明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年03月21日 16:56:46
In North Korea, men serve in the military for 10 years and women for seven. The special unit working as Kim Jong-un#39;s personal bodyguards serves for 13.在朝鲜,男人十年兵役,女人七年,而组成金正恩私人警卫员的特殊部队要13年兵役。Military service is compulsory in the DPRK and most people enlist after high school. Those who are accepted into universities do their military service after they graduate.在朝鲜,兵役是强制的,大部分人高中后就要从军,被大学录取的人毕业后兵役。Usually if you have a bachelor#39;s degree service lasts for five years, but if you studied engineering or science you serve three because the former leader Kim Jong-il wanted to encourage people to study science.通常来说,如果你有学士学位,兵役长达五年。但是如果你学的是工程学或科学,只需三年兵役,因为前领导人金正日希望鼓励人们学习科学。The main difficulty conscripts must endure is constant hunger. Soldiers in the special units are well taken care of but those stationed outside the capital Pyongyang are only given two or three potatoes a meal, or are fed solely on raw corn kernels or corn rice.士兵需要忍受的最大困难是经常性的饥饿。特殊部队的士兵待遇很好,但是那些在首都平壤外驻扎的士兵每顿只给两三个土豆,或者只吃未加工的玉米粒或玉米稻。Thanks to these diets, North Korean soldiers are said to be several inches shorter than their South Korean counterparts – a sensitive subject for the North, wrote Adam Cathcart, as tensions flared on the peninsula last month.由于这些食物,朝鲜士兵据说会比韩国士兵矮几英寸,Adam Cathcart写道,韩国对于朝鲜是一个敏感话题,上个月朝鲜半岛局势紧张。On meagre rations the soldiers not only have to train but are given physical tasks such as helping farmers on their rice paddy fields. Many become very thin and hungry, and desperate to escape.在贫乏的定量配给下,士兵不仅要训练,还要完成体力任务,比如帮助农民在稻田干活。很多士兵变得又饿又瘦,绝望的想要逃跑。The military police are always on the look out for soldiers who#39;ve escaped to look for food. Sometimes these soldiers steal from civilians and farming stockrooms because they#39;re so hungry. If it#39;s edible, they#39;ll steal it.宪兵总在提防为了寻找食物而逃跑的士兵。有时候这些士兵会从百姓手里和农仓偷东西,因为他们实在太饿了。只要能吃,他们就偷走。I#39;ve heard that some senior officers will even order soldiers to go out and steal. If they fail they may be punished.我听说一些高级官员甚至命令士兵出去偷窃。如果失败了可能会受到惩罚。In my high school class there were 25 boys. Five went to college and the remaining 20 went into the military. Half of those were returned home suffering from the effects of malnutrition.我高中所在班级中有二十五个男孩,五个去上了大学,剩下的二十个从军,其中一半都因为营养不良被遣送回家。Soldiers are given home leave to recover. Most are too weak to even walk by themselves, so their parents pick them up and feed them back to health. When they improve they go back to the army.士兵们回家疗养,绝大部分太过虚弱以至于无法自己走路,所以父母必须来接他们,并通过食物让他们恢复健康。当士兵们的健康状况提高了,他们便回到军队。The lucky ones serve in the special unit, or serve under good officers who take care of them. The unlucky ones die of hunger before their parents have a chance to help them. The only thing these parents pray for is the safe return of their sons.幸运的士兵们在特殊部队役,或在对他们多多照顾的军官手下役。而那些不那么幸运的,在父母可以帮助他们前就死于饥饿。父母们祈祷的唯一事情就是孩子们的平安归来。North Korea may be the worst place in the world to do military service.朝鲜可能是全世界役最恐怖的地方。 /201510/404380

Tang Dynasty唐朝Establishment唐朝的建立Li Yuan, who was a former governor under the Sui dynasty rose in rebellion after being urged on by his second son (later Tang Taizong).李渊原先是隋朝的一名官员,在自己的二儿子(后来的唐太宗)的力劝之下,他在农民起义中揭竿而起。Li Yuan installed a puppet child emperor of the Sui dynasty in 617 but he eventually removed the child emperor and established the Tang dynasty in 618.李渊于617年扶立了隋朝的一位幼年天子作为傀儡皇帝但是最终他取而代之并在618年建立了唐朝。Li Yuan ruled until 626 before being deposed by his son, Li Shimin, known as “Tang Taizong” in history.李渊在位八年,626年时被自己的儿子李世明,也就是历史上的唐太宗罢黜。Taizong then set out to solve internal problems within the government, internal problems had constantly plagued past dynasties.太宗之后开始着手解决政府的内部问题,这些问题在之前那些朝代一直是一个麻烦。The Emperor had three administrations (省, shěng), which were obliged to draft, review, and implement policies respectively.国家设立三省,分别负责起草、审核和补充决策,每个部门都被分配不同的任务。There were also six divisions (bù) under the administration that implemented policy, each of which was assigned different tasks.三省下设六部来执行政策,其中每个部被分配了不同的任务。It was during the Tang dynasty that the only female ruler of China, Empress Wu Zetian, made her mark.唐代的武则天是中国历史上唯一一位女皇帝。Her rule was one of only a handful of examples in which women seized power and ruled China,她的执政仅仅是一小部分女性掌权或统治国家的例子之一,and was the only example of a woman who ruled in her own right.她也是唯一一个自立为帝的女性。The 7th to the 8th century was generally considered the zenith point of the Tang dynasty, and arguably the whole Chinese civilization.七到八世纪被普遍认为是唐朝甚至整个中国文明的顶峰。Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age and Tang hegemony reached all the way to Japan and Korea in the east, Indochina in the south and central and western Asia in the west.唐玄宗将唐朝中期带入了黄金时代,国家的霸权向东延伸至日本和韩国、南至印度那、西至中亚和西亚。China was the protector of Kashmir and master of the Pamirs.中国是克什米尔的保护者和帕米尔的领导者。Its authority as far as Tokmak in present-day Uzbekistan (west of Lake Issyk Kul in Kyrgyzstan), Tohuolu or Kabul in Afghanistan, and as far west as the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea.它的权威远至今日乌兹别克斯坦的托克马克(吉尔吉斯斯坦伊塞克湖西边)、阿富汗的吐火罗,西边远达咸海和里海。Some of the major kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Neparo (Nepal), Vietnam, Japan, Korea, over nine kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley in south of mid-Asia.各大王国包括克什米尔、尼泊尔、越南、日本、韩国、分布在阿姆河附近的超过9个国家和中亚南部的锡尔河都向大唐进贡。Nomadic kingdoms addressed the Emperor of Tang respectfully as Tian Kehan (Celestial Kaghan)(天可汗).游牧王国尊称大唐皇帝为“天可汗”。Due to its prosperity,the Tang dynasty was also an era of development of a highly educated society.因为国家的繁荣,唐朝同样也是一个高度教化社会不断发展的时代。The Tang dynasty became synonymous to the birth of famous poems and literatures created by individuals such as Li Bai, Du Fu, Meng Haoran and many others.唐代成为了李白、杜甫、孟浩然和其他一些诗人创作诗文的发源地的代名词。They wrote some of the most famous poems of their time which are still recited to this day.他们当时创作的一些著名作品直到今日还被人交口传颂。 /201511/405193

David Ludwig often uses an analogy when he talks about weight loss: Human beings are not toaster ovens. If we were, then the types of calories we consumed would not matter, and calorie counting would be the most effective way to lose weight.谈到减肥,戴维·路德维希(David Ludwig)经常会打这么一个比方:人体可不是个烤箱哟。如果是烤箱的话,那我们不管吃何种食物都无关紧要,而且计算热量卡路里数会是最有效的减肥方法。Dr. Ludwig, an obesity expert and professor of nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, argues that weight gain begins when people eat the wrong types of food, which throws their hormones out of whack and sets off a cycle of cravings, hunger and bingeing. In his new book, “Always Hungry?,” he argues that the primary driver of obesity today is not an excess of calories per se, but an excess of high glycemic foods like sugar, refined grains and other processed carbohydrates. 路德维希士是哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health)的肥胖症专家和营养学教授,他认为,人要是吃错了东西,就会引发激素紊乱,陷入“想吃—饥饿—暴饮暴食”的恶性循环,结果就是体重开始增加。在其新书《总觉得饿吗?》(Always Hungry?)中,他提出,如今,肥胖症的主要原因并非是摄入了过多的热量本身,而是食用了过量的高升糖指数食物,如糖、精制谷物和其他经加工的碳水化合物等。Recently, we caught up with Dr. Ludwig to talk about which foods act as “fertilizer for fat cells,” why he thinks the conventional wisdom on weight loss is all wrong, and long-term strategies for weight loss. Here are edited excerpts from our conversation.近日,我们采访了路德维希士,请他谈谈哪些食物是“脂肪细胞的肥料”,为什么他认为关于减肥的传统观念全是错的,以及减肥的长期策略等。以下是我们的对话节录。Q. What is the basic message of your book?问:请问你这本新书的主旨是什么?A. The basic premise is that overeating doesn’t make you fat. The process of getting fat makes you overeat. It may sound radical, but there’s literally a century of science to support this point. Simply cutting back on calories as we’ve been told actually makes the situation worse. When we cut back on calories, our body responds by increasing hunger and slowing metabolism. It responds in an effort to save calories. And that makes weight loss progressively more and more difficult on a standard low calorie diet. It creates a battle between mind and metabolism that we’re doomed to lose.答:这本书的基本前提是,并非是暴饮暴食让你发胖,而是发胖的过程会令你过量进食。这听起来可能有些过激,但我们可以毫不夸张地说,最近一个世纪以来的科学足以持这一观点。那些要我们减少热量摄入的告诫其实起了反作用。一旦热量摄入减少,我们的身体就会做出反应,一方面增加饥饿感,另一方面则减缓新陈代谢的速度。也就是说,它在尽可能地节约热量。正因为此,人们往往会发现在坚持标准的低热量饮食时,减肥变得越来越困难了。在这场意志与新陈代谢之间的斗争中,我们注定会是失败者。Q. But we’ve all been told that obesity is caused by eating too much. Is that not the case?问:但是,人们不是一直都在说,肥胖是因为吃得太多造成的么?难道事实并非如此?A. We think of obesity as a state of excess, but it’s really more akin to a state of starvation. If the fat cells are storing too many calories, the brain doesn’t have access to enough to make sure that metabolism runs properly. So the brain makes us hungry in an attempt to solve that problem, and we overeat and feel better temporarily. But if the fat cells continue to take in too many calories, then we get stuck in this never-ending cycle of overeating and weight gain. The problem isn’t that there are too many calories in the fat cells, it’s that there’s too few in the bloodstream, and cutting back on calories can’t work.答:我们总觉得肥胖是一种过剩,但它实际上更近似饥饿的状态。如果脂肪细胞总是过度地储存热量,大脑就得不到足够的热量来确保新陈代谢正常运行。为了解决这个问题,大脑让我们产生了饥饿感,于是我们吃下了超量的食物,暂时感觉好过了一些。但如果脂肪细胞继续囤积过多的热量,我们就会被困在无休无止的“暴饮暴食—体重增加”的循环当中。所以问题并不在于脂肪细胞中的热量过多,而是血液中的热量太少。这就是靠减少热量摄入无法成功减肥的原因。Q. That’s very different from the conventional wisdom that weight loss boils down to calories in, calories out.问:这与将减肥归结为热量收的传统观念有很大差异呢。A. Yes. An analogy would be like trying to treat a fever with an ice bath. Imagine going to the hospital with a very high fever, and the doctor says, “Fever is just a problem of heat balance – too much heat in the body, not enough heat leaving the body.” That’s true from a physics standpoint. So the doctor decides to put you in an ice bath. That will work temporarily. An ice bath will break your fever. But imagine what’s going to happen. Your body is going to fight back furiously with severe shivering and blood vessel constriction and you’ll feel miserable. You’ll want out of that ice bath as soon as possible. For that reason, ice baths are not a popular treatment for fever.答:是啊。我们可以拿“试图用冰浴退烧”来做个类比。想像一下,你因为发高烧而去医院就诊,医生跟你说:“发烧只是热平衡的问题——体内热量过多,散热不足。”从物理学的角度来看,这倒是也没错——于是医生决定让你接受冰浴。暂时看来,这当然会有效,冰浴确实能让你的体温降低。但是,请想像一下接下来会发生什么。你的身体很快会对低温环境做出反击,你剧烈颤抖,血管收缩,你觉得苦不堪言,渴望尽快从那冰浴中逃离。所以,医生根本不会把冰浴作为退烧的常用治疗手法。Q. So in this analogy, how do you treat the underlying cause?问:那么,仍然借用这个类比来说,你认为应如何针对病因加以治疗呢?A. A much more effective approach is to lower the body’s temperature set point, which is done with medicine like aspirin. Put biology on your side by eating the right way, and weight loss occurs naturally as a fever would break if you treat the underlying cause of the fever.答:利用阿司匹林等药物降低体温调定点是较为有效的方法。正如你想要退烧,就要治疗发烧的根本原因一样,当你食用正确的食物时,生物学规律就会自然而然地帮你减肥。Q. If it’s not overeating, then what is the underlying cause of obesity?问:如果肥胖的根本原因不是暴饮暴食,那又是什么呢?A. It’s the low fat, very high carbohydrate diet that we’ve been eating for the last 40 years, which raises levels of the hormone insulin and programs fat cells to go into calorie storage overdrive. I like to think of insulin as the ultimate fat cell fertilizer.答:是近40年来我们的低脂肪但碳水化合物非常高的饮食,它会提高胰岛素的水平,促使脂肪细胞过度储存热量。我喜欢把胰岛素称为脂肪细胞的首要增肥剂。When someone with Type 1 diabetes first comes to attention, their blood sugar is high because they can’t make enough insulin. They invariably have lost weight. They may be eating 5,000 calories a day, and they’re still losing weight. You can’t gain weight without insulin. The opposite is also true. If you give someone with diabetes too much insulin, they will inevitably gain weight. Insulin programs the body to store calories, and most of those calories get stored in the fat cells. If you’ve got too much insulin, you’re going to store too many calories. This has been very well established scientifically.当I型糖尿病刚刚出现时,病患的身体因为无法制造出足够的胰岛素,血糖总是很高。他们几乎无一例外都非常消瘦。虽然他们每天可摄入多达5000卡路里的热量,体重仍在不断地减轻。没有足够的胰岛素,你就长不胖。反之亦然。要是你给某个糖尿病患者注射了过量的胰岛素,他就会不可避免地增加体重。胰岛素促使身体存储热量,这些热量大多会以脂肪的形式储存在脂肪细胞里。如果你体内的胰岛素过多,你就会储存过多的热量。这些都已经得到了科学的充分实。Q. How do you get your obese patients to lower their insulin?问:那要如何才能降低肥胖症患者的胰岛素水平呢?A. The quickest way to lower insulin is to cut back on processed carbohydrates and to get the right balance of protein and fat in your diet. A high fat diet is really the fastest way to shift metabolism. It lowers insulin, calms fat cells down and gets people out of the cycle of hunger, craving and overeating.答:降低胰岛素的最快办法是少吃经加工的碳水化合物,并均衡摄入蛋白质和脂肪。其实,高脂肪饮食是改变新陈代谢的最迅速的方法。它可以降低胰岛素水平,让脂肪细胞不再忙于囤积脂肪,人就摆脱了“饥饿—食欲—暴饮暴食”的怪圈。Q. It sounds like the program you’re advocating is the Atkins diet.问:这么说,你崇尚阿特金斯饮食(Atkins diet)?A. No, this is different. The Atkins diet is a very low carbohydrate diet, which in its classic form means you can’t eat much fruit let alone any other carbohydrate. Many people don’t require – and are probably unwilling to sustain – the rigors of a very low carbohydrate diet. I think that except for people with aly very severe metabolic problems like Type 2 diabetes, such restrictive regimens are not usually necessary.答:不,我推荐的减肥方案与之不同。阿特金斯饮食是碳水化合物含量非常低的饮食。在典型的阿特金斯饮食中,你不能吃太多的水果,更遑论其他的碳水化合物。很多人并不需要——而且很可能也不愿意维持这样严格的低碳水化合物饮食。我认为,只要你没有II型糖尿病之类非常严重的代谢问题,一般无需执行这种限制太多的治疗方案。Q. How does this program work?问:那你的治疗方案是怎样的?A. Our program has three phases. First we tell people to give up processed carbohydrates, added sugars and all grain products for two weeks. The carbohydrates you eat should be a range of nonstarchy vegetables, fruits and beans. After two weeks, we reintroduce whole kernel grains, potatoes – except for white potatoes – and a little bit of added sugars. You do this until your weight comes down to a new, lower set point. It could be a few weeks, or it could be many months for someone who has a more significant weight problem.答:我们的治疗方案分为三个阶段。首先,我们要求人们在两周内完全不食用经加工的碳水化合物、添加糖和所有的谷物制品。你可以吃碳水化合物,但应该选择各种非淀粉类蔬菜、水果和豆类。两周后,你可以在膳食中添加全粒谷物、薯类(土豆除外)和一点点的添加糖。请坚持这样的饮食,直到你的体重下降到一个新的、较低的调定点上。这可能需要几个星期,对于体重问题较为严重的人甚至需要数个月的时间。Q. Where do you stand on saturated fat?问:你对饱和脂肪怎么看?A. I think throughout the public health establishment we’re recognizing that saturated fat isn’t Public Health Enemy No. 1. But it’s also not necessarily a health food. There are many different kinds of saturated fats, and each of these has different effects on the body. But when you reduce processed carbohydrates and your insulin levels decrease, the saturated fat you consume burns faster and it doesn’t stick around the body as long.答:我认为,整个公共卫生界正逐渐认识到饱和脂肪并非公共健康的头号公敌——但它也未必是健康食品。饱和脂肪有很多不同的种类,每种对人体各有不同的影响。不过,当你减少经加工的碳水化合物的摄入量,胰岛素水平下降后,你燃烧摄入的饱和脂肪的速度就会加快,它就不会一直赖在你的身体里。We have to stop thinking about saturated fat as either just good or bad. Our meal plan is based on whole natural foods, which include saturated fat. But we make sure to balance that with lots of mono- and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, nuts, avocado and flaxseed oil.我们不应再单纯地考虑饱和脂肪是好是坏。我们的膳食计划的基础是全天然食品,其中包括了饱和脂肪。但必须确保我们在摄入饱和脂肪的同时,摄入大量的单不饱和脂肪和多不饱和脂肪,如橄榄油、坚果、鳄梨和亚麻籽油,让这两者之间达到均衡。Q. Ultimately, what do you want people to take away from this book?问:最后,你希望读者从这本书中学到什么?A. Until we address the underlying drivers of weight gain – which are fat cells stuck in calorie storage overdrive – we are going to be in a battle between mind and metabolism that we just can’t win. Cutting back on calories won’t do it. That doesn’t change biology. To change biology, you have to change the kinds of foods you’re eating.答:脂肪细胞过度囤积热量是我们体重增加的根本原因,如果不能解决这个问题,我们就注定要在意志与新陈代谢之间的战斗中一败涂地。减少热量摄入达不到这个目标,它不会改变你的生理状态;而要改变生理状态,你必须改变你的食物种类。 /201601/423717

  Yuan Dynasty元朝Social Economy and Culture社会经济与文化As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty.正如中国其他时期的不同年代一样,丰富的文化多样性在元朝得以发展。The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular.文化上的主要成就在于戏剧和小说的发展以及对于本地文字书写的增多。Given the unified rule of central Asia, trades between East and West flourished.统治了整个中亚之后,东西方的贸易交往得到了振兴。The Mongols’ extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange.蒙古国与西亚和欧洲的广泛联系创造了一定的文化交流。Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts.西方的乐器传入中国,丰富了国内的表演艺术。From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest.从这个时代开始,由于中亚的穆斯林,越来越多的西北和西南部的中国人转而信奉伊斯兰教。Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration.景教和天主教同样得到了一段时间的默许。Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions.尽管传统道教受到了蒙古人的迫害,喇嘛教(藏传佛教)却繁荣发展。Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society.为了保持对于汉人的统治,在分裂时期被北方弃用的儒家政策和以儒家经典为基础的科举制在元朝时期得到了恢复。Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, and geography, and scientific education.旅游文学、制图学、地理学和科学教育领域取得了进步。Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards, and medical literature, were introduced in Europe, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China.当薄玻璃制造和法蓝瓷工艺在中国兴起时,一些核心的中国发明例如印刷术、瓷器制造、纸牌以及医药文学传至欧洲。The first records of travel by Westerners date from this time.西方人的第一部游记追溯到这个时期。The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to “Cambaluc” the Great Khan’s capital (now Beijing),and of life there astounded the people of Europe.这个时代最著名的旅者是人马可波罗,他对于自己到元朝都城“堪巴禄克”(今北京)的旅行以及那里人们的生活震惊了欧洲人。The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved.蒙古人还广泛进行公共工程的建设。To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire.道路和水陆交通得到了整顿和改进。The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks.为了对抗可能发生的饥荒,国家的每个地方都建立了粮仓。During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated.北京城被重建,新建了包括人工湖、假山和花园在内的皇家建筑。These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland as well as maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated the first direct Chinese contacts with Europe.元朝时期,经历了全面翻修,北京成为了大运河的终点。Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations.这些贸易导向型的发展不仅鼓励了陆路贸易还激励了贯穿亚洲的海上贸易,并促进了中国与欧洲的首次直接联系。Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major new food crop—sorghum—along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.中原和蒙古前往西方的旅者可以再水利工程方面提供帮助,同时为朝廷带回新的科技发现与建筑创造。与西方的联系还为中国带来了一种新的主要粮食作物——高粱以及其他一些国外的食物和制作工艺。 /201512/412227

  Volunteer firefighter Patrick Hardison, a 41-year-old resident of Senatobia, Mississippi, suffered extensive facial burns after responding to a residential fire in 2001 -- and his life has never been the same.2001年,美国密西西比州塞纳托比亚41岁的志愿消防员哈迪森在居民区救火时,脸部被大面积烧伤——从此他的生活彻底改变了。He lost his eyelids, ears, lips, most of his nose and all facial hair in the accident. Ever since, Hardison would wear a basketball cap, sunglasses, and prosthetic ears to cover his wounds while in public. But now, he has a new face.在那次大火中,他失去了眼睑、耳朵、嘴唇、几乎整个鼻子以及所有面部毛发。从那以后,哈迪森外出时会戴上篮球帽、墨镜和假耳朵来遮盖他的伤疤。但现在,他有了一张全新的脸。Hardison underwent a face transplant surgery at New York University#39;s Langone Medical Center in August, receiving a new face, scalp, ears, chin, cheeks, nose, eyelids, and the eye muscles that control blinking. Now that he is successfully recovering, the procedure is being called the most extensive face transplant to date, and the first in New York.今年8月,哈迪森在纽约大学朗格尼医学中心接受了面部移植手术,包括新的面皮、头皮、耳朵、下巴、脸颊、鼻子、眼睑和控制眨眼动作的肌肉。现在,他恢复的很顺利,这次手术被称为史上最大面积的脸部移植手术,也是纽约的第一例。The hospital announced the surgery in a press conference on Monday.医院在周一举行的新闻发布会上透露了手术情况。Enabling Hardison to open and close his eyelids was the surgery#39;s primary purpose, said Dr. Eduardo Rodriguez, a plastic surgeon at the center who led the 26-hour procedure. It#39;s the first time that doctors have transplanted a patient#39;s eyelids.为哈迪森进行了26个小时手术的外科整形医生罗德里格斯说,让哈迪森能睁眼和闭眼是这次手术的主要目的。医生移植病人的眼睑,这是第一次。;We often think how one could live with this type of injury, but Patrick did. He persisted,; Rodriguez said.“我们常常会想一个人怎么能承受得了这样的伤痛,但是哈迪森做到了。他一直在坚持着,”罗德里格斯说。Surgeons completed the procedure using the face of 26-year-old David Rodebaugh, a Brooklyn bike mechanic who was pronounced brain dead after a bicycle accident and who donated his organs through Live On NY donor network. The doctors attached Rodebaugh#39;s facial tissue to Hardison#39;s face, connecting some nerves and major veins while allowing other nerves to regenerate.此次手术用的是布鲁克林地区26岁自行车修理师戴维·罗得鲍的面部组织。罗得鲍骑车遇险,医生宣布脑死亡,他的器官被捐献给纽约“生命延续”捐赠网络。医生将罗得鲍的面部组织与哈迪森的面部组织进行接合,连接部分神经和主动脉,以使其他神经再生。;I am deeply grateful to my donor and his family,; Hardison said in a statement. ;Even though I did not know who they would be, I prayed for them every day, knowing the difficult decision they would have to make in order to help me. I hope they see in me the goodness of their decision. I also want to thank Dr. Rodriguez and his amazing team. They have given me more than a new face. They have given me a new life.;哈迪森在一份声明中说:“我十分感谢我的器官捐赠者和他的家庭,虽然我不认识他们,但我每天为他们祈祷。我知道为了帮助我,他们一定经历了艰难地做决定的过程。我希望他们能在我身上,看到他们所做出的决定是多么美好。我也要感谢罗德里格斯医生和他出色的团队。他们给我的不仅是一张全新的脸,更是全新的生命。”More than 100 physicians, nurses, technical staff, and support staff collaborated on the operation, which has given Hardison improved facial function. They also helped him through his recovery and rehabilitation after the procedure.在改进哈迪森面部功能的手术中,有100多名医生、护士、技术以及辅助人员参与其中。他们还帮哈迪森度过了术后的恢复和康复阶段。The cost of the procedure is comparable to a liver transplant, Rodriguez said.罗德里格斯医生说,整个手术的成本相当于肝脏移植手术。Hardison is continuing to receive extensive rehabilitation therapy to help with his facial strength and speech.哈迪森仍将继续接受全面的康复治疗,以恢复面部肌肉力量,恢复语言表达。;The fact that we were able to perform this and the patient was able to come out of the operating room safely is a very important, historic event,; Rodriguez said. ;Now we have proven that the technology, the ability to transplant faces, has advanced.;罗德里格斯医生说:“我们能够成功完成手术,病人能平安走出手术室——这是极其重要的历史性事件。现在我们已经明了人类医学进行面部移植的技术和能力又有了新的提升。” /201511/410718。

  How many times have you gone to the gym and asked yourself, ;Which should I do first: cardio or strength training?; The answer depends on whom you ask.有多少次你去健身房,然后问自己,“到底是先进行有氧运动,还是先进行力量训练呢?”问题的取决于你问谁。A recent study commissioned by the American Council on Exercise suggests that the order in which you do various exercises matters to your body and mind. The study also found that performing cardio exercises ( running, cycling, swimming or jumping rope, for instance) before strength training (think weightlifting or resistance exercise) appears to be most beneficial.最近,由美国运动协会负责的一项研究表明,你做各种各样运动的顺序对你的身体和心理有很重要的影响。研究还发现,先进行有氧运动(比如跑步,骑自行车,游泳,跳绳等)再做力量训练(如举重和抗阻训练),似乎是最有益的。While the findings from this type of research are valuable, they#39;re not the be-all and end-all. Sometimes it makes more sense to start with cardio and other times you#39;re better off hitting the weights first, when you#39;re well-rested and fresh. Here are several scenarios that can help you determine how to sequence your exercise:虽然这类研究的结果很有价值,但它们并不是运动的全部和终结。有时候先做有氧运动更有意义,而有时如果你休息充分又神清气爽,先做举重训练倒不失为一个明智的选择。下面是一些情景,来帮助你决定如何安排运动的次序。Strength train first if: You engage in cardio exercise four to five days a week and also lift weights on two of those days. Beginning with strength training (after a warm up) and finishing with a moderate cardio workout will help you make the most of your limited strength training sessions. The two workout days when you skip the weights can be saved for high-intensity cardio workouts.力量训练优先:如果你一周内进行有氧运动四五天并且其中两天都有举重,那这个时候,热身之后开始力量训练,并以适度的有氧锻炼来结尾,将会帮助你充分利用有限的力量训练。其中遗漏举重的两天可以用来存贮力量,以备高强度的有氧锻炼。Do cardio first if: You have a relatively easy strength training session planned. No matter how hard you push during your cardio, you probably won#39;t significantly compromise your lower-intensity lifting.有氧运动优先:你计划中的力量训练相对比较简单。无论你多么努力地进行有氧运动,你可能不要明显地在低强度的举重上妥协。Do cardio, then strength train, then cardio again if: You like to switch up your routine and cardio is your primary focus. Start your workout with 20 minutes of cardio, then strength train, then finish with 20 more minutes of cardio.先有氧运动,然后力量训练,再回到有氧运动:如果你想改变一下惯例并且有氧运动是你优先考虑的。那请以20分钟的有氧运动来开始,然后进行力量训练,然后再以20分钟的有氧运动结束。Strength train, then do cardio, then strength train again if: Improving total body muscle fitness is your major goal. Start with lower body strength exercises, then do 30 minutes of cardio and finish off with your upper body strength routine.力量训练,然后是有氧运动,接着回到力量训练:如果改善肌适能是你的主要目标。那么以下肢的力量训练开始,然后进行30分钟的有氧运动,并以上肢的力量训练结束。Choosing the Right Sequence for You选择合适的运动顺序You may go through phases in your training when developing your cardio fitness is more important to you than developing strength, or vice versa. During those phases, I recommend starting each workout with the activity that is your priority in order to achieve optimal results.在你的锻炼中,你会经历有氧健身比力量训练更重要的阶段,反之亦然。期间,我建议从你擅长的活动开始以此来达到最理想的效果。By mixing up the workout approach -- cardio first on some days, strength training first on other days, cardio and strength on separate days, and even two separate workouts in one day -- you can reap many health and fitness benefits.通过把这些锻炼方式结合起来——时而有氧优先,时而力量训练优先,或者有氧和力量分开在不同的日子,甚至两种不同的锻炼在同一天——你可以收获健康和健身的益处。The added variety can also provide a much needed mental and physical break. Changing the timing and order of the exercises in a workout program is yet another way to keep workouts fresh, eliminate boredom, avoid training plateaus and achieve maximum results. Ultimately, what matters most is that you consistently perform both cardio and strength training -- in any order, on any days, at any time -- and progressively challenge yourself to improve your overall fitness.额外的运动种类可以让你的心理和身体得到休息。在锻炼中改变时间和顺序还是保持锻炼的新鲜感的另一个途径,还可以消除乏味,摆脱运动停滞期,来达到最大的效果。最后,最重要的是不论你用什么顺序,在哪天,在什么时间,你要始终如一的进行有氧和力量训练,并逐步地挑战自己来增强整体素质。Cedric X. Bryant, Ph.D., FACSM, is the chief science officer at the American Council on Exercise,where he is a national and international lecturer, writer and subject-matter expert. Dr. Bryant is also a member of the Institute of Medicine#39;s Round table on Obesity Solutions and serves as vice chair of the Osteoarthritis Action Alliance#39;s Physical Activity Working Group. He has participated in the Aspen Institute#39;s Project Play Summit and served on the National Physical Activity Plan#39;s Health Care Sector Expert Panel. Dr. Bryant helps to advance ACE#39;s mission and impact by staying at the forefront of applied physiological research, exercise training methods, and health and fitness trends.美国运动医学会会员塞德里克·布莱恩特士,是美国运动协会的首席科学执行官,是国内和国际发言人,作者和主题专家。布莱恩特士还是研究肥胖问题的医学圆桌会议学会的成员,担任骨关节炎体育活动小组联盟的副主席。他还参与了阿斯彭研究所的项目峰会并务于国家体育活动计划的卫生保健行业专家小组。他帮助美国电影电视剪接师协会完成任务,在应用生理研究的前沿,运动训练方法和健康健身趋势方面造成了影响。 /201510/403939

  Many people wonder what the secret to long-lasting love is. Whilst mutual trust, loyalty and a shared love of Game Of Thrones might spring to mind, scientists believe they#39;ve determined the formula to figuring out whether you#39;re well-suited to your partner - and it#39;s all down to how you behave together. A study published in the Journal of Family and Marriage has identified four types of relationship and revealed which type is most likely to get married.许多人都好奇爱情常青的秘密。我们心里最先想到的就是相互信任、忠诚和《权力的游戏》中的那种同心同德。科学家们相信他们已经确定了一种公式,这种公式能够搞清楚你和伴侣是否彼此合适——这完全取决于你们在一起时的行为。一项发表在《家庭与婚姻》杂志上的研究声称其确定了四种爱情类型,并公布了最可能结婚的爱情类型。Do you and your partner have a rollercoaster relationship? You fit into the first group, which is dubbed #39;dramatic#39;?你和伴侣有着“过山车”式的感情吗?那么你就属于第一类情侣了。这种类型的情侣被戏称为“戏剧性情侣”。The #39;dramatic#39; section of participants weren#39;t exactly consistent in their affections, often justifying the bad elements of their relationship by claiming that they #39;weren#39;t good together#39;; they are the most likely to break up.“戏剧性情侣”对待感情并不始终如一,他们经常用“我们在一起并不幸福”来解释感情中的负面因素;这类情侣最有可能分手。Scientists also identified a second group called the conflict-ridden couples who tend to argue a lot. Unlike the dramatic couples, though, this second group weren#39;t as likely to break up and didn#39;t have a tainted future.科学家还定义了第二种情侣,即“吵架倾向型”情侣,这类情侣经常吵架。和“戏剧性情侣”不同,第二种情侣不大容易分手,未来也不太糟糕。The third group - the socially involved - place high emphasis on social approval. So, these couples attribute social reasons - such as #39;my parents and friends like them#39; - for the positive points in their relationship. This type of couple have a bright future thanks to the importance they place on common social networks, as well as having a solid foundation of friendship and cite their partner as their #39;best friend#39; as well as their lover.第三种情侣——“社交参与型情侣”——很重视社会认同。所以这些情侣会把社会原因当做感情中的积极因素,比如“我父母和朋友都喜欢他们”。由于此类情侣重视共同的社交网络、有着坚固的友情基础,并且把对方当做最好的“朋友”和“情人”,所以他们的未来十分明朗。The final - and most successful - group is hailed the partner-focussed commitments.They have plenty of positive turning points in their relationship and credit their success to having plenty in common, as well as spending a lot of time together focussing on each other#39;s needs. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this group were the least likely to break up - and it#39;s all thanks to them being conscientiousness, indicating that they#39;re people who make long-term relationship goals.最后一种——也是最成功的一种——“专注伴侣承诺型”情侣。他们的感情中有许多正面能量,他们把各自的成功归功于彼此的共同点;同时他们也会花费很多时间用于关注对方的需求。毫无意外,此类情侣最不可能分手——这都归功于他们的责任心。当然,这也意味着他们视彼此为长期伴侣目标。 /201601/421232aA celebrated photographer has sold a picture of an Irish potato for 1m euros.著名摄影师的一张土豆照竟能以100万欧元(约合714万元人民币)的价钱卖出。Kevin Abosch, 46, confirmed he had sold the photograph of an organic potato shot on a black background to an unnamed European businessman.46岁的凯文·阿布奇实,他的一幅以黑色为背景、以有机土豆为主题的照片已被一位欧洲商人买下。但他未透露商人姓名。The photograph, which was taken in 2010, sits alongside shots of Steven Spielberg, Michael Palin, Facebook#39;s Sheryl Sandberg and Malala Yousafzai in the sought-after photographer#39;s portfolio.在这位大牌摄影师的照片墙上,与土豆照并列挂出的还有不少名人照,包括史蒂芬·斯皮尔伯格、迈克尔·帕林、脸书的谢丽尔·桑德伯格以及马拉拉·尤萨夫扎伊等。土豆照拍摄于2010年。Mr Abosch#39;s portraits are typically commissioned for at least 260,000 euros.阿布奇的人物系列的挂牌价至少要26万欧元每幅。There are three versions of the potato print in existence—one belongs in his private collection, another was donated to an art museum in Serbia and the third was sold to the unnamed businessman.这个土豆照现存共有三幅:一幅由阿布奇私人收藏,一幅捐给了塞尔维亚一家艺术物馆,最后就是卖给匿名商人的这幅。He told the Sunday Times: ;It#39;s not the first time that someone has bought the art right off my wall.;阿布奇告诉《星期日泰晤士报》:“买主看中了墙上的挂照,便直接买走。这种情况已经不是第一次发生了。”;We had two glasses of wine and he said, #39;I really like that#39;. Two more glasses of wine and he said: #39;I really want that.#39;“当时,两杯葡萄酒下肚后,他(买主)说:#39;我非常喜欢这幅。#39;后来我们又喝了几杯,他说:#39;我太想要这幅了。#39;”;We set the price two weeks later. It is the most I have been paid for a piece of work that has been bought [rather than commissioned].;“两周后,我们谈妥价钱。在我所有的直接成交(不包括委托中间商的成交)历史中,这幅是卖得最贵的。”The Irish photographer#39;s trademark portraits on a black background have been highly sought after among the rich and famous - last week he was invited to the World Economic Forum in Davos.这位爱尔兰摄影师的人物肖像照在富人和名人中极受追捧,照片都是简单的黑色背景。上周他还获邀参加了在瑞士达沃斯举办的世界经济论坛。Mr Abosch said he is not sure what happened to the potato in question—called Potato #345—as he photographed many for a special series.阿布奇称,照片中的这个土豆标号“345”。他当时在拍一个特辑,拍了很多照片。他并不清楚这个土豆最后怎么样了。 /201601/424505

  In a survey of over 2.6 million engaged people, Facebook found that 30 per cent of them became engaged across November and December.“脸书”在一项对超过260万名已订婚人士的调查中发现,其中大约30%的人是在每年的11-12月这一期间求婚的。While Valentine#39;s Day is traditionally known as the most romantic day of the year, and confirmed as the most popular day for dates - it is Christmas Eve that is deemed the best day for popping the question.尽管传统上人们认为情人节是一年之中最浪漫的节日,也是最流行的约会日,但事实上平安夜才是最佳的求婚日。The date of choice could be for a number of reasons - the ability to give a Christmas present and engagement ring at once or perhaps, allow a year to plan ahead of a summer wedding.选择平安夜求婚有很多原因,或许是因为可以把圣诞礼物跟订婚戒指来个;二合一;,或者是如果求婚成功,就可以为来年夏天的婚礼留出半年准备时间。And while the Christmas period may be the most popular time for those wanting to propose, it is not a preferred time when it comes to tying the knot.圣诞节期间对那些想要求婚的人来说可能是最受欢迎的时间点,但是,它却不是更受青睐的结婚时间。In Australia, McCrindle research revealed Christmas Day has an average of just 37 weddings booked each year - a very large difference to the average 2,000 weddings taking place on Saturdays across the country.在澳大利亚,据麦克林德尔研究所统计显示,平均每年圣诞节只有37场婚礼,这与定于周末的平均每年2000场婚礼的数字形成了鲜明对比。And interestingly, a whopping average of 923 weddings occur on Australia Day.有趣的是,平均会有923场婚礼发生在澳大利亚国庆节这一天。 /201512/418215Enfeoffment: After the eastern expedition, King Wu carried out the enfeoffment policy in order to strengthen control over the country and protect the interests of the royal family.周初的“裂国分邦”:东征结束后,周武王为了加强对全国广大地区的统治,便实行大分封,以保障王室的利益。It is said that the Zhou Dynasty enfeoffed 71 small feudal states in the early years, among them 53 states#39;family names were Ji.据说,周初分封了七十一国,姬姓之国共有53个。These fiefs were big or small, some in Jinei—the central region, others distrbuted throughout the whole country,mingled with the established states, as consolidated the royal power directly.这些封国大小不等,有的是畿内的采邑。它们广泛地分布在中原地区内,与众多的旧国错杂在一起,这就直接加强了周王室的统治力量。The System of Hereditary Kingship :The Western Zhou practiced the system of hereditary kingship combined with a patriarchal clan system, which is a power division system with the essential feature of having the wife#39;s eldest son a heir.王位世袭制:西周实行王位世袭制,此制度是与宗法制度结合在一起的。宗法制度是以嫡长子继承制为基本特点的权力分配制度。Within the clan there was a distinction between major and minor lineages. The king made the eldest son born of his wife heir to the throne, who was called crown prince. The other sons born of his wife and of his concubines became the heads of minor lineages as Qing and Dafu in the central government.周王为天下的大宗,其嫡长子为宗子,是王位继承者,称世子;庶子为小宗,留在中央为卿、大夫。The vassal lords with the royal surname belonged to minor lineages in relation to the king, but in their own states they established the same kind of lineage system.诸侯对天子而言是小宗,但在其封国内却是大宗。A dafu (great officer) belonged to a minor lineage in relation to the vassal lord, but within his own fief he also maintained the same system Dazong/King.卿大夫对诸侯而言是小宗,但在其采邑内却是大宗。Thus by combining blood relationship with an enfeoffment policy, the nobles bearing the same surname were united.血亲与分封制度相结合,将同姓贵族紧紧联系在一起。At the same time, the royal house intermarried with the ruling families of the fiefdoms and became related to those with different surnames.同时皇室与大家族通婚,又将各种异姓势力联系在一起。Such a clan relationship coupled with intermarriages strengthened the ties between the royal house and the vassal lords.这种宗族关系加上通婚加强了皇室与诸侯的联系。The king of the Zhou was regarded as a descendant of God coming to the earthly world with the bestowed power by Heaven or God and controled the earthly world.周王被视为天之子,受天之命以君临人间。The official system:The official system of Zhou was more complicated.六官制:西周的中央官制更为复杂。According to the Book of Rites , there were six ministers in the period of Zhou. The prime minister headed various officials, assisting the Zhou king. There were a minister of civil administration and land affairs (Si Tu), a minister of royal house affairs (Zong Bo), a minister of military affairs (Si Ma), a minister of construction (Si Kong), a minister of justice (Si Kou), and officials in charge of agriculture.据《周礼》记载,周有六官,亦称六卿:宰相 统率百官,辅佐天子,司徒管土地和人民,宗伯管王族事务,司马管军事,司寇管刑法,司空管公共工程,还有负责农业生产的官员。All of them were called Qing Da Fu or Shi. Most of the official posts were held by nobles, so when the father died, the son could inherit the position.这些官员统称为卿大夫或士,都由大小贵族充当,父死子继。The salary of officials came from fiefs, which were inside the capital, and the fiefs were also hereditary. The political organization in each fiefdom was similar to that at the royal court.官员都以采邑为俸禄,采邑在王畿内亦世袭。封地内的官制与朝廷大体相当。 /201511/407424

  While the new media artist Lu Yang was studying at the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou in the 2000s, she drew up a series of works dealing with mind control. Many were deemed too sensitive, even borderline unethical, and remain unrealized. But with the help of the Fukuoka Asian Art Museum in Japan, Ms. Lu was able to obtain dead frogs that had been used in a medical dissection to produce one of the works. The result is a six-minute called “Reanimation! Underwater Zombie Frog Ballet” (2011), in which frogs wired to electrodes dance in water to a funky electronic beat.当新媒体艺术家陆扬于2000年代初在杭州的中国美术学院学习时,她绘制了一系列有关精神控制的作品。许多作品被认为过于敏感,甚至近乎不合伦理,因而仍未实际做出来。但在日本福冈亚洲美术馆的帮助下,陆扬得到了曾用于医学解剖的死青蛙,来创作一个作品。其结果就是2011年的《复活!僵尸青蛙水下芭蕾!》(Reanimation! Underwater Zombie Frog Ballet)。这段六分钟视频中,青蛙被连接到电极上,随着强烈的电子节拍在水下跳舞。Since graduating in 2010, the Shanghai-born Ms. Lu, 30, has produced a series of boundary-pushing multimedia works that explore neuroscience, mortality and religion.自2010年毕业以来,今年30岁、出生于上海的陆扬已经创作了一系列突破界限的多媒体作品,探索神经科学、死亡和宗教。In “Uterus Man” (2013), she collaborated with musicians, manga artists and others to create a project centered on an anime-style character called Uterus Man who rides a “pelvis chariot” and skateboards on a winged sanitary pad.在2013年的作品《子宫战士》(Uterus Man)中,她与音乐人、漫画家及其他人共同创作了一个项目,以一个叫做“子宫战士”的动漫风格的人物为中心,这个人物驾驶“骨盆战车”,并把护翼卫生巾当成滑板踩着。In “Moving Gods” (2015), which was featured in the China Pavilion at the 2015 Venice Biennale, Ms. Lu redefines the nimbus — the halo often seen in images of sacred figures — in what is meant to be a “sabotage” of ancient religious icons.在2015年的作品《移动神佛》(Moving Gods)中,陆扬重新定义了光背——即在神佛的画像中,背后常见的光晕——它意味着对古代宗教偶像的“破坏”。这个作品在2015双年展的中国馆里进行过展出。Her latest work is “Lu Yang Delusional Mandala” (2015), presented in September in a solo show at Beijing Commune. It applies concepts like stereotactic mapping and deep-brain stimulation to simulate a “delusion” in which Ms. Lu destroys her own body and work.她最新的作品是今年的《陆扬妄想曼陀罗》(Lu Yang Delusional Mandala),9月曾在北京公社的个展中展出过。它应用了类似于立体定向和深层脑刺激的概念来模拟“妄想”,陆扬在作品中对自己的身体和作品进行了摧毁。In an interview, Ms. Lu reflected on the human body, growing up in Shanghai and her collaboration with a Japanese asexual artist.陆扬在接受采访时思考了人体,回顾了在上海的成长,也讲述了与一位日本无性艺术家的合作。Q: How did you become interested in the subject of the body?问:你是怎样开始对身体主题发生兴趣的?A: When I was a child, I spent a lot of time in hospital emergency rooms because I had asthma. So naturally I became interested in the idea of medical treatment and the body. The body is fascinating to me because it is totally objective. There is no right or wrong. That’s why in my work I don’t indicate the value or the aim of things. I use a very cold and calm approach.答:从我还是个孩子的时候就开始了,因为我有哮喘,我在医院急诊室度过了很多时间。所以我自然而然地对医疗和身体的概念产生了兴趣。身体是很奇妙的,因为它是完全客观的,没有对和错。这就是为什么在我的作品中,不表达事物的价值或目的。我会用一种很冷、很平静的视角。Another theme in my work is religion. It’s more difficult to get into religion when you’re older because you’re more skeptical. But growing up, my family was pretty religious. I often my grandmother’s books about Buddhism, which made me really interested in religion.我作品中的另一个主题是宗教。当你年纪大一些时,就更难信仰宗教,因为会更加怀疑。但在我的成长过程中,我的家庭相当虔诚。我经常阅读我祖母有关佛教的书,这使我对宗教非常感兴趣。Q: Does your family have a background in art?问:你的家庭有艺术背景吗?A: My parents were just ordinary workers at a medical company. Now they’re both retired. I don’t talk about my art with my parents. But I think they’ve probably looked up my work on the Internet. They know I make art, and they know I can make a living. I can depend on myself, so for them that’s enough.答:我的父母只是一家医疗公司的普通工作人员,现在他们都退休了。我不和父母谈论我的艺术,但我想他们可能在网上搜过我的作品。他们知道我创作艺术,知道我能以此谋生。我可以依靠自己,所以对他们来说这已经足够。Q: Did you know from a young age, growing up in Shanghai, that you wanted to be an artist?问:你在上海长大时,从很小的时候就知道自己想成为一个艺术家吗?A: I always dreamed of being an artist. But after I entered middle school, I didn’t think it would be possible. I didn’t even know what artists did exactly. I only knew that artists could be creative in their work.答:我一直梦想成为一个艺术家。但在我上中学之后,我还不认为这是可能的。我甚至不知道艺术家到底是做什么的。我只知道,艺术家们可以在他们的作品中发挥创造力。I was able to get into the China Academy of Art because I really liked to paint. I was growing up at about the same time that Chinese contemporary art was beginning to emerge, so I learned about contemporary art early on. When I was in middle school, my classmates were interested in the latest trends, but I wanted to find more special things, so I started going to galleries and listening to Japanese music. Later, in high school, I subscribed to some magazines about contemporary art.我能够进入中国美术学院,是因为我真的喜欢画画。我成长在中国当代艺术开始萌芽的同一时期,所以很早我就了解了当代艺术。我在中学的时候,同学们都对最新的流行感兴趣,但我想寻找更特别的东西,所以我开始去画廊并且听日本音乐。后来,我在高中时订阅了一些有关当代艺术的杂志。Q: What were some of your early influences?问:有哪些东西对你产生了早期影响?A: I used to like Western rock music, but I don’t really listen to it anymore. I was also exposed to Japanese culture at an early age. In Shanghai, a lot of television channels played Japanese cartoons, so they had a big influence on our generation. My favorite thing today is still mainstream culture, like sci-fi movies with really good computer-generated effects and other really good Japanese animated movies. I don’t really like art-house films.答:我以前喜欢西方摇滚乐,但现在不怎么听了。我小时候也接触了日本文化。在上海,很多电视频道都播放日本卡通片,对我们这代人影响很大。我现在最喜欢的还是主流文化,像电脑特效非常好的科幻电影,还有其他很不不错的日本动画电影。但我不喜欢艺术片。Q: You often collaborate with other nonvisual artists, like the sound artist Wang Changcun and the composer Du Yun. How do these collaborations come about?问:你经常和非视觉的艺术家合作,如声音艺术家王长存和作曲家杜韵。这些合作是怎么开始的呢?A: Sometimes I search for musicians and sometimes they find me. I’ve collaborated with musicians who work in opera, death metal, electronic and pop music, and hip-hop. They are usually acquaintances or people I’ve discovered on websites like SoundCloud. The Internet is quite useful, because I don’t really interact with people that much. As long as I have access to a computer, I can make art.答:有的时候是我找音乐人,有时候是他们找我。我合作过的音乐人有从事歌剧的,有做死亡金属的,还有做电子和流行音乐以及嘻哈音乐的。通常是之前就认识人,或者是我在SoundCloud这样的网站上发现的。互联网很有用,因为我和人接触并不多。只要有电脑,我就能创作艺术。Q: What are the websites you go to?问:你通常都上哪些网站?A: One is Bilibili, a website for watching cartoons. I visit this every day.答:一个是哔哩哔哩(Bilibili),是个看卡通的网站。我每天都上。When I finish a work, I’ll upload it on Vimeo. For me, it’s important what average people online think. They’re not like people in art circles who might be really phony and say, “Oh, I like your work so much.” It’s boring if the only people who see your work are from one circle.我完成作品后,就会把作品上传到Vimeo上。对我来说,网上普通人的想法很重要。他们不像艺术圈的人,可能会很假地说:“哎呀,我太喜欢你的作品了”。如果看你作品的人来自一个圈子,就很没意思。Q: Do you identify as a Chinese artist?问:你认为自己是中国艺术家吗?A: It’s kind of inevitable that you’re labeled as one. If I have an exhibition abroad, they always say, “This is a Chinese artist.” But that’s why I say that I want to live on the Internet. That way, nobody knows who you are. People online only care about your work and whether it’s any good. They’re not thinking about who the person is behind the work. By living on the Internet, you can abandon your identity, nationality, gender, even your existence as a human being. I rather like this feeling.答:其实免不了会被贴上这个标签。如果我在国外办展览,他们总会说,“这是一位中国艺术家”。但这就是为什么我想活在网上。那样的话,没人知道你是谁。网上的人只在乎你的作品好不好。他们不去考虑谁是作品背后的那个人。在网上,你可以抛弃身份、国籍、性别,甚至是作为一个人的存在。我挺喜欢这种感觉的。Q: Can you talk about your 2013 work “Uterus Man”?问:你能不能谈谈你2013年的作品《子宫战士》?A: The human embodiment of “Uterus Man” in my work is a Japanese man named Mao Sugiyama, who had his genitals cut off and served them in a meal to other people. When I first heard about him I thought he sounded really weird. But then I noticed that he was a painter and that he had said that he hated gender labels and if he was just a painter then why did he need to have a gender? I was really moved so I got in touch with him. That’s how we started collaborating.答:我的作品里“子宫战士”的人类化身是一个叫杉山真央(Mao Sugiyama)的日本人。他做了生殖器移除手术,并将切除的部分做成食物给他人食用。我第一次听说的时候,觉得他非常诡异。但后来注意到他是一个画家,而且说过他痛恨性别标签,还说过如果自己只是一名画家,为什么还需要有性别。我非常受感动,所以和他取得了联系。我们就这样开始合作了。A lot of people think it’s a feminist work, while others think that it’s a superhero story. People project what they’re aly thinking. My own opinion is that you can’t choose your gender when you’re born and it only matters in a social context. When you’re contemplating something, you don’t consciously think, “As a man, I think this” or “As a woman, I think this.” That’s why I think society’s gender divisions are pretty absurd.很多人认为这是一部女权主义作品,其他人则认为这是一个超级英雄故事。人们会投射他们已经有的想法。我自己的观点是,你出生时无法选择性别,性别只有在社会背景下才会成为一个问题。当你在思考一件事时,不会下意识地想,“作为一个男人,我这样想”,或者“作为一个女人,我这样想”。所以,我觉得社会性别的划分很荒谬。Q: You said you basically live on the Internet and your work is influenced by things you see online. Is there any influence from real-world events or politics?问:你说过你基本上生活在网上,你的作品受到你在网上看到的东西的影响。现实世界的事件或政治对你有什么影响吗?A: The older generation of artists really like to make works concerning politics or the nation. But I think there are limitations to this creative method. If you don’t understand politics, or if you’re not from that country, you can’t understand the works.答:老一代的艺术家真的很喜欢创作与政治或国家有关的作品。但我觉得这种创作手法存在局限性。如果不了解政治,或者不是来自这个国家,就无法理解作品。I don’t really understand these kinds of things myself. I’m really scared of going to museums, because I don’t understand a lot of the works. There are things that are common to all human beings and even animals. Basically, I spend my time chasing after those universal things we all have in common.我自己实际上就不了解这类东西。我很害怕去物馆,因为不理解其中的很多作品。有一些东西是所有人类,甚至动物,共通的。所有人类,甚至动物,存在共同之处。我的时间基本上都花在研究那些我们所共有的,普世的东西上。 /201512/412982

  Playboy has covered up!《》也“从良”啦!The first nude-free issue of the 63-year-old men#39;s magazine was released to the public on Thursday.首期去裸体化《》杂志于本周四发售,宣告了其63年裸体美女插页时代的终结。The cover of the March issue features Instagram-famous model Sarah McDaniel simulating a sexy Snapchat - her arm held up as if holding the camera with a text banner ing #39;heyyy :)#39;三月刊的是网红嫩模莎拉麦克丹尼尔,封面中的她伸长胳膊像是在自拍要上传到Snapchat的性感照片一样。同时,封面图片还配有文字“嘿~ :)”。The magazine#39;s choice in cover model and social media reference appears to be a pitch to millennials, though it#39;s unclear whether the revamp will be enough to attract a generation that gets both their ing and pornography in digital form.《》此次选用网红模特做,并且模仿当下流行的社交应用,为的是吸引千禧一代的年轻人。然而对于现在习惯于看电子书和网络色情图文视频的一代人来说,此次它改头换面后的吸引力究竟有多大还不得而知。Playboy announced the historic change in October, saying it would no longer be publishing full-frontal nudity in the magazine starting with the March issue.去年十月,的高层宣布要对其杂志进行大刀阔斧的改版,称从来年三月刊起,该杂志将不再刊登正面全裸女郎图片。#39;A year and a half ago, we relaunched Playboy.com as a safe-for-work site, and traffic skyrocketed 400 percent,#39; Playboy chief content officer Cory Jones told the New York Times.《》杂志的内容总监克里琼斯对《纽约时报》的记者说:“一年半前我们就对旗下网站进行了整改,将它打造为可以安心浏览的网站。在这之后网站浏览量暴增了400倍。”#39;The average age of our visitors dropped from 47 years old to 30. It showed how the brand can still resonate.#39;“读者的平均年龄也从47岁降至30岁,这也反映出我们这个品牌经久不衰的活力。”#39;It#39;s going to be sexy, but it#39;s going to be safe for work,#39; he told CNN Money.“《》将继续展现性感,并将适合在工作场所观看。”琼斯在接受CNN财经栏目采访时这样说。The magazine has been shilling nude photos of women alongside journalism since 1953, when Marilyn Monroe stripped down for the first issue.自1953年创刊,玛丽莲梦露全裸出镜担任首期开始,《》就以其刊载的裸体女郎照片在报刊界独树一帜。While the magazine will no longer show the most private parts of a woman#39;s body, plenty of skin is still on display and women will continue to pose - albeit a bit more covered up - for the centerfold.虽然《》将不再展示女性最私密的身体部位,但是在中央折页中还是会有玉体半露的性感女郎。March#39;s centerfold is Dree Hemingway, the model daughter of actress Mariel Hemingway and a great-granddaughter of novelist Ernest Hemingway.三月刊的折页女郎是模特德莉眠明威,她是女演员马瑞尔眠明威的女儿,也是著名小说家欧内斯特眠明威的曾外孙女。Hemingway#39;s sp was shot by photographer Angelo Pennetta and features a more naturalistic look than what has been the magazine#39;s brand in the past, according to the Times, which received an advanced preview of the issue.海明威的跨页版面照片由摄影师安吉洛椠蕏呑拍摄。《泰晤士报》记者在提前获取新刊并预览后表示,海明威的照片要比该杂志以前刊登的那些模特图片更为写实。One of the most noticeable differences in the new redesign is the fact that the female models are unretouched, giving the magazine a look reminiscent of #39;American Apparel ads and fashion photographers like Terry Richardson,#39; Times reporter David Segal writes.《泰晤士报》的记者戴维缠格尔报道称,全新改版的《》有一点值得注意,那就是女模们的照片都未经修饰。她们自然的模样让人想起AA美国饰广告以及像泰利理查森那样的时尚摄影师的作品。The magazine has also cut lewd cartoons from the pages, as well as racy ads and the phrase #39;Entertainment for Men#39; - which has always appeared on the cover.改版后的《》同时也去掉了杂志中的下流插画和不雅广告,封面上也不再出现“男人的”这样的字眼。 /201602/426179。

  A new social media trend is seeing kids ripping the stuffing out of their giant teddy bears and climbing inside of them.孩子们扯出泰迪熊大玩偶里的填充物,爬进去跳舞,成了社交媒体上的新潮流。Over the past week, s of people dancing around inside the #39;skin#39; of their un-stuffed teddy bears have begun flooding Twitter.上周,人们纷纷在推特上发布视频,视频中,人们取出泰迪熊的填充物,然后钻进去穿着泰迪熊的“皮囊”跳舞。Generally showing the people-stuffed bears dancing to hip-hop, the clips have proved a huge hit on the social media website, being shared by thousands.在这些被数千人转发的热门视频中,顶着泰迪熊外壳的人们随着嘻哈音乐节拍跳舞。Among the s are bears of many sizes and colors, often surrounded by the white cotton stuffing that has just been removed from their insides.视频中的熊玩偶大小颜色各异,而且边上通常还堆着刚从玩偶里掏出来的白色填充棉花。Some of those participating in the trend seem to have found it to be the perfect way to heal after a tough break-up.一些跟潮者认为,这是治愈情伤的好办法。#39;What do you do with the giant stuffed bear your ex gave you? Cut it open and climb inside!#39; explained one Twitter user along with a of a huge plush panda bear seeming to groove along to Hit the Quan by iLoveMemphis.一位推特用户说道:“要如何处理前男友送你的大熊玩偶?剪开它,钻进去!”这位用户还附上了一段视频,视频中一个巨大的熊猫毛绒玩偶正随着iHeart Memphis(即iLoveMemphis)的热门歌曲《Hit the Quan》跳舞。More than one did their best to imitate popular modern dance moves including the Whip/Nae Nae and even twerking.穿着玩偶可劲儿跳流行舞的可不止一个人,有人跳了《Whip/Nae Nae》,还有人居然跳了电臀舞。Some of the dancers are seen crouching down to fit into their bears#39; empty shells, while other opt to maximize their movement by cutting holes in the feet to stretch their longer limbs through.为了钻进玩偶里,有些人蹲着跳舞,也有人把双手双脚从玩偶上剪的洞里伸出来,肆意舞动。The technique certainly seemed to help one dancer show off her twerking skills to Nicki Minaj#39;s Anaconda inside a strategically cut bear skin.还有人巧妙地在熊玩偶身上剪洞,穿着它跳了Nicki Minaj的《Anaconda》,秀出了高超的电臀舞技。Some of the dancers are considerably better than others, such as a young football player who proved he has moves worthy of a hip hop music as he stepped along to YG#39;s Twist My Fingaz.舞艺高超的也有不少。有名年轻的足球运动员跳了一曲YG的《Twist My Fingaz》,舞技超群,简直可称得上是一则街舞MV了。Others enlisted the help of younger brothers and sisters to slip their smaller frames into the plush toys and bust a move to the music.还有人让弟弟钻进毛绒玩具,跟着音乐纵情舞蹈。#39;I put my little sister in my bear and I can#39;t stop laughing!#39; wrote one amused older sibling on Twitter along with a clip of the little girl dancing to CA$H OUT#39;s She Twerkin#39;.有位在推特上发布了随着CA$H OUT的《She Twerkin#39;》跳舞的视频:“我让我的钻进我的熊玩偶里,看了她跳舞我笑得停不下来!”Some of the s have racked up as much as 1,400 retweets as well as thousands of likes - seeing the trend take off online.这些视频有的被转发多达1400次,并获得了数千个赞,该潮流的热度可见一斑。 /201602/425691



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