm or a foreigner, and seeing what happens.由于这些限制在法律上没有渊源,因此不可避免地存在质疑。来自Establish Brazil的Husam Abboud ,是一位公司设立的专家,其指出巴西风格的直接效果:只是试图为公司或外国人注册一人有限公司,之后坐观成败。We wont be trying just once, but many times, he says cheerfully.我们并非仅尝试一次,而是多次, 他语带兴奋地称。In Brazil, it always depends whos on the desk on the day.在巴西,总是彼时处在台上的人左右决定。A few speedy locals have aly set up Eirelis.一些敏锐的本国人已开始设立Eirelis。It was quick and easy, because I didnt have to hunt for a partner, says Taise Litholdo, an architect.这样简单快捷,而无需寻找合伙人,建筑师 Taise Litholdo说道。Sebastiao Lino da Silva, an accountant in Sao Paulo, is helping a medical-research firm, which recently lost a partner, to convert into an Eireli.圣保罗的会计师Sebastiao Lino da Silva正协助一家失去合伙人的医药研发公司转为一人有限公司。The remaining owner would otherwise have to find a new partner or close.该公司目前的所有人希望寻找新的合伙人或以类似的模式延续公司。Joao Marcelo Pacheco of Pinheiro Neto Advogados, one of Brazils largest law firms, says that some wealthy clients will use Eirelis to make their lives simpler.来自巴西最大律所之一Joao Marcelo Pacheco的Pinheiro Neto Advogados称,某些重要客户打算运用Eirelis以令生意更顺遂。All this amounts to a tweak, not a revolution.所有这些构成扭转,而非改革。By January 18th only 14 Eirelis had been registered with Sao Paulos board of trade, Brazils biggest.直至1月18日仅有14家Eirelis成功在巴西最大的圣保罗商业局得以注册。The truth is Eirelis are not really suitable for most small businesses, says Mr Abboud. Few hot-dog vendors and hairdressers have enough spare cash to satisfy the capital requirement, he points out.他称事实上Eirelis并非适用所有小型企业,并指出一些卖热的商人和美发师手头上就有满足资本限额的闲钱。That is an argument for scrapping the capital requirement.放弃资本限额引起一番争论。The Socialist Peoples Party, an opposition group, has asked the Supreme Court to rule it unconstitutional for discriminating against micro-traders.反对党—巴西社会人民党已请求最高法院规范歧视微型贸易者的违宪行为。Even if foreigners are allowed to set up Eirelis, breaking into Brazil will remain tough.即使外国投资者被允许设立Eirelis,他们融入巴西仍成问题。The biggest hurdle—finding a permanent resident willing to hold power of attorney for foreign owners—will remain.最大的阻碍—寻找一位永久居留者愿意作为外国所有人的代理人—始终存在。Establish Brazil and its rivals will do this for foreign clients,及其对手将以同样方式对待其外国客户,but only until a local manager has been appointed, or an expatriate has arrived on a permanent business visa.但仅需指定一位本地管理人或一位取得永久居留的移民。The snag is that acting for a foreign firm leaves agents vulnerable to Brazils capricious tax authorities and labour courts, which tend to ignore limited liability and pursue individual owners.代理外国公司的中介因容易被巴西反复无常的税收机构及劳动法庭追查而受到牵绊,他们更倾向个人所有者而非有限责任。They want to be able to freeze someones bank account if problems arise, explains Stephen OSullivan of Mattos Filho Advogados, another big Sao Paulo law firm.发生问题时他们希望冻结某人的账户,另一家律所Mattos Filho Advogados的Stephen OSullivan称。And if theyre the only people in the country, theyll go after the local managers, or even the lawyers.若这个国家仅剩下他们,则他们将追寻本地管理人,甚至本地律师。Unsurprisingly, Mattos Filho is willing to fulfil this role only for old and valued clients.不出意外,Mattos Filho 期待在务已有的尊贵客户的同时能够为更多的公司扮演同样的角色。Eirelis may eventually make it easier to set up shop in Brazil.在巴西做生意可能因Eirelis 而变得简单。But only a little.但仅仅是一点点。 /201305/240047

Few minor injuries are as painful as the ded paper cut. Just thinking about it probably makes you cringe. However, these cuts are usually small, hardly noticeable, and rarely bleed. So what makes them so painful?很少有一些小伤能够像被纸划伤那样让人疼痛和害怕。光是想一想可能就让你不寒而栗了。然而,这种划伤通常伤口很小、很难被察觉到并且不怎么会流血。那为什么被纸划伤会这么疼呢?A paper cut is similar to a cut with a razor blade, with one major difference. A razor blade makes a smooth, clean incision in the skin, leaving behind few if any foreign particles that might cause the wound to become infected. Although it might hurt initially, the pain brought on by a small razor cut usually fades after a few minutes.被纸划伤跟被剃须刀片划伤很像,但是有一点不同。剃须刀片造成的伤口较为平整,几乎不会留下任何会导致伤口感染的异物。虽然刚被剃须刀片划伤的时候很疼,但是过几分钟疼痛感就会慢慢消退。Like a superficial cut by a razor blade, a paper cut smoothly parts the skin, but while a clean razor leaves little behind to irritate the wound, a paper cut deposits material that really stings.被纸划伤的伤口和剃须刀片造成的伤口一样,也很平整。但是干净的刀片不会留下任何物质去刺激伤口,而纸划伤口却会留下一些让人感到疼痛的物质。Paper is made of pressed wood mulch, and a variety of chemicals. When paper cuts into the skin, chemical coated fibers, as well as bacteria and tiny particles remain in the wound and stimulate pain receptors in the skin.纸是由压缩木片和多种化学物质构成的。当纸划过皮肤时,化学涂层纤维、细菌和细小颗粒物就会留在伤口里,对皮肤里的痛觉感受器产生刺激。Because the cut is usually small and shallow, the skin on either side of the wound closes quickly, trapping the fibers and other particles inside. The result is a good deal of pain, and since the closed wound doesn’t allow for much bleeding, the pain seems entirely out of proportion to a cut that you can barely detect.由于伤口通常很小且很浅,伤口会很快愈合,同时会把纤维和其他粒子留在伤口里面。所以,你才会感到十分疼痛,由于闭合的伤口几乎不会流血,所以说,即使伤口小到你几乎察觉不到,但是伤口造成的疼痛感却是要人命的! /201305/240840Science and technology科学技术Cancer and the microbiome癌症和微生物组A punch in the gut肠道里的元凶How microbes promote liver cancer in the overweight微生物如何诱发胖人的肝癌OBESITY brings problems—notably heart disease, diabetes and cancer.肥胖产生了问题―尤其是心脏病、糖尿病和癌症。It is not hard to understand its connection with heart disease and diabetes: excess fat clogs arteries and messes around with the metabolism.肥胖与心脏病、肥胖与糖尿病的联系不难理解:多余脂肪堵塞血管,使新陈代谢紊乱。Its link with cancer is less intuitive.但是肥胖与癌症的联系凭直觉就不能理解了。Shin Yoshimoto of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, in Tokyo, and his colleagues suspect this is at least partly because researchers have been looking for that link in the wrong place.位于东京的日本癌症研究基金会的Shin Yoshimoto以及他的同事怀疑,这主要是因为研究人员的研究角度错误。Most work in the field is focused on the cells of the human body.此领域的多数工作只是集中在人身细胞的研究。But researchers should, Dr Yoshimoto believes, be at least as interested in the cells of the microbiome, the collection of 100 trillion bacteria that live in the gut.Shin Yoshimoto认为,研究人员应当留心微生物组,这群生活在肠道的100万亿个细菌群。Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial.微生物组中的大多数都是有益的。It helps with digestion and enables people to extract a lot more calories from their food than would otherwise be possible.它们帮助消化,让人体从食物中分离出更多的能量。Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism.然而,近几年的研究工作认为,微生物组是造成动脉硬化或孤独症等的病因。Dr Yoshimoto and his colleagues would like to add liver cancer to that list.但是,Yoshimoto以及他的同事则认为微生物组也是肝癌的病因。Their paper making this accusation is published in this weeksNature, and it is a careful, step-by-step analysis of the matter.他们的论文指出指控,发表在本周的《自然》杂志上。本篇文章进行了仔细、逐步的分析。They start from the facts that fat animals have different gut bacteria from thin ones; that some bacteria produce inflammatory molecules as part of their metabolism; and that inflammation promotes cancer.文章开始便列举了事实,肥胖动物的肠道细菌与瘦的不同;某些细菌在新陈代谢过程中产生一种能引起炎症的分子;炎症诱发癌症。They began their experiments by feeding laboratory mice a fatty diet, to make them obese.他们通过实验小鼠进行实验,喂养高脂肪食物,让它们长胖。Such mice, they found, are no more likely to develop cancer than those fed an abstemious diet.他们发现,吃了脂肪含量高的小鼠患癌症的机率不高于饮食有度的小鼠。Obesity alone, then, does not seem to cause tumours. But it might still promote them.因此,单独肥胖一项因素不会引起肿瘤,但是仍然会诱发肿瘤。Their next experiment therefore started by giving the mice a carcinogen known to trigger tumour formation throughout the body.因此,他们下一步的实验就是喂养小鼠能在全身形成肿瘤的致癌物质。One group was then fed standard fare while another got the high-fat diet.一组实验小鼠喂养标准食物,另一组喂养高脂肪食物。After 30 weeks, just 5% of the slim group had developed tumours, not in the liver but in the lungs.30个星期后,体形瘦削的那组只有5%患有肿瘤,不是在肝脏,而是在肺部。In the obese group, every animal had developed liver cancer.体形肥胖的那组,每只小鼠都患上了肝癌。To understand how this happened, the researchers began with the tumours and worked backwards.要了解其中的原因,研究人员先从肿瘤入手,采用了反正法。First, they found that the cancerous liver cells in their mice were generally accompanied by cells that had the symptoms of old age.首先,他们发现,实验小鼠中癌化的肝脏细胞周围的细胞出现了老龄化的症状。Such cells also emit chemical signals which promote inflammation, and thus encourage tumours.这些老化细胞会释放出引发炎症的化学信号,并进一步诱发肿瘤。The researchers suspected that these cells were being made senescent by something produced by gut bacteria.研究人员怀疑,细胞出现老化是由肠道细菌产生的某些物质所致。That suspicion was confirmed when they served some of their mice a cocktail of four antibiotics, to prune the animals microbiomes.研究人员混合了四种抗生素,喂养小鼠时,减少小鼠体内的微生物群。This treatment lowered the number of senescent and cancerous cells, suggesting the microbes were indeed to blame for promoting cancer.此时,他们的怀疑得到了实。这种喂养方法减少了老化和癌化细胞的数量,表明微生物确实是诱发癌症的因素。Dr Yoshimoto and his team then started to focus on which bacteria were causing the problem.接下来,Yoshimoto和他和团队开始研究是何种微生物导致问题。First, they discovered they could get the same cancer-suppressing effect using just vancomycin, an antibiotic that kills only “Gram-positive” bacteria.首先,他们发现,用专杀“革兰氏阳性”细菌的抗生素万古霉素进行实验,也能取得相同的抑癌效果。They also observed, as prior research had suggested, that a fatty diet raised levels of a chemical called deoxycholic acid and that antibiotics lowered it.同时,他们发现,高脂肪饮食会提升化学物质脱氧胆酸的水平,万古霉素会使其降低。Previous research had demonstrated too that DCA damages DNA in a way that promotes senescence.先前的研究也发现,DCA会以一种诱发衰老的方式破坏DNA。Dr Yoshimoto showed that lowering DCA levels in mice did indeed reduce the development of liver cancer.Yoshimoto让人们看到,降低实验小鼠体内DCA的水平确实会减少诱发肝癌的机率。Certain types of gut bacteria, including strains of Clostridium, are known to burp out DCA.某些肠道细菌,包括梭状芽胞杆菌菌株,研究人员进行进一步的工作,包括研究小鼠粪便。And further detective work, including examination of the mices faeces, revealed higher levels of a strain of Clostridium called OUT-1105 in the fat mice than in the thin ones.他们研究发现,肥胖的小鼠粪便中OUT-1105这种梭状芽胞杆菌的水平要高于瘦削小鼠。This strain, Dr Yoshimoto thinks, is the most likely culprit.Yoshimoto认为,这种梭菌很有可能就是罪魁祸首。There is, then, a chain of causation leading from the gut to the liver that promotes tumours in obese mice.之后,他们又发现了一连串的因果现象,说明了肥胖小鼠体内从大肠到肝脏诱发肿瘤的成因。And the chances are good that something similar pertains in Homo sapiens.这提供了好机会,因为这个过程与人体内的过程相似,Humans are not mice, of course.虽然人不是老鼠,But the two species microbiomes often do behave in the same way.但两者的运行机制还是相似的。If cancer does end up being added to the growing list of problems which an upset microbiome can cause, that may stimulate research into ways of tweaking it to stop it causing disease.人体内的微生物组令人烦恼,因为它会导致一些问题,而且由它导致的问题还在不断增加。假如由它导致的癌症防止不了,那么这就会刺激研究对微生物组进行调整,地防止产生疾病。It will also, once again, emphasise the microbiomes role, for both good and ill, as an adjunct part of the human body在此需要再一次地强调微生物组的作用,不论好与坏,毕竟它们都是人体的附属部分 /201311/263730How does the shape of a glass affect how much you drink?水杯的形状是怎样影响喝水量的呢?Ascientist set out to examine just this, and the results are ratherastounding.一位科学家打算调查一下,调查结果相当令人惊讶。Whatever the age of the subjects, they consistently pouredmore juice into short, wide tumbler-type glasses than into tall,slender glasses.但是他们自己所感知的却刚好相反。他们认为往高细杯里倒的更多。But they perceived the opposite that they werepouring more into tall, slender glasses.不管被试者年龄如何,他们都一致地往宽的平底型杯里倒的橘汁比往高细杯里倒的多。Psychologist Jean Piaget claimed that children overestimate the volume of vertical dimensions,心理学家珍皮亚杰声称孩子们会高估垂直方向的容器容量,but that as their brains mature, they develop the capacity to more accurately compare vertical andhorizontal dimensions.但是当他们大脑成熟时他们就会具备准确区分垂直向和水平向容量的能力。The results of this study do support Piagets idea to a certain extent in that the differential betweenthe amount of juice adults poured into the two different glasses was less than the difference inwhat teenagers poured.该研究结果在某种程度上持了皮亚杰的观点—成人倒往不同杯子里相差的橘汁少于青少年倒往不同杯子里相差的橘汁。While adults poured about twenty percent more liquid into short, wide glasses, teenagers poured a whopping seventy-five percent more into short, wide glasses.成人往矮宽杯里多倒20%的橘汁时青少年却要多倒高达70%的橘汁。Adults do seem to be better atcomparing the volumes of different shapes, but they still overemphasize the volume of verticalshapes.成人看起来确实更善于区分不同形状容器的容积,但他们仍然会高估垂直容器的容量。Even experienced bartenders, though to a lesser degree than the rest of us, still pour a little bitmore into short, wide tumbler glasses than into taller, more slender glasses.即使是经验丰富的调酒师,虽然比我们普通人强,但倒往宽的平底型杯里的酒也比倒往高细杯里的多。Who cares? If what youre pouring is medicine or if youre watching your weight, you might care.谁在乎呢?如果你倒的是药或你很在意你的体重,也许你会在乎。The teenagers in this study were at a camp where they were learning about portion control anddieting in order that they might lose weight.参加此次研究的青少年是在一个营地上,在那里他们学会了节食减肥。And yep the kids with the short, wide juice glasseswere consuming significantly more calories than they realized.而且拿着矮宽橘汁杯的孩子消耗的热量比他们意识到的多。 201406/303773

The view is breathtaking.视野令人为之震撼。But this is only a small part of the once mighty kingdom of Guge.但这只是曾经强大的古格王国的一小部分而已。At its height.it was the twice size of Great Britain.在其鼎盛时期。它是英国的两倍。Experts believe that somewhere here lies the answer to one of the most intriguing archeological enigmas in Asia.专家认为,这里的某个地方藏着亚洲最有趣考古谜的。Who exactly built this extraordinary structure.谁建造了这座非凡的建筑。And what could possible led to the downfall of this civilization.又是什么可能导致这个文明的衰落。201312/270631At first, the Europeans relied heavily on local food supply by native people. But as they settled in, their farming practices began to shape the landscape of North America.期初,欧洲人十分依赖当地居民提供的本土食物。但是随着他们逐渐融入美洲大陆,他们的农业活动也开始改变着北美大陆的面貌。The plow allowed them to farm larger areas of land, helping to feed the expanding population. 使用犁,他们可以耕作大面积的土地,这样就能喂养迅速膨胀的人口。While this new type of agriculture robbed many animals of their habitat, others were to reap the benefits. 然而这样一种新型农业掠夺了很多动物的栖息地,而也有些动物成为这种农业的受益者。Birds such as grackles, cowbirds and red-winged blackbirds exploded in numbers, feeding off the waste remains of farming. These pest birds were aly common around small native farms in the east. Now large scale farming of crops such as corn, wheat and barley fuel(s) their numbers to epidemic proportions. 一些鸟儿的数量大范围增长,例如白头翁、燕八哥和红翅黑鹂,它们以一些剩余的、废弃的农作物为食。这些益鸟在东部当地人的农场中随处可见。目前,由于大面积种植玉米、小麦、大麦等粮食,这些鸟儿的数量更加大幅上涨。Despite these pests, North Americas agricultural kept on booming, becoming big business. Great sways of a once wild landscape have been turned over to farming. 不管这些动物,北美的农业都继续蓬勃发展着,并正逐渐成为最大的商业。大部分荒地被开垦以用于农耕。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/267213

Why does salt melt ice?为什么食盐能让冰块融化?It lowers the melting and freezing point of water.是因为食盐将水的熔点和冰点降低了。Oh,OK.Wait,I dont get it. Doesnt that mean the salt make ice colder?等一下,我不明白。这就意味着食盐让冰的温度变得更低吗?Let me explain.Pure water freezes at thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit,right?我解释一下。纯净水的冰点是32华氏度,对吧?At that temperature we can say that the rate of freezing is the same as the rate of melting.这个温度既是冰点也是熔点。So in other words, at waters freezing point theres a sort of equilibrium between freezing and melting.也就是说,水的冰点就是结冰和融化的平衡。Right.Throwing salt on ice upsets the balance.是的。在冰上洒盐扰乱了这种平衡。Upsets it how?怎么打乱的呢?The salt dissolves into the liquid water, which means that some of the water molecules are replaced by salt.盐溶解在水中,就是说一部分水分子被盐取代了。Since there are now fewer liquid water molecules to be captured and frozen by the ice, the rate of freezing drops.既然结冰的液态水分子减少了,冰点自然降低了。I think I get it.And Since the rate of melting stays the same, theres more melting going on than freezing.我明白了。水的熔点不变,融化的水分子比结冰的多,And so the ice melts.所以冰块就融化了。Right.Interesting.对。很有趣。In fact, anything that dissolves in water will do the trick.其实,任何溶于水的物质都可以使冰融化。You could pour sugar on ice and it will melt.把糖洒在冰上,冰也会融化。But I guess since salt is cheaper its used more often.但是我想也许由于盐比较便宜,所以经常被使用。 201405/301828Aboriginal people would have lived here too.土著人可能生活在这里。Hunting the wildlife in areas that are now deep underwater.在这片目前是大海深处的原始森林里打猎。Then the end of last ice age, ice of the poles melted and sea levels rose all around the round flooding this lowline coast.到冰河世纪的末期,两级的冰川开始融化,海平面开始上升,大量水涌入这片低洼的海岸。This happened nearly 10,000 years ago.这仅仅发生在1万年前。In fact, stories of the great flood still pass down in aboriginal culture.实际上大洪水的传说在土著文化中代代相传。As the sea rose, corals began to grow on the Rockey frenches of the continental shelf creating the Great Barrier Reef we see today.随着海平面上升,珊瑚开始在大陆架的岩石上生长,造就了今天这壮观的大堡礁。The shallow tropical waters are clear and warm.这片热带浅海干净温暖。Perfect conditions for corals to thrive.极适合珊瑚虫生活。Sheltered behind this long straight of reef, Alagoon was born.这条礁石维持一个环礁湖。An area protected water larger in size than the whole of Great Britain.围起来的水域面积比整个英国都大。And a new coastal line too which shallows Sandy waters.一条海岸线形成,伴着浅沙水域。The rising sea also cut a various of high ground creating the 600 islands that adopt the Agoon.上升的海岸线分割开高地,形成了散布于环礁湖内的600个小岛。201408/324737

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