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上海那家整形医院除皱最好上海复旦大学附属华山医院做去疤手术多少钱LAST month a local official in Aichiprefecture set out a daring proposal. Tomonaga Osada suggested that theauthorities could distribute secretly punctured condoms to young marriedcouples, who would then get to work boosting the birth rate. His unorthodoxploy won few supporters, yet it reflects a gathering concern about Japan’sdemographic plight. Last year just over 1m babies were born, far fewer than thenumber needed to maintain the population, which is expected to drop from 127m toaround 87m by 2060. Why are young Japanese so loth to procreate?上个月,日本爱知县当地官员提出了一项大胆的提议。Tomonaga Osada提议有关当局秘密向已婚的年轻夫妇发放被刺破的避套,以此让他们提高生育率。这个异端的计策并未获得持,但这却反映了日益让人感到担忧的日本人口困境,去年,日本只迎来了100万新生儿,这些数量远低于维持人口所需的数量。据预期,截至2060年,日本人口将从1.27亿落到8700万左右。那么,为何日本的年轻人不愿意生育子女呢?The spiral of demographic decline isspinning faster as the number of women of child-bearing age falls. In May areport predicted that 500 or more towns across the country will disappear byaround 2040 as young women migrate to bigger cities. The workforce is alyshrinking, imperiling future growth. In recent years governments have embarkedon a plethora of schemes to encourage childbearing, including a “women’shandbook” to educate young females on the high and lowpoints of their fertility, and state-sponsored matchmaking events.随着育龄妇女人数的减少,人口呈螺旋式下降的速度越来越快。5月份发布的一份报道预示,随着年轻女性移居大城市,截止2040年左右,日本国内将有500个甚至更多的城镇消失。日本的奥洞里已经在萎缩,这将危及将来的发展。近年来,政府已经实施了大量鼓励生育的方案,其中包括发放“妇女指南”对妇女的生育能力高低峰进行指导,还有国家赞助的相亲活动。The chief reason for the dearth ofbirths is the decline of marriage. Fewer people are opting to wed, andthey are doing so later in life. At least a third of young women aim to becomefull-time housewives, yet they struggle to find men who can support atraditional family. In better economic times potential suitors had permanentjobs as part of the “lifetime employment” system. Now many hold down temporaryor part-time work. Other women shun marriage and children because Japan’sold-fashioned corporate culture, together with a dire shortage of childcare,would force them to give up their careers. Finally, young people are bound bystrict social codes. Only around 2% of babies are born outside marriage(compared with 30-50% in most of the rich world), which means that as weddingsplummet, so do births. Even for those who do start families, the rising cost ofchild-rearing often imposes a de facto one-child policy.低生育率的主要原因是结婚率的降低。越来越少的人选择步入婚姻殿堂,他们选择在晚年结婚。至少有三分之一年轻女性的目标是成为全职家庭主妇,然而他们很难找到可以撑起这种传统家庭模式的男人。在经济情况比较好的时候,她们潜在的求婚者拥有着“终身就业”体制内的稳定工作,但现在,很多人只有临时或兼职工作。日本老式的企业文化以及严重缺乏儿童保育迫使妇女不得不放弃职业也是另一些妇女避开婚姻和生育的原因。最后就是,年轻人受到严格社会规范的制约,只有2%的婴儿出生率发生在婚外(相比之下,大多发达国家达到了30-50%)。这意味着,结婚率下跌,出生率也跟着下跌。即使对于那些有孩子的人来说,养育孩子成本的增加使得他们往往只能落实一胎政策。So far the government of Shinzo Abe hastalked about such steps, but shied away from taking them. Instead Mr Abe isacting to help women combine careers with children. Many demographers reckon itis aly too late to lift Japan’s birth rate, now at 1.43children per woman. The eventual answer, they say, will be more shocking eventhan spiked prophylactics: mass immigration.目前,安倍政府已经提到了这些措施,但却在回避落实。相反,安倍先生正采取行动帮助女性兼顾职业和孩子。很多人口学家认为,提高日本的生育率为时已晚,现在日本女性人均生育率为1.43。他们说,最终的解决方法将比发放被刺的避套更令人感到震惊:大批移民入境。 /201408/318564崇明治疗狐臭多少钱 Scientists know this much about polycystic ovary syndrome: It is one of the most common causes of infertility. It#39;s linked to diabetes and several other troubling health problems. It affects as many as 5 million U.S. women.关于多囊卵巢综合症,科学家知道的也就是这些:它是不不育的最常见原因之一。它与糖尿病和另外多种恼人的健康问题有关。它影响着多达500万的美国女性。But the condition, also known as PCOS, largely remains a mystery. Researchers are trying to better understand the disorder, which is generally defined by an excess production of the hormone testosterone, irregular ovulation and cysts-fluid-filled sacs-within the ovaries. Some teams are trying to improve its treatment to lessen its impact on women#39;s reproductive health and metabolism, or how the body uses or makes energy.但多囊症总体上还是一个迷。研究人员正在努力更好地理解这一病症。它大体上被定义为睾丸激素分泌过多、排卵不规律、卵巢内存在囊肿(积液囊)。有些团队希望改进治疗方案,减轻它对女性生殖健康和新陈代谢(身体使用或产生能量的过程)的影响。#39;We really need better options,#39; says Esther Eisenberg, project scientist of the Reproductive Medicine Network, a research collaboration set up and funded through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.尤尼斯#12539;肯尼迪#12539;施莱佛美国国家儿童健康与人类发育研究所(Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)设立并资助的研究协作团体“生殖医学网络”(Reproductive Medicine Network)项目科学家埃丝特#12539;艾森伯格(Esther Eisenberg)说:“我们真的需要更好的选择。”Even the diagnosis of PCOS can be tricky because the syndrome doesn#39;t look the same in everyone. What is called PCOS is likely a number of different diseases that manifest similar symptoms, such as acne, excess facial- and body-hair growth in reproductive-aged females, insulin resistance and abnormal menstrual periods, according to experts.多囊症的诊断有时候都很困难,因为这一综合症并不是在每个人身上都表现得一样。据专家说,所谓多囊症可能是一系列表现为相似症状的不同疾病,这些症状包括痤疮、育龄妇女面部和身体毛发过旺、胰岛素抵抗、月经不调等。Over 60% of women with PCOS are overweight or obese. Excess hair growth, called hirsutism, also can differ by ethnicity, as can body weight. Such demographic differences can cause doctors to have difficulty identifying PCOS in those patients. And since most girls have irregular periods when they first start menstruating, misdiagnosis may be more likely to occur with young adolescents.六成以上多囊症妇女都存在过重或肥胖的问题。毛发生长过旺(称为“多毛症”)的情况可能因为种族的不同而不同,体重问题也是如此。这些人口学差异可能导致医生在诊断这些病人的多囊症时发生困难。由于大多数女孩在刚开始来月经时都存在经期不正常的问题,在青少年身上或许更有可能发生误诊。Insulin resistance, an inability to properly process sugar, is common, regardless of body weight. This can greatly raise the risk in PCOS patients of developing diabetes. The uterine lining may build up excessively, which is related to the lack of ovulation, and endometrial cancer risk appears to be increased as well. And women with PCOS often have trouble conceiving because they may not ovulate regularly, and may be more likely to miscarry. There also are concerns about an increased risk of heart disease, although no definitive data support that notion.胰岛素抵抗(无法有效处理糖分)是常见病征,与体重无关。它可以极大地提高多囊症患者患上糖尿病的风险。子宫内膜可能会过度生长,而这与排卵缺乏有关。患子宫内膜癌的风险似乎也会增加。多囊症女性之所以存在生育困难,是因为她们的排卵可能不规律,流产的概率也可能更大。另外还有心脏病风险增加的担忧,不过没有确切数据持这样一种说法。Researchers fear a general rise in obesity is causing a spike in PCOS, too, though they don#39;t have enough longitudinal data to say definitively.研究人员担心,肥胖率的总体上升也在造成多囊症患病率的猛增。不过他们没有足够的纵向数据来得出确切的结论。PCOS appears to have a genetic component that may be triggered or influenced by environmental factors, like weight gain, later in life. But scientists are still trying to determine exactly what goes wrong. The symptoms of PCOS are at least in part due to excess androgens, the family of hormones to which testosterone belongs.多囊症似乎含有一种遗传成分,这种成分可能会受到年龄增大时体重增加等环境因素的诱发或影响。但科学家仍在试图明确究竟是什么地方出了问题。多囊症的症状至少在一定程度上是因为雄激素(指包括睾丸激素在内的一系列激素)过多。The womb environment also appears critical to its development. Daniel Dumesic, a professor of reproductive endocrinology and infertility at the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues found that by exposing mother monkeys with high doses of testosterone, their female offspring developed PCOS-like features after birth, including higher testosterone levels.子宫环境似乎也是形成多囊症的关键。加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)生殖内分泌与不不育教授丹尼尔#12539;杜麦西克(Daniel Dumesic)及其同事发现,将母猴暴露于高剂量的睾丸激素,它们的雌性后代在出生之后出现了类似于多囊症的特征,比如更高的睾丸激素水平。They now are studying whether the bodies of women with PCOS, because of excess testosterone, store fat in tissues where it shouldn#39;t be. Dr. Dumesic hypothesizes that this may impact the function of the ovary and perhaps fertility.现在他们在研究多囊症患者的身体是否会因为睾丸激素而在本不应储存脂肪的组织中储存脂肪。杜麦西克假想,这一点可能会影响卵巢功能和生育能力。Christopher McCartney, a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia, is examining whether the high levels of testosterone could increase the body#39;s secretion of another chemical, called luteinizing hormone, or LH, at puberty, contributing to the development of PCOS. LH, in turn, is needed for the ovaries to produce testosterone, so high levels of LH may be helping produce additional testosterone, leading to a vicious cycle, Dr. McCartney says.弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)医学教授克里斯托弗#12539;麦卡特尼(Christopher McCartney)正在检验高水平的睾丸激素是否有可能增加体内另一种化学物质“促黄体生成素”在青春期的分泌,从而促进多囊症的形成。麦卡特尼说,促黄体生成素又是卵巢产生睾丸激素所需的物质,所以高水平的促黄体生成素可能是在帮助形成过多的睾丸激素,构成了一种恶性循环。Why the syndrome increases the risk of diabetes remains unclear. One possibility is that because the body doesn#39;t respond well to insulin, it overcompensates to make more of it, which leads to increased levels of luteinizing hormone and lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as increased ovarian production of androgens.多囊症增加糖尿病风险的原因仍旧不明。有一种可能性是,因为身体对胰岛素的反应不敏感,作为补偿它便过多地生成胰岛素。过多的胰岛素会导致促黄体生成素水平提高、促卵泡生成素水平下降、卵巢雄激素分泌增加。Together, these slow or prevent ovulation, according to Richard Legro, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology and public health sciences at Penn State University College of Medicine in Hershey, Pa.据宾州赫希市宾夕法尼亚州立大学医学院(Penn State University College of Medicine)妇产科与公共卫生学教授理查德#12539;勒格罗(Richard Legro)说,这些因素会一起延缓或阻止排卵。#39;It#39;s likely that the menstrual and reproductive dysfunction is a harbinger of later metabolic abnormalities like diabetes,#39; Dr. Legro says.勒格罗说:“月经和生殖障碍可能是糖尿病之类后期代谢异常的先兆。”Treatments include hormonal contraceptives to prompt ovaries to stop producing testosterone and other hormones, plus anti-androgen medications like flutamide, usually used to treat prostate cancer, and insulin sensitizers for metabolic issues. Metformin, which isn#39;t an insulin sensitizer but is used to treat high blood sugar, is given as well on a case-by-case basis. Some of these treatments carry risks and most, with the exception of metformin, can#39;t be used when women are trying to get pregnant.治疗办法包括用激素避药,促使卵巢停止产生睾丸激素和其他激素,用通常用于治疗前列腺癌的氟他胺等抗雄激素药物,以及针对代谢问题用胰岛素增敏剂。本身不是增敏剂但用于治疗高血糖的二甲双胍也可酌情让病人用。这些治疗方法中的一部分存在风险,除了二甲双胍之外,大多数治疗方法都不能在妇女准备怀的时候使用。Lourdes Ibá#241;ez, a professor of pediatrics at the University of Barcelona, has been studying combination treatments for PCOS. She found that metformin, an insulin sensitizer called pioglitazone and flutamide taken together performed better than oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives appeared to actually worsen the girls#39; metabolic abnormalities.巴塞罗纳大学(University of Barcelona)儿科教授洛德斯#12539;伊瓦涅斯(Lourdes Ibanez)一直在研究多囊症的组合治疗。她发现,二甲双胍、胰岛素增敏剂“?格列酮”和氟他胺一起用的效果好于口避药。口避药似乎还加重了女孩的代谢异常。Six months after the 18-month treatment, no one in the combination therapy group has relapsed but 50% of those in the oral contraceptive groups have, according to a paper Dr. Ibá#241;ez published in 2013 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology amp; Metabolism.根据伊瓦涅斯2013年发表在《临床内分泌和代谢杂志》(Journal of Clinical Endocrinology amp; Metabolism)上的论文,经过18个月的治疗并观察六个月之后,组合治疗组里面无人复发,而口避药组里面50%的人复发。She is also studying whether the symptoms of PCOS can be prevented in girls at high risk for the condition. She conducted a tiny pilot study of 38 girls who were born with a low birth weight and had precocious puberty, which are often precursors to PCOS.她也正在研究能不能阻止患多囊症风险较高的女孩出现多囊症症状。她对38名出生体重低、性早熟(常常是多囊症的先兆)的女孩展开了一项微型试点研究。She began treating them with metformin between ages 8 to 12. At 18 years old, the rate of detectable symptoms in the treated group was 5%, compared with 50% of those in the untreated group. She hopes to run a larger trial to further explore the possibility of prevention.她在她们八岁到12岁的时候开始用二甲双胍治疗。在18岁的时候,治疗组出现可观测症状的比例为5%,未治疗组的比例为50%。她希望开展一场规模更大的试验,以进一步探索预防多囊症的可能性。Scientists also have focused on improving fertility in women with PCOS. With clomiphene citrate, the most commonly used agent for ovulation induction in women with PCOS, only about half the women who ovulate end up having babies, according to NICHD#39;s Dr. Eisenberg.科学家也一直在集中精力改善多囊症妇女的生育能力。据艾森伯格说,在用多囊症患者最常用的排卵诱导剂枸橼酸氯米芬(克洛米芬)的情况下,只有大约一半成功排卵的妇女最后生了孩子。Dr. Eisenberg, Penn State#39;s Dr. Legro and the Reproductive Medicine Network have been running a clinical trial to improve fertility. In a presentation to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in October, they showed that early results indicate a medication called letrozole, a drug commonly used for in vitro fertilization, appears to result in more live births than clomiphene.艾森伯格、宾大的列格罗以及生殖医学网络已经在做一次旨在提高生育率的临床试验。他们在2013年10月份向美国生殖医学会(American Society for Reproductive Medicine)做报告的时候表示,初步结果表明,常常用于体外授精的来曲唑产生的活胎数量似乎高于枸橼酸氯米芬。One of those success stories was Lindsey Maloney, from Fredericksburg, Va. She had so much facial hair she started waxing it off in the fifth grade and always struggled with her weight because of insulin resistance. She had her period only once in the seventh grade and was first diagnosed with PCOS at 15.弗吉尼亚州弗雷德里克斯堡的琳赛#12539;马洛尼(Lindsey Maloney)便是成功例子之一。由于面部毛发过多,她在上五年级的时候便开始动手脱毛;而因为胰岛素抵抗,她又总是因为体重问题而烦恼。她只在上七年级的时候有过一次例假,15岁时第一次诊出多囊症。When Ms. Maloney, now a 29-year-old school counselor, got engaged to her now-husband, her fertility worried her. When the couple heard about Dr. Legro#39;s study, Ms. Maloney enrolled and drove three hours to Hershey once a month for drugs to help her ovulate. She was randomly assigned to the letrozole group, she says.马洛尼现年29岁,是一名中学辅导员。在跟现在的丈夫订婚时,她因为自己的生育能力而担忧。夫妻二人听说列格罗的研究时,马洛尼加入了研究,每个月开车三小时到赫希去用帮助她排卵的药物。她说,她被随机分配到用来曲唑的小组。They now have a 2-year-old girl, Briley. Ms. Maloney and her husband are trying for a second child on their own and haven#39;t had any luck yet.现在他们的女儿布里利(Briley)已经两岁了。马洛尼和丈夫正在尝试自行育第二个孩子,目前尚未成功。Ms. Maloney has been taking metformin since she was a teenager, sees an endocrinologist every three months and buys supplements and organic foods without hormones in them, but her symptoms have remained, she says.马洛尼说,她从十几岁以来一直在用二甲双胍,每三个月都要看一次内分泌科医生,她还购买补充剂和没有激素的有机食品,但症状依然没有消失。#39;It#39;s not just on your ovaries. It#39;s a whole mess of endocrine problems that you have,#39; she says.她说:“不只是卵巢的问题,而是一大堆内分泌问题。” /201402/277278徐汇区脱小腿毛多少钱

杨浦区去抬头纹多少钱MONROVIA, Liberia — Some people are swimming in and out of the Ebola quarantine zone in this seaside capital. One man slips out every day to reach his job at a Western embassy. Another has turned his living room into a tollbooth, charging others to escape through his apartment at the edge of the cordoned area. Countless others have used a different method: bribing their way out with fees that soldiers determine according to a person’s appearance, circumstances and even gender.利比里亚蒙罗维亚——在这座海滨都城,有些人正在游泳出入埃拉病毒隔离区。一名男子每天都溜出隔离区,前往他工作的一个西方使馆。还有一名男子,他的公寓位于警戒线的边缘,一些人想穿过这里,逃离隔离区,他就在自己的起居室里设点收费。此外还有数不清的人,采用了另外一个方法:贿赂士兵,让他们网开一面;士兵则根据一个人的外表、经济情况,甚至性别来决定费用高低。Christian Verre, a 26-year-old clothing salesman, sneaked out through an abandoned building with his girlfriend, Alice Washington, 21, and eight friends. “Go back! Go back!” soldiers and police officers yelled, he recalled, but the conversation quickly took on a different turn: “What do you got?”克里斯蒂安·维利(Christian Verre)是一名26岁的装销售员,他曾和21岁的女友爱丽丝·华盛顿(Alice Washington)以及八个朋友一起,经由一座废弃的建筑物偷偷溜出。“回去!回去!”士兵和警察大喊,他回忆说,但他们的话锋很快就变了:“你有多少东西?”Those carrying goods handed over more than , Mr. Verre said. Traveling light, he was charged .25 for his girlfriend and about for himself, “because I’m a man.” The couple now share a shack a few blocks outside West Point, the vast, sprawling slum that was placed under an Ebola quarantine last week.那些携带物品的人,缴纳了8美元(约合人民币50元)多一点,维利说。他和女友是轻装上路的,女友被收了4.25美元,自己则被收了6美元,“因为我是男人。”这对情侣现在住在一个窝棚里,和西点(West Point)相距几条街;西点是一片广阔、连绵的贫民窟,上周被划为埃拉隔离区。“I didn’t want to stay in West Point for 21 days,” he said, referring to Ebola’s maximum incubation period. “I wouldn’t die of Ebola but of hunger.”“我可不想在西点待上21天,”他说,21天是埃拉病毒的最长潜伏期。“我不会因为埃拉死掉,但我会饿死的。”The five-month outbreak here in West Africa, aly worse than all other Ebola epidemics combined, is for the first time sping uncontrollably in a major city — one in which a third of Liberia’s 4.5 million people is estimated to rub shoulders, often uneasily. Though Ebola reached Monrovia three months after its appearance in the rural north, the city has become, in a few short weeks, a major focal point of the epidemic.历史上所有爆发的埃拉疫情,加在一起也不如西非这五个月的程度严重,这是它首次在一个主要城市里失控蔓延——利比里亚总人口为450万,蒙罗维亚占了其中三分之一,他们心情不快地在这里与彼此近距离接触着。虽然埃拉在北方农村出现三个月之后才扩散到了蒙罗维亚,但在短短几周内,这座城市就成为了本次疫情一大重灾区。The outbreak has overwhelmed the government of President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who has won the Nobel Peace Prize and the admiration of leaders around the world. But her management of Liberia has long drawn criticism at home, and now her handling of the Ebola epidemic has presented her with a political crisis that is galvanizing her opposition.疫情的爆发让利比里亚现政府手足无措;总统埃伦·约翰逊·瑟利夫(Ellen Johnson Sirleaf)曾获得诺贝尔和平奖,受到各国领导人的钦佩,但是她管理利比里亚的方式早已在国内引发批评,现在她应对埃拉疫情的做法,更是引起了一场政治危机,反对她的人正在闻风而动。“We suffering! No food, Ma, no eat. We beg you, Ma!” one man yelled at Ms. Johnson Sirleaf as she visited West Point this week, surrounded by concentric circles of heavily armed guards, some linking arms and wearing surgical gloves.“我们正在遭受煎熬!没有食物,妈妈,没有吃的。我们求求你了,妈妈!”本周约翰逊·瑟利夫探访西点时,一名男子朝着她大喊。全副武装的警卫一圈一圈地围在她的周围,一些警卫挽着手臂,戴着外科手套。“We want to go out!” yet another pleaded. “We want to be free, Mama, please.”“我们要出去!”其他人恳求道。“我们要自由,妈妈,求你了。”International Ebola experts and her own health officials advised against imposing the quarantine in West Point, worried that it would antagonize a population whose cooperation the government desperately needs to stop the epidemic. But Ms. Johnson Sirleaf sided with the army, which was the strongest proponent of the quarantine and took the lead in enforcing it, especially in the first two days.研究埃拉的外国专家,以及她自己的卫生官员,都建议不要隔离西点,他们担心此举会引起人们的对抗,而政府正迫切需要这些人的合作来控制疫情。但约翰逊·瑟利夫站在了军队一边,军队不仅是隔离措施最强烈的持方,而且还牵头实施了隔离,特别是在最初两天。“Putting the police and the army in charge of the quarantine was the worst thing you could do,” said Dr. Jean-Jacques Muyembe, a Congolese doctor who helped identify the Ebola virus in the 1970s, battled many outbreaks in Central Africa and has been visiting Monrovia to advise the government. “You must make the people inside the quarantine zone feel that they are being helped, not oppressed.”“让警察和军队来负责隔离,没什么事比这更糟了,”让-雅克·穆延贝(Jean-Jacques Muyembe)士说;他是一名刚果医生,20世纪70年代帮助查明了埃拉病毒,曾在中非参加过很多次抗击埃拉疫情的斗争,目前在蒙罗维亚为政府献计献策。“你必须让隔离区里的人觉得,他们正在获得帮助,而不是遭到压制。”Isolating communities has succeeded in some rural areas in past outbreaks in Central Africa. But the quarantine of an entire urban neighborhood, where an estimated 60,000 to 120,000 people are crammed into crumbling shacks, has proved to be more than just porous. It has also led to deadly clashes with soldiers and may even be helping sp the disease, experts say, forcing people to crowd together for basic humanitarian aid, like food relief.之前中非爆发疫情时,隔离社区的做法在一些农村地区取得过成功。但西点地处市区,估计有6到12万人挤在那里摇摇欲坠的窝棚里,事实已经明,对这样整整一个城市地区进行隔离,除了漏洞百出之外,还有其他问题。专家们说,隔离还导致了人们与士兵之间发生致命冲突,甚至有可能助长了这种疾病的传播,因为在获取基本的人道主义援助,比如食品救济时,人们不得不挤在一起。Cordoned off from the city, young men in West Point squeeze together in dense lines for rice and water, pushing and shoving, sweat mixing, saliva flying, blood sometimes spilling. One morning, a man in a wheelchair trying to cut to the front was beaten, stripped and left sprawled in the middle of the road, urinating over himself.警戒线将西点与城市其他部分隔开,隔离区内的年轻男子们在挤在一起,密密匝匝地排着队,等待领取大米和水,他们推推搡搡、汗水四洒、唾沫横飞,有时还会发生流血事件。一天早晨,一个坐轮椅的男子试图插队,结果挨了打,衣被剥下,趴在路中间小便失禁。“The quarantine is going to worsen the sp of Ebola,” said Dr. Muyembe, the director of the National Institute for Biomedical Research in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. “It’s difficult to understand the motivation behind it. It’s simply not a good strategy.”“隔离会加剧埃拉的蔓延,”穆延贝士说,他是刚果民主共和国金沙萨的国家生物医学研究所(National Institute for Biomedical Research)的主任。“难以理解这个策略背后的动机是什么。但它就是不好。”Lewis Brown, the Liberian minister of information, said the president made the decision based on both health and security concerns. Though Ebola has been sping throughout other parts of the city, he said, the government singled out West Point because of its dense population and its potential for political instability, as shown when residents recently stormed an Ebola holding center that they did not want in the neighborhood.利比里亚信息部长路易斯·布朗(Lewis Brown)表示,总统基于对健康和安全的考虑做出了这个决定。虽然埃拉也在该城市的其他部分蔓延,他说,但政府挑选了西点来隔离,因为那里人口密集,可能会出现政治动荡,最近发生的一起事件就说明了这一点:那里的居民冲击了一个埃拉病患收容中心,因为他们不希望西点有这样的中心。“We’re not saying that Ebola is any more present in West Point than other places in the country — that’s not the argument we’re making,” Mr. Brown said. “But the potential is in the size of the area and the interaction with the city itself.”“我们不是说,目前西点的埃拉疫情比国内其他地方的更猖獗——我们不是这个意思,”布朗说。“但是,从西点的规模大小,以及它与城市本身之间的往来状况来看,糟糕的情况有可能发生。”He added: “We’re not claiming to be experts on Ebola. We’ve never had to deal with this kind of thing, but we’ve always had to deal with our people. We understand our people more than we understand this disease.”他还说:“我们没有自称是埃拉方面的专家。我们之前从来没有处理过这类事情,但我们一直都在和本国民众打交道。我们对民众的了解,多过我们对这种疾病的了解。”Ms. Johnson Sirleaf has made no public statement since the start of the quarantine and the fatal shooting of a 15-year-old West Point boy, Shakie Kamara, who was caught in a battle between soldiers and men trying to break out of the quarantine zone.隔离开始之后,在士兵和试图冲破隔离区的民众之间发生的一次冲突中,15岁的西点男孩萨克·卡马拉(Shakie Kamara)遭击身亡。总统约翰逊·瑟利夫从隔离开始到现在,一直没有发表任何公开声明。During her visit to West Point, she apologized to his family and looked at those calling for help with sympathy in her eyes, saying little. Walking several feet behind her, a man in a checkered shirt pulled out Liberian dollar bills from a backpack with his gloved hand and tossed the money to the loudest protesters. The money silenced their criticism but immediately set off fistfights.在探访西点时,她对他的家人表达了歉意,并向那些要求帮助的人投去同情的目光,但没说太多话。在她的身后数英尺的地方,一个身穿格子衬衫、戴着手套的男子,从背包里掏出利比里亚钞票,抛给声音最响亮的抗议者。这些钱虽然让他们停止了出口指责,但立刻又引起了争夺打斗。A Toyota Land Cruiser took the president out of West Point. Her guards and entourage followed on foot, tossing their used gloves on the ground on their way out.一辆丰田陆地巡洋舰(Toyota Land Cruiser)载着总统离开了西点。警卫和随从们步行跟随在她车后,在离开途中,他们把自己用过的手套扔在路上。An Explosive Outbreak疫情猖獗No one knows yet why Ebola has succeeded in sping at such an alarming rate here in the capital. Ebola has reached the capital cities of Freetown, Sierra Leone, and Conakry, Guinea — the two other West African nations most affected by the current outbreak — but the disease has been more effectively contained in those cities.没有人知道为什么在利比里亚首都,埃拉疫情会以如此惊人的速度蔓延。埃拉疫情也扩散到了塞拉利昂首都弗里敦,以及几内亚首都科纳克里——本次疫情最严重的另外两个西非国家——但那些城市均已经更有效地控制了疫情。The first cases in Monrovia were reported only in June. Infections have multiplied quickly here in recent weeks, illustrating the speed with which Ebola can sp in a major urban area. The county containing Monrovia quickly registered the nation’s biggest death toll — now 274 deaths out of a national total of 754, according to the Ministry of Health.蒙罗维亚的第一批病例今年6月才出现。但在最近几周,感染人数成倍增加,显示了埃拉可以以怎样的速度在主要城市地区蔓延。蒙罗维亚所在的县迅速创下了该国最高的死亡人数——卫生部的资料显示,该县的死亡人数现在达到274人,全国死亡人数为754人。“The Conakry outbreaks have been very small, and they haven’t exploded in Freetown,” said Dr. Armand Sprecher, an Ebola expert for Doctors Without Borders here. “So something is different in Monrovia. It’s something in the disease transmission behaviors in Monrovia that has done this. That’s my guess. We’ve never seen this kind of explosion in an urban environment before.”“在科纳克里,疫情爆发的规模非常小,弗里敦的情况也不严重,”阿曼德·斯普雷彻(Armand Sprecher)士说,他是埃拉方面的专家,为这里的无国界医生(Doctors Without Borders)组织工作。“所以在蒙罗维亚,有些不一样的特征。蒙罗维亚在疾病传播方面的特征,导致了疫情爆发的程度不同。这是我的猜测。我们以前从来没有见过,埃拉疫情在城市环境中这样猖獗地爆发。”As the situation worsened in the capital in mid-August, the government established the city’s first Ebola holding center in West Point, Monrovia’s biggest slum and political opposition stronghold. Locals ransacked and closed down the center within days.随着8月中旬首都的状况发生恶化,政府在西点开设了全市首家埃拉收容中心;西点是蒙罗维亚最大的贫民窟,也是政治反对派的大本营。没过几天,当地人就洗劫并关闭了这家中心。On Aug. 20, under the president’s orders, the army and police placed West Point under quarantine — the first time, some experts say, that a quarantine was attempted on such a scale. West Point reacted with fury: hundreds of young men tried to storm through the barricades. As soldiers fired live rounds to drive them back, the 15-year-old boy, Shakie, was killed. Only heavy rain starting around noon put a stop to the riots.8月20日,军队和警察遵照总统的命令,把西点隔离开来——一些专家说,这是首次进行如此大规模隔离的尝试。西点做出了愤怒的回应:成百上千名年轻男子试图冲破路障。为了将他们驱赶回去,士兵们发射了实弹,导致15岁的男孩卡马拉中弹身亡。直到中午下起瓢泼大雨,这场骚乱才告一段落。In rural areas, quarantining communities can work if they are small enough and unified under political or traditional leadership, experts say.在农村地区,如果地方足够小,而且可以在政治领导力或传统领导力的影响下团结起来,隔离社区的办法是可以奏效的,专家们说。“What is important is for the people to participate in the process; otherwise it becomes too difficult to implement effectively,” said Dr. Nestor Ndayimirije, the World Health Organization’s director for Liberia.“重要的是,民众要参与这一进程;否则隔离就会变得很困难,无法有效实施”,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)在利比里亚的主管内斯特·德米瑞吉(Nestor Ndayimirije)士说。A week into the quarantine of West Point, life has been getting harder for those without the means or connections to get out. The price of goods that find their way into the quarantine zone — rice, water, coal, prepaid cellphone cards, soap — has doubled.西点被隔离一周后,对于那些找不到办法和人脉离开这里的居民来说,生活变得越发艰难起来。大米、水、煤、预付费手机卡、肥皂等流入隔离区的商品,价格已经翻了一番。“People are fighting for food to eat,” said Victor Nwanodu, who owns one of West Point’s most popular public toilets and baths. Business has dropped, he said, as people can no longer afford to pay for a hot bath.“人们在争抢食物吃,”维克多·万诺多(Victor Nwanodu)说,西点人气最旺的公共卫生间和浴室之一就是他开的。但浴室生意已经下滑,他表示,因为人们没有余钱来洗上一个热水澡了。Serena Wallo, 31, was one of a few dozen people whose houses were washed away this week along West Point’s heavily eroded shoreline. Unable to leave the quarantine zone, her family now has to stay with friends in the area, in the kind of overcrowded conditions where Ebola thrives.在西点一些遭到严重侵蚀的海岸线上,本周有几十人的房屋被冲毁,31岁的塞丽娜·瓦诺(Serena Wallo)就是受灾者之一。由于无法离开隔离区,她和家人现在只能投靠西点的朋友,在那种拥挤的居住条件下,埃拉病毒很容易传播。“I’m not happy with the government,” Ms. Wallo said. “They are treating us like we are slaves.”“我对政府不满,”瓦诺说。“他们对待我们的态度,就好像我们是奴隶一样。” /201409/324955金山区祛痘要多少钱 WHEN CHEF ENRIQUE OLVERA OPENED his restaurant, Pujol, 13 years ago, his only goal was to serve #39;solid, tasty food#39; and be #39;the best restaurant in the neighborhood,#39; he says. But that neighborhood was Mexico City#39;s Polanco, the dining epicenter for a city of 8.5 million, and Olvera#39;s budget was so small that his wife had to paint the walls. Since then, Pujol has far surpassed its initial aims: It#39;s now widely thought of as Mexico#39;s finest restaurant-and the 36th best in the world, according to the much-scrutinized S. Pellegrino rankings; and Olvera, who trained at New York#39;s Culinary Institute of America before returning home, is the country#39;s most well-known chef. He reached his position by making his cuisine #39;fancier and fancier, and more complex#39; over time. Pujol now serves a tasting of innovative, sophisticated food that wouldn#39;t look out of place at England#39;s Fat Duck or New York#39;s Momofuku Ko. Olvera is also one of the leading exponents of Mexico#39;s new gastronomy, which combines elaborate, cutting-edge technique with a strong emphasis on local ingredients to create a cosmopolitan cuisine that#39;s at once international yet unmistakably Mexican-paralleling the direction of Mexico City itself. 墨西哥名厨恩里克#12539;奥尔韦拉(Enrique Olvera)于13年前开办了自己的餐厅――Pujol,他说他当时唯一的目标就是做出“货真价实、美味可口的食物”,打造“全社区最棒的餐厅”。不过,这个社区可是墨西哥城的波兰科(Polanco),它是这个拥有850万人口的城市的餐饮中心,而奥尔韦拉的预算又非常少,他的妻子都不得不亲自上阵刷 。自那以后,奥尔韦拉取得的成绩已远超他最初的目标,如今Pujol已被普遍认为是墨西哥最好的餐厅,而且还在备受关注的 培露(S. Pellegrino)评级中位列全球最佳餐厅的第三十六位。在回国之前,奥尔韦拉曾在纽约的美国烹饪学院(Culinary Institute of America)接受培训,现在他是墨西哥最负盛名的大厨。他通过逐步使他的菜式“越来越新奇、越来越复杂”坐上了今日的位置。现在Pujol推出了一系列有创新性、精细复杂的菜品,把它们放在英格兰的Fat Duck餐厅或纽约的MomofukuKo餐厅也不会显得上不了台面。奥尔韦拉还是墨西哥新烹饪法的主要代表人物之一,该烹饪法将精妙前沿的技术与对本地食材的注重结合在一起,以此创造出既国际化同时又无疑具有墨西哥特色的世界性的菜肴,这一点与墨西哥城自身的发展方向不谋而合。 A visit to the 48-seat Pujol reveals a space-age kitchen containing 27 cooks, including a number of stagiaires who have flown thousands of miles to work for free-one spends hours picking cilantro flowers with tweezers; another is making his fifth attempt to perfect an apparently simple dish. As Pujol has become a place that attracts free labor (#39;if you want to stage here now, you have to wait until 2014,#39; says Olvera), the chef has begun to think more about bringing Mexican cooks home from the U.S. He#39;d like them to move past the glass ceiling that exists in America (despite the number of Mexicans working in U.S. restaurants, #39;you rarely see a Mexican head chef in a New York kitchen,#39; Olvera points out) and advance their careers on their home turf. As Olvera guides his cooks through lunchtime service-#39;Hey, make that blob of sauce more the size of a walnut#39;; #39;You: pull your hat down#39;-he talks about coming home, tradition and innovation, and how a Disney movie changed one of the world#39;s best restaurants. Pujol餐厅共有48个座位,它的超现代的厨房中现在有27名厨师,包括一群从数千英里之外飞来免费干活的实习厨师。其中一名实习厨师要花数个小时用镊子挑选香菜花,另一人则在第五次尝试使一道表面上简单的菜品变得完美。由于Pujol已成为一个能吸引免费劳力的地方(奥尔韦拉称:“如果你想在这儿实习,那得等到2014年了。”),奥尔韦拉已经开始考虑要将墨西哥厨师从美国吸引回国。他希望他们能绕过存在于美国的“玻璃天花板”(尽管有大量墨西哥厨师在美国的餐厅工作,但奥尔韦拉指出“你在纽约的餐厅很少能看到一位墨西哥主厨”),回到自己的国家发展他们的事业。他一边指导厨师们准备午餐――“喂,把那团酱弄成一个核桃的大小”;“你,把帽子拉低些”――一边谈论著有关回国、传统与创新的问题,以及一部迪斯尼(Disney)的影片如何改变了这家位列全球最佳的餐厅。 ENRIQUE OLVERA: #39;Mexico City is changing quickly, and restaurants are in a really good spot. There#39;s more attention from the rest of the world on Mexican food. Fifteen years ago, I wouldn#39;t have thought it would be considered a high-level cuisine and valued the same as Italian or Spanish food-especially in Mexico. Foreigners have always liked our food, but they thought of it as very causal, almost like street food. Now they#39;re realizing there#39;s sophistication to it, and there#39;s potential to make not just tasty food but also food of a very high quality. 墨西哥城在迅速改变,餐饮处于一个非常有利的位置,世界其他地方更关注墨西哥美食了。放在15年前,我不会想到它会被人视为高端菜系,会和意大利菜和西班牙菜受到同样的重视――尤其是在墨西哥。外国人一直都喜欢我们的食物,但以前他们认为它是非常简便随意的,几乎就像街边小吃一样。现在他们意识到它也有精妙复杂之处,它不仅能够提供美味的食物,也能够提供品质非常高的食物。 This is a cosmopolitan city with influences from Europe, the local culture and the U.S. It#39;s a very nice mix of the three components, and Mexicans are starting to fall in love with that mix. If you look at Pujol, with the decoration and the food, it#39;s Mexican-you feel like you are in Polanco; you don#39;t feel like you#39;re in New York-but it#39;s not all pink with mariachis and crap like that, because that#39;s not Mexico City. 这是一个国际化都市,受到欧洲、本土文化及美国的影响。它是这三个要素的绝佳融合体,如今墨西哥人开始喜欢上了这种融合。看看Pujol,它的这些装饰和食物,你会发现它是墨西哥风格的,你会感觉自己身在波兰科,不会觉得自己在纽约。但是,它一点也不低俗,没有像墨西哥流浪乐队那样的低俗表演,因为这不是墨西哥城的风格。 At the restaurant we used to do a lot of reinterpretations of traditional Mexican dishes, but then we got tired of it and started trying to create new dishes with a very strong Mexican base. Until two or three years ago, all the ingredients had to be Mexican and they also had to be authentic, so, for example, we wouldn#39;t use parsnip. But you know that movie Ratatouille? In the beginning, the head chef, Gusteau, is on TV and he says, #39;You cannot limit your creativity because of the place that you were born,#39; and I remembered that later and figured it was true. So we started incorporating ingredients that are originally from other parts of the world. We said, #39;If it grows in Mexico, fine, we use it.#39; For example, now a lot of Mexicans eat broccoli. It#39;s the second-largest crop in the center of the country, so why shouldn#39;t we do broccoli? We brought in a little more of our own vision. That was the first year we got on the list of #39;The World#39;s 50 Best Restaurants.#39; 以前我们的餐厅常常做很多重新诠释传统墨西哥菜肴的菜品,后来我们感到厌烦,开始尝试创造拥有非常厚重的墨西哥传统根基的新菜品。直到两三年前,所有的食材还都必须是墨西哥的,而且必须是正宗的,比如说我们就不会采用欧洲萝卜。你知道《美食总动员》(Ratatouille)这部电影吗?影片一开始,厨师长古斯多(Gusteau)就在电视上讲道,‘你不能让你出生的地方限制了你的创造力’,后来我想起了这句话,明白了事实确实如此。因此,我们开始混入源自世界其他地区的食材。我们说:“如果它生长在墨西哥,那好,我们就用它。’比如说,现在很多墨西哥人都吃西兰花了。它是我们国家中部地区的第二大作物,所以我们为什么不用西兰花做菜呢?我们加入了更多一些我们自己的想象。那是我们登上“全球50大最佳餐厅”榜单的第一年。 Most people think they have to choose between tradition and doing modern food. We do both-they can coexist nicely in a dish and definitely on a . You always cherish where you come from, but I also have the need for new sensations, and to improve on those old traditions. It#39;s not just about innovation for its own sake-it#39;s to get to a better dish. For example, when you nixtamalize corn to make tortillas, the traditional recipe is to boil the corn with limestone, let it sit overnight outside, then grind it at the mill. But perhaps you can get to a better masa if you sous-vide the corn at 65 degrees, without the huge temperature shock. You might, so why not do it? You try it, and if it#39;s better, you change it; if it#39;s not, you keep doing the traditional style. If you were an architect, it would be really stupid to be building houses like you were 50 years ago. The kitchen#39;s the same thing. If you want tradition to be alive, you have to keep doing things with it. Time will tell who#39;s doing good stuff. 大多数人都认为他们必须在传统菜与现代菜之间做出选择。我们两样都做,它们能很好地共存于一道菜中,当然也能在同一份菜单上共存。人总是珍视自己的传统,但我也需要新感觉,也需要改进那些旧传统。这不只是为了创新而创新,而是为了做出一盘更美味的菜。例如,如果你想用 性溶液处理玉米去做玉米粉圆饼,传统方法是煮玉米时加入石灰石,接下来把玉米放在外面凉一晚,然后再去磨坊将它磨成粉。然而,假如你在华氏65度的温度下用真空低温烹饪法对它进行处理,没有了剧烈的温度变化,磨出来的粉或许会更好。你能这么做,那么为什么不去做呢?你可以去试试,如果效果更好,你就改变方法;如果效果并没有更好,那你就继续按传统方式做。假如你是位建筑师,如果你还像50年前一样建房子是非常愚蠢的行为。厨房之事也是一样,如果你想让传统延续下去,你就得不断地对它进行改进,时间会告诉大家谁做的是好事。 The Mexican cooks in the U.S. didn#39;t go there to cook; it#39;s just poor people that have no opportunities, that don#39;t see a future in Mexico, so they go to the U.S. Once they arrive, they have very few options for work. My dream-and I think it#39;s the dream of a lot of people here-is that they don#39;t need to go there and feel unwanted. If they go, it#39;s fine, but they should be hired. People should call you and say, #39;I want you to come and work at my restaurant,#39; like they do with other nationalities. It#39;s the nature of how it works and I understand that. But if we can change that a little it#39;d be nice. 在美国的墨西哥厨师当初去那儿并不是为了做厨师的,他们只是没有机会、在墨西哥又看不到未来的穷人,所以他们去了美国。到了那儿之后,他们可选择的工作非常少。我的梦想是――而且我认为这也是很多人的梦想――有一天他们不需要跑去那儿感觉自己是多余的。如果他们去了,没问题,但是他们应该有就业机会。应当有人打电话给他们说,‘我希望你来我的餐厅工作’,就像他们对待其他族裔的人一样。当然,事情的发展原本就是这样的,我也理解这一点,但是如果我们能对它做一点点改变,那也是不错的。 I don#39;t think cooks abroad realize Mexico has changed cuisinewise. And when they come back they see there#39;s this huge potential. I think we should sp the word that there are good restaurants here in Mexico. If you compare the amount of money you make and the quality of life, it#39;s almost the same. Yes, in New York you might earn ,000 as a pastry chef, and here you might earn ,000, but the rent is much cheaper, you don#39;t have to be sending money home and you#39;re with your own people. Most of the cooks here have worked in Europe or the States, and when they come back they appreciate the ingredients more and they see the possibilities of working with Mexican products. I also like the idea of Mexicans leaving Mexico and coming back because I did it myself. You realize what you like about your own country when you#39;re outside it.#39; 我觉得在国外的厨师没有意识到墨西哥在烹饪方面发生了变化。他们回来时就会发现这儿原来有这么巨大的潜力,我认为我们应当向世界传播墨西哥也有好餐厅的消息。如果你对收入的数量与生活的质量进行比较,在墨西哥和在国外几乎都是一样的。是的,在纽约做糕点厨师你或许能挣60,000美元,在这儿也许你只能挣3,000美元,但是这儿的房租要便宜得多,你不必把钱寄回家,而且你能和自己的家人呆在一起。我们这儿的大多数厨师都曾在欧洲或美国工作过,他们回来后对于食材有了更多的理解和认识,能看到利用墨西哥食材进行烹饪的种种可能。我也喜欢墨西哥人离开自己国家然后再回来,因为我自己就是这么做的。当你身处异国时,你会明白你喜欢自己国家的哪些方面。 /201310/261401徐汇区妇幼保健医院整形科

闵行祛斑多少钱Looking for true love? Take your time: study情人节寻找真爱:花时间来学习Couples who get to know each other before being intimate have a better chance of having a lasting relationship, but in some cases even a casual fling can lead to true love, according to a new research.一项最新调查表明,在确定亲密关系之前彼此互相了解的情侣感情更有可能长久,但在某些情况下,一夜情也能带来真爱。Most of the 56 percent of 642 adults questioned in the study who said they had waited until they got serious before they had sex reported having a high quality relationship.在接受调查的642名成年人中,56%的人称他们在两人确立恋爱关系后才发生性关系,这其中的大部分人称自己的感情质量较高。The number was higher than for the 27 percent of people who had sex while dating casually and the 17 percent who were intimate while in a non-romantic relationship.另外有27%的人称他们在约会期间就随意发生了性关系,17%的人在发生关系时与对方还不是恋人关系,在这两种情况下,报告感情质量高的人的比例都不如前者高。;There#39;s something about the characteristics of people who wait before sex that is linked to higher-quality relationships,; said sociology professor Anthony Paik of the University of Iowa.艾奥瓦大学的社会学教授安东尼#8226;帕伊克说:“在发生性关系前耐心等待的人有一些特点,这些特点与高质量的恋爱关系有关。”Paik, who reported the findings in the journal Social Science Research, said the research suggests that the courtship process acts as a screening mechanism.这一在《社会科学研究》期刊上发表的研究结果称,该研究表明求爱的过程发挥了筛选机制的作用。;The debate is #39;why can#39;t we have sex now?#39; The expectation is that sex should occur very quickly. But doing so, you#39;re losing out on some information that might be useful,; he explained in an interview.他在一个采访中解释说:“问题的焦点是‘为什么我们现在不能做爱?’。人们期望性行为会很快发生。但如果这么做,你就失去了一些可能有用的信息。”It#39;s almost an economic equation, he added.他说,这相当于一个经济学方程式。;On average, the more costly the process leading into the relationship, the more likely it is to work. That#39;s what the data would suggest.;“一般来说,确立恋爱关系的成本越高,其运转良好的可能性越大。这是调查数据告诉我们的。”But Paik said the findings did not show that an early sexual relationship had a direct negative impact on relationships.但帕伊克称,调查结果并没有显示过早发生性行为对感情有直接的负面影响。When he filtered out people who said they had frequent non-romantic or casual dating sexual relationships he found that the gap in relationship quality between serious and nonserious contexts of sexual activity disappeared.帕伊克将在非恋爱关系时频繁发生性关系和和随意约会期间发生性关系的人单拿出来进行分析后发现,无论是在认真还是不认真的关系状况下发生性关系,这两种情况下的感情质量没有太大差别。;It means it#39;s possible for two strangers to lock eyes in a bar, and go home together, and actually end up in a long-term relationship,; Paik said.帕伊克说:“这意味着,两个陌生人在酒吧相遇,相互吸引,然后一起回家,最终成眷属的可能性还是存在的。” /201401/272168 黄浦区第九人民医院治疗青春痘价格费用上海华东医院打瘦腿针多少钱




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