原标题: 青浦区去眼袋手术多少钱专注分享
Suppose you are an animal. Well, actually, you are an animal, but suppose you’re another kind of animal, maybe something small that might make a tasty snack for a larger predator. You’re walking along one day when you see a big dog. What do you do?假设你是一只动物。额,你其实本来就是一只动物。但假设你是另外一种动物,也许是一种可以被食肉动物当成可口点心的小动物。如果有一天你在独自散步时看到一条大,你会怎么办?Well, depending on what kind of animal you are, you have different options. A skunk can spray a noxious liquid that will repel predators, a cat can make its hair stand on end so that it seems larger than it is, or some animals, such as opossums, may pretend to be dead aly.好吧,这取决于你是哪种动物,你有不同的选择。一只臭鼬可以释放毒液击退捕食者,一只猫可以让它的毛发倒竖起来,让它看起来比往常更大,还有一些动物,比如负鼠,也许早已装死躺在地上了。There’s another strategy all these animals have, though. You’ve seen it before, but maybe never thought about it. They can freeze.其实这些动物还有另外一条策略,虽然你可能以前见过,但也许你从来没想到过。它们可以冻结。When a squirrel or a rabbit or a chipmunk freezes, it can remain almost entirely motionless for minutes at a time. Try it yourself. Whatever position you’re in right now, move nothing at all for the next minute. It’s not so easy!当一只松鼠,兔子或花栗鼠冻结时,它可以一次保持完全静止不动达数分钟之久。你自己试试。不管你现在是什么姿势,在下一分钟内保持一动也不动。这可没那么简单!The reason an ability to freeze works as a defense is that a predator’s attack behavior may actually be triggered by motion. A frog, for example, will literally starve to death in a box full of dead flies. Pass one of those flies in front of its eyes on a little string, though, and it will automatically gulp it down.冻结能作为一种防御的手段,其原因在于一个食肉动物的攻击行为可能只是由运动而引起。举例来说,一只青蛙,会在装满死苍蝇的盒子里活活饿死。用一根线绑住其中一只从它眼前经过,它就会不假思索的把苍蝇吞下去。The response to freeze is completely hard-wired, so freezing shows us something about both predator and prey. Evolution has caused the freeze strategy to come into existence precisely because it fits in with the way the visual systems of predators operate.对冻结的反应是动物与生俱来的,所以冻结给我们展现的是捕食者和被捕食者双方的特性。进化已使得冻结策略应运而生,因为它适应了捕食者视觉系统的运转方式。 /201205/183558Customers in Australia, Japan and Hong Kong began snapping up Apple Inc.#39;s (AAPL) iPhone 5 amid signs of strong demand for the high-profile handset, despite a widening controversy over its mapping features.澳大利亚、日本和香港的消费者开始抢购苹果公司(Apple Inc.Apple Inc)的iPhone 5。有迹象显示,虽然地图功能引发的争议越来越大,这款举世闻名的手机还是迎来了旺盛的需求。The action began in Australia, first on Apple#39;s schedule for kicking off sales in stores at 8 a.m. local time Friday. Hundreds of people turned out in Sydney, some waiting as long as 68 hours for the newest version of the popular Apple smartphone.根据苹果的安排,澳大利亚是第一个通过专卖店开售iPhone 5的国家。当地时间周五上午8点,大戏开幕。悉尼的销售现场聚集了数百人,一些人为买到苹果热门智能手机的最新款,最长等了68个小时。Lines at the signature store in Sydney#39;s Central Business District stretched around the corner as consumers rushed to buy the phone. Enthusiasm was so high in Australia that online betting site Sportsbet.com.au was taking bets for how long the line in Sydney would be and what would be the most popular apps downloaded.在悉尼中央商务区风格独特的苹果专卖店,随着消费者蜂拥前来购买,队伍已经排过了街角。悉尼消费者的热情如此之高,网站Sportsbet.com.au都在设局,赌悉尼的队伍会排多长,以及下载最多的应用程序会是哪些。Todd Foot, representative of mobilephonefinder.com.au, claimed to be the first person in the world to purchase an iPhone 5 Friday morning, after waiting in line since Tuesday. He said he had aly detected flaws with mapping features in the iOS 6 mobile operating system that comes with the phone.网站mobilephonefinder.com.au的代表福特(Todd Foot)声称自己是周五上午世界上第一个买到iPhone 5的人。从周二开始,他就一直在排队等候。他表示自己已经注意到新款iPhone的操作系统iOS 6上地图功能的缺陷。;Apparently it#39;s not 100% accurate, in fact the shop across the road here is the Darrell Lea store and that#39;s actually listed as the Apple store at the moment, through their own maps software, so it#39;s a bit of a joke going around,; Mr. Foot said.福特说,它好像不是百分之百的准确,事实上马路对面的那个店铺是巧克力店“Darrell Lea”,而通过苹果自己的地图软件,目前标的却是苹果专卖店,这差不多已经成了一个笑话。In Japan, the second market where the iPhone 5 went on sale, avid Apple fans-some in homemade gear such as sandwich boards fashioned to look like iPhones-also eagerly welcomed the new product.日本是第二个开售iPhone 5的市场。当地翘首以待的苹果粉丝也急不可耐地欢迎新产品的到来。一些粉丝带上了自制的装备,比如在身上挂上做成iPhone样子的广告牌。About 750 people lined up outside Apple store in Tokyo#39;s posh Ginza neighborhood as of ten minutes before opening time, chanting with a revved-up fanfare. A few blocks away a digital countdown clock ticked outside a Softbank Corp. store where several hundred more iPhone fans had lined up.东京高档社区银座的苹果专卖店外,在离开门营业还有10分钟的时候,就已有750人左右在排队,人们还伴着热烈的节奏高呼口号。几个街区之外软银(Softbank Corp.)的一个门店外,立着一个数字倒计时时钟,也有几百名iPhone粉丝已经在排队。Masayoshi Son, the founder and CEO of Softbank Corp. (9984.TO)-one of two carriers that service Apple products in Japan-led a ceremonial cheer when the count reached zero and people could buy the slimmer, longer device.软银是日本两家出售苹果产品的运营商之一。当倒计时结束、这部更细长的手机开售时,软银创始人兼CEO孙正义(Masayoshi Son)率领众人一起欢呼庆祝。;It#39;s lighter than I thought it#39;d be and the screen is big. It#39;s easy to hold,; said Mitsuya Hirosa, white iPhone in hand. The 37-year-old Tokyo resident was the first one in line outside the Apple store in Ginza. He had claimed his coveted sidewalk turf six days ago.37岁的东京居民Mitsuya Hirosa手拿白色iPhone说,手机比我想象的轻,屏幕很大,拿起来方便。他是银座苹果店外排在队伍最前面的一个,六天之前,他就占据了人行道上很多人都想占领的那块地盘。;To be the first person in line at an Apple store has a lot of meaning (as an Apple fan),; said Mr. Hirosa who works in mass communications. The iPhone is a part of my life. You never get tired of it even after using it for a long time, the design is good and it#39;s easy to use.在大众传媒行业工作的Hirosa说,成为在苹果店排队的第一人,对一个苹果粉丝来说意义非凡;iPhone是我生活的一部分,就算用了很长时间,你也从不会厌倦,它设计漂亮,使用方便。This will be his fourth iPhone model. Mr. Hirosa said he is most looking forward to using the new camera.这将是他拥有的第四款iPhone。他说,他最期待的是使用手机上的新摄像头。In Hong Kong, the scene was somewhat more subdued, with more than a dozen security guards helping to control more than a hundred excited people who gathered outside an Apple store inside a shopping mall in Hong Kong#39;s International Finance Center building.香港的场面相对冷清一些。一百多人兴奋地聚集在国际金融中心(International Finance Center)购物广场内的一家苹果专卖店外,十几位保安在帮助维持秩序。 /201209/201478

Keeping track of the hottest Chinese apps is nigh impossible. Apps, or what you hear more often in China is A-P-P, quickly come and quickly go. Right now the hottest is MYOTee, a cartoon avatar creator with dozens of options.跟踪中国最热门的应用程序几乎不可能。应用程序在中国通常被称为A-P-P,往往是迅速窜红,又马上过气。眼下,中国最火的应用是卡通头像制作应用脸萌(MYOTee),它能向用户提供几十种选择。The app got hot earlier this month around China’s Dragon Boat Festival, when over a couple days it was downloaded more than a million times, according to a QQ report. It hit the top of Apple’s free app ranking in China, according to Technode, a TechCrunch partner in China.脸萌于本月早些时候的端午节前后窜红。据QQ的一份报告称,几天之内,脸萌的下载量就已经超百万。据科技客TechCrunch中国合作伙伴Technode称,在中国,脸萌已经成为排名第一的苹果免费应用。MYOTee began as a T-shirt company using the designs of a Hong Kong artist. You created a cartoon and printed it on T-shirts, mugs, wrist bands, even a watch. Last year a former Tencent employee decided to move it into the app space. Chinese fans can transfer their characters to popular social networks Sina Weibo and Tencent’s WeChat.脸萌最初是一家使用香港某艺术家设计方案的T恤公司。用户可以创作一个卡通形象,然后印在T恤、马克杯、腕带、甚至手表上。去年,一位以前腾讯工作过的员工决定,把这种做法移植到应用程序领域。中国粉丝能将自己创作的卡通形象导入新浪微和腾讯的微信等流行的社交网络。If it is China’s next big thing, don’t expect to find it around the world. It seems “Mad Men Yourself” has a stranglehold on the avatar space in the U.S. and Europe.或许脸萌有望在中国成为下一款大红大紫的应用,但别指望它能席卷全球。欧美的头像市场似乎已被“Mad Men Yourself”应用牢牢掌握。The company has received funding from International Data Group and is seeking a second round of funding, according to Technode.据Technode称,脸萌已获美国国际数据集团(International Data Group)投资,正在进行第二轮融资。 /201406/305763

随着美国失业率接近两位数,就业机会不断减少,而限制移民的呼声却越来越高。持加强相关法规的人士甚至主张美国公民应该得到第一优先的就业机会。奥巴马政府已表示下半年将会推动综合移民改革方案,但目前还不清楚是否会通过相关立法及会对技术移民带来什么影响。一个悬而未决的问题是如何定义“技术”移民。尽管许多政治家会持相关吸引受教育良好的高收入人才的政策,但对于持H-1B签来纽约工作的外国人,争议却越来越多。Skilled Immigrants on Why They're Leaving the U.S.Lured by the prospect of climbing to the top of his field, New Delhi native Swaroop Ganguly came to the U.S. 10 years ago and earned a PhD in electrical and computer engineering(电子及计算机工程学士学位) from the University of Texas at Austin in 2005. He became an expert in an emerging technology called spintronics(自旋电子学), used to power semiconductors(半导体), and worked at several chip companies, including Freescale Semiconductor(飞思卡尔半导体). But Ganguly, now 32, is moving back to India this summer. Although he has been doing postdoctoral work at the University of Texas, he figures his prospects for research and professional development are probably better in his home country. "I feel quite excited about going back," he says. Ganguly has aly accepted a job as a professor of electrical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology(印度技术学院), Bombay. The position will pay a fraction of the salary he had been earning in the private sector—about ,000 compared with 0,000—but it will offer considerably more job security and the freedom to do the exploratory research he wants to do. "The real lure of being in the U.S. is to do really innovative work, but the space for that seems to be shrinking," he says. "The Indian government is putting a huge amount of funding into science and technology, so even if they can't pay high salaries, it's an attractive prospect." Ganguly is one of a number of highly skilled immigrants preparing to leave the U.S. as the nation's economy slows. With the U.S. unemployment rate approaching double digits(两位数), job opportunities are diminishing and calls to restrict immigration have gotten louder. Those who favor tightening the rules argue that U.S. citizens should get first priority for jobs. A Blow to Prospects for Economic Recovery(打击经济复苏前景)But the issue is tricky when it comes to the most educated and skilled immigrants—people like Ganguly. When well-paid individuals leave the country, that cuts into aly depleted tax revenues for state and local governments. The departure of top talent in technology and science may also undercut the prospects for a recovery in the U.S., many economists say. These immigrants often start companies and come up with technological breakthroughs, creating new job opportunities for all. "We benefit from a flow of really smart people coming here to work in our companies and start new ones," says David Hart, a professor of public policy at George Mason University in Arlington, Va., who co-authored a study on immigrant entrepreneurship(企业家) released this month. "It's important that the U.S. remain a magnet for people who fuel innovation and growth." The Obama Administration has said it will push for comprehensive immigration reform later this year, but it's unclear if any legislation will pass or how it would affect skilled immigrants. One unresolved issue is how to define a "skilled" immigrant. While many politicians would support policies to attract the most educated and highly paid, there is more controversy over foreign workers who come into the U.S. on H-1B visas, which require only a bachelor's degree and, in many cases, modest salaries. Senator Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.), chairman of the Senate immigration subcommittee, said in June that U.S. policy will aim to "encourage the world's best and brightest individuals to come to the U.S. and create the new technologies and businesses…but must discourage businesses from using our immigration laws as a means to obtain temporary and less expensive foreign labor." Other Lands of Opportunity: China and India(另外的机遇之地:中国和印度)Advocates for skilled immigrants emphasize the value they create and warn against developing overly restrictive policies. Dr. Jan Vilcek, a professor of microbiology at New York University School of Medicine(纽约大学医学院), defected from (流亡)Czechoslovakia in 1964 and is now renowned in his field for treatments he developed for chronic illnesses such as Crohn's disease. He co-founded a New York-based nonprofit called the Vilcek Foundation to enhance the public profile of exceptional immigrants. "Foreign-born entrepreneurs and scientists are a tremendous asset to the U.S. economy," Vilcek says. "It is tragic that bureaucratic obstacles are preventing more talented and motivated people from helping to get us out of the economic slump." For now, economic woes—and to a lesser extent, immigration policies—are the most acute problem driving departures from the U.S. A study by Duke University professor and Harvard researcher Vivek Wadhwa, for example, found that among Chinese nationals who emigrated to the U.S. and later returned home, 72% said they thought professional opportunities were better in China. Among Indians who returned home, 56% said the same of their country. Wadhwa estimates that as many as 200,000 skilled workers from India and China will go home over the next five years, compared with roughly 100,000 over the past 20 years. "We're in a recession, and there is enough good talent now [in the U.S.], but long term, it will hurt like you won't believe," says Wadhwa, who is also a BusinessWeek.com columnist. "Losing critical talent means arming the U.S.'s competition. The next Google (GOOG), Microsoft (MSFT), or Apple (AAPL) could be launched in Shanghai or Bangalore." Green Card Applicants Have a Long Wait(绿卡申请者的漫长等待)Kapil, a 33-year-old software consultant for IBM (IBM) in Silicon Valley(硅谷), shares Vilcek's frustration. (Kapil asked that his last name not be used out of concern for his job.) He joined IBM in 2001 with the hope of gaining permanent residency(永久居住权) in the U.S. so he could ultimately start his own company. IBM filed an application for his green card for permanent residence in 2004, and he has yet to receive it. Due to limits that allow for just 9,800 green cards per year per country, the wait for people from India and China can be up to 10 years. Kapil estimates that his five-year wait could stretch into 7 or 10. In the meantime, he remains on an H-1B visa tied to IBM, where he must keep the same position to remain in the green card queue. He's earning six figures now, he says, but suspects he could earn more if he had the freedom to change jobs. "I'm not allowed to advance, and it's really frustrating," says Kapil. "At this point, I'm losing my patience." Kapil is eager to found a startup(新的开始). He has developed the technology for an online job-search engine that taps into social networks such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn. He says he is considering launching it from India. "Most likely, I am heading back," he says. "In a way, I feel cheated. I've contributed, paid taxes, and even picked up a California accent. But it's not enough." Arun Kumar, 30, is also in the U.S. on an H-1B visa and is considering moving to Canada. Kumar, who lives just north of Philadelphia, works for a U.S. bank and is helping to develop a startup within the company. His employer, the name of which he asked not be used, put in his application for a green card last year. Kumar realizes that it could take years for his application to move through the queue, and he's growing restless to start his own business. He has the capital to launch his product, an educational tool to help sixth- to eighth-graders learn math and science. But he doesn't want to do so in the U.S. because assuming a new job or even changing titles within his own company would nullify(无效) his existing green card application. Kumar and his wife are now considering moving to Toronto, where they could more quickly become permanent residents. "I feel restricted here," says Kumar. "I understand the U.S. has a responsibility to its citizens, and I understand its dilemma. But the country would be better off if it could isolate and identify skilled workers who want to come here and build things and welcome them in." Keke View:绿卡(green card)是一种给外国公民的永久居住许可。持有绿卡意味着持卡人拥有在签发国的永久居留权,同时,持有绿卡可以在一定时间内免去入境签。   绿卡这个词起源于美国,因为最早美国的永久居留许可是一张绿色的卡片,随着设计的变化已经更新了19个版本,现在它已经是一张白色有黄绿色花纹的塑料卡片,但是绿卡这个名称一直被保留了下来。其他国家沿用美国的说法,也会将本国的永久居留许可俗称为绿卡。 /200907/79499

U.S. Internet companies like Facebook and Google live or die on mobile. The same will be true of Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba.对于Facebook和谷歌(Google)这样的美国互联网公司来说,生死取决于移动业务;对于中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group)来说,也同样如此。Alibaba#39;s filing for a U.S. initial public offering boasts rapid growth and rising margins, but it raises concerns around its ability to make money off mobile traffic. This is no idle matter: Companies that can#39;t show their business migrating well from desktops to mobile devices have justifiably fallen out of investor favor, as more people access the Internet through smartphones and tablets.在其美国首次公开募股(IPO)申请文件中,阿里巴巴提到了公司的快速增长以及不断扩大的利润率,但是这也令外界对于该公司手机流量盈利能力的担忧升温。这种担忧并非无足轻重的问题。由于越来越多的人通过智能手机和平板电脑连入互联网,所以如果一家公司的业务无法展现出从个人电脑到移动设备的良好转变,那么这家公司将无疑失去投资者的青睐。Alibaba says mobile accounted for 19.7% of total transactions on its e-commerce platforms in the fourth quarter of last year, up from 7.4% in the same period a year earlier. But that is only one piece of the puzzle.阿里巴巴称,去年第四季度,移动设备在其电子商务平台总交易额中占19.7%,高于上年同期7.4%的占比。不过,这仅仅是整体情况中的一个部分。For Amazon and eBay, mobile has been a blessing as it allows more users to shop for longer, driving volumes higher, says Bernstein analyst Carlos Kirjner. But companies that rely on advertising have faced greater challenges due to the limited real estate on smartphone screens.Bernstein的分析师Carlos Kirjner表示,对于亚马逊公司(Amazon.com)和eBay来说,移动设备是一件好事,因为这类设备可以使得用户购物时间延长,并增加交易量。不过,由于智能手机的屏幕有限,依赖于广告的互联网企业可能面临较大挑战。Alibaba is a mix of the two models. Tmall, its newer, higher-end shopping platform charges merchants a percentage of total sales. For this business, increased mobile adoption should be a clear positive.阿里巴巴的业务模式则分为两种。推出时间较短、较高端的购物平台天猫(Tmall)从商户整体销售额中收取一定比例的费用。对于这一块业务,移动设备的利用程度增加应该明显是一个积极因素。But Taobao, the site where small business and private individuals go to sell their wares, is free to use. It sells advertising space to merchants, and charges them for more prominent placement on the marketplace website. Room for both is more limited on smartphone screens, says Mr. Kirjner.不过,针对中小型商户和个人商户的淘宝(Taobao)则是免费使用。淘宝向商户出售广告位置,同时也会帮助商户调到网站更加明显的位置并从中收费。Kirjner称,受制于智能手机屏幕,这两项务的收入空间都较为有限。So understanding how much revenue comes from Tmall and how much from Taobao is crucial for investors to judge the outlook on mobile monetization. Unfortunately, Alibaba neglected to share this crucial information with investors.对于投资者来说,若想要评断阿里巴巴手机业务的盈利前景,对天猫和淘宝收入各自占比多少有所了解具有至关重要的作用。但是不幸的是,阿里巴巴并没有将这一关键信息分享给投资者。Alibaba does say it expects monetization rates to be lower on mobile as compared with PCs. But the company seems unconcerned, explicitly stating that it has no plans for now to focus on maximizing mobile monetization. Throughout the prospectus Alibaba is at pains to stress a lack of focus on short-term profits, probably enabled by a corporate structure giving insiders control over most of the board.不过阿里巴巴表示,预计移动设备上的盈利水平低于个人电脑。但是阿里巴巴似乎并不担心这个问题,公司明确表示目前没有专注于将移动设备盈利水平最大化的计划。在整个招股书中,阿里巴巴花费了大量力气强调对于短期利润关注的缺乏,导致这种情况出现的原因可能在于董事会主要由其内部人士掌控。Investors may not be so sanguine. Concern over mobile monetization was one factor that drove down Facebook shares after they listed in 2012. The stock rebounded sharply once Facebook was able to show traction in mobile, notably from the second quarter of 2013 when mobile advertising jumped as a percentage of total ad revenue.投资者可能没有这么乐观。Facebook 2012年上市后,投资者对该公司移动业务业绩的担忧就是导致其股价下跌的因素之一。Facebook的移动业务随后显示出了增长迹象,尤其是在2013年第二季度,在该公司移动业务广告收入占广告总收入的比重上升之后,Facebook的股价出现了大幅反弹。In China, mobile is likely to be even more important as many new Internet users skip desktops and rely mainly on smartphones. The number of mobile Internet users in China rose 19% last year to 500 million, nearly twice as fast as overall Internet users, according to according to state research center CNNIC.在中国,不少互联网新用户已不再使用台式电脑,而主要用智能手机上网,因此移动业务在中国可能会变得更加重要。来自中国互联网信息中心(CNNIC)的数据显示,去年中国的移动互联网用户数量增长19%,达到5亿户,增幅较整体互联网用户增幅高出近一倍。Mobile is also where Alibaba will encounter the fiercest competition,notably from archrival Tencent. This diversified Internet giant has the advantage in mobile thanks to WeChat, a massively popular messaging app that is native to smartphones.移动业务也将是阿里巴巴面临最激烈竞争的领域,尤其是来自腾讯(Tencent)的竞争。腾讯推出的基于智能手机的通讯应用微信(WeChat)大受欢迎,令这家多元化互联网巨头在移动领域占得先机。Tencent is now using WeChat to direct potential shoppers to JD.com, a smaller Chinese e-commerce company, also preparing for a U.S. listing, in which it holds a 15% stake. It is also integrating its payment platform Tenpay, which competes with Alibaba-linked Alipay, into WeChat.腾讯目前正在通过微信将潜在消费者导向规模较小的中资电子商务公司京东(JD.com)的网站,京东也正准备在美国上市,腾讯持有该公司15%的股权。腾讯还计划将付平台财付通(Tenpay)与微信整合在一起。财付通是阿里巴巴旗下付宝(Alipay)的竞争对手。Alibaba isn#39;t sitting on its hands. It has amassed a 66% stake in UCWeb, a popular mobile Web browser, and recently struck a deal to take full control of mapping service AutoNavi. Alibaba says it will likely make more acquisitions in this area. Yet these investments, plus intense competition in the mobile space, may start to eat away at Alibaba#39;s sky-high operating margins, which were north of 50% in the fourth quarter.阿里巴巴并没有坐以待毙。该公司已收购热门移动浏览器UCWeb 66%的股份,近期还达成了收购地图务公司高德软件(AutoNavi)全部股权的交易。阿里巴巴表示,可能将在移动领域收购更多资产。但这些投资,再加上移动领域的激烈竞争,可能会开始侵蚀阿里巴巴水平极高的营业利润率,该公司去年第四季度的营业利润率超过50%。Given the importance of mobile, investors may forgive Alibaba for some heavy spending. But the experience of Facebook and others indicates Alibaba will need to show before long that it is translating eyeballs on smartphones into real money.考虑到移动业务的重要性,投资者可能会理解阿里巴巴的一些大规模出。但Facebook和其他一些公司的经历表明,阿里巴巴不久就需要向投资者显示,该公司能将消费者对其移动业务的关注转化成真金白银的利润。 /201405/296543The hospital room may be due for a checkup. 医院病房或许该做一次检查了。Doctors and nurses, architects and designers all say the room setting has an important but largely neglected role to play in the delivery of quality care and outcomes. 医生和护士、建筑师和设计师都说,病房环境对于优质护理与优质诊疗结果的达成发挥着重要的作用,然而这种作用基本上都是被忽略了的。Consider infections. One out of every 20 patients admitted to a hospital picks up an infection while there, according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These infections can be serious and deadly, and they cost the U.S. billion a year. 以感染为例。据美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)数据,在美国,每20个入院病人就有一人在住院期间感染某种疾病。这些疾病有可能是严重而致命的,每年为此付出的代价高达100亿美元。But recent studies indicate that at least half can be avoided. And the design of patient rooms is one of the best places to start. 但近期研究表明,至少一半的感染是可以避免的。病房的设计是最佳切入点之一。The hospital room has changed little since the post-World War II years, when there was a shift to semiprivate rooms from wards. But even then, the patient wasn#39;t central to the plan. Now, the patient room of the future is being designed as a safe, private, comfortable place conducive to healing. 二战之后的那些年里,多人共用的大病房被陆续改为二到四人共用的半私密病房,之后基本上就没有变化。然而即便在当时,病房的改造也不是围绕病人而展开的。如今,未来的病房正在被设计成一个安全、私密、舒适、有利于康复的地方。#39;With all the knowledge we#39;ve gained,#39; says Douglas Wood, director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation, #39;we can increasingly create an environment in the hospital to minimize the transmission of bacteria, increase the circulation of air, and reduce pain, discomfort and poor clinical outcomes.#39; 梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)创新研究中心主任道格拉斯#12539;伍德(Douglas Wood)说:“利用我们已经获知的各种知识,我们越来越有能力在医院里面打造一种最大化降低细菌传播,增加空气循环,减少疼痛、不适和劣质诊疗结果的环境。”Hospital officials from across the U.S. and abroad have traveled to New York to see the prototype patient room shown here. Designed by NXT Health, a nonprofit in New York, and funded by the Department of Defense, the room is designed to reduce infections, falls, errors -- and ultimately costs. Here#39;s a look at how it would do so. 全美各地以及美国国外都有医院管理人员前往纽约参观本文所示的这间样板病房。这间病房由纽约非营利组织NXT Health设计、美国国防部资助,其出发点是减少感染、摔倒和差错――最终就是减少要付出的代价。让我们大概了解一下它是怎样实现这些目标的。1. Patient Ribbon 1#8226;“病人环带”The canopy above the bed, the patient ribbon, extends from the head wall to the footwall. It contains electrical, technological and gas components normally found in any hospital room. It also includes a sound system that can create a cocoon above the patient#39;s head to block out unwanted noise and minimize the transmission of noise to other areas of the room. 病床上方的顶盖“病人环带”(Patient Ribbon)从床头墙一直延伸到床尾墙,包含普通病房里面一般都有的电子、技术及气体设备。它还有一个声音系统,可以在病人头部上方形成一个“茧”,一方面屏蔽掉恼人的噪音,另一方面也最大化地降低传到病房其他区域的噪音。2. Halo Lightbox 2. 晕轮灯箱The halo lightbox in the patient ribbon above the bed can be programmed for mood or light therapy, and can simulate cloud movements, blue skies and other lighting conditions. 镶嵌在病床上方病人环带里的晕轮灯箱可以通过编程打造特定氛围或用于灯光理疗,也可以模拟浮云、蓝天和其他一些光线环境。3. Head Wall 3. 床头墙The head wall contains the equipment needed to check vital signs (heartbeat, breathing rate, temperature and blood pressure), as well as oxygen and other supplies, all stowed neatly out of sight but easily accessible through pull-down panels in the wall. 床头墙包含一台用于检查关键指标(心跳、呼吸频率、体温和血压)的设备,以及氧气和其他物资供给设备。这一切都整齐地收纳起来不会被看到,但可以通过床头墙内的下拉式面板轻松调用。4. Footwall 4. 床尾墙The footwall contains a large screen that can be used for entertainment, consultations with doctors, and access to hospital information, educational content and social-media sites. It#39;s controlled from the bed by a tablet computer that allows the patient to adjust lighting, sound, and temperature. 床尾墙包含一个大屏幕,可以用于、通过视频咨询医生,也可以用来访问医院信息、教育内容和社交网站。病人在病床上通过一台平板电脑来对其进行控制。这台电脑还允许病人调节光线、声音和温度。5. Rubber Floors 5. 橡胶地板The floors are made of low-porosity rubber, which doesn#39;t contain or need chemical sealers or waxes that often trap bacteria and other substances that can cause infections and allergic reaction. Rubber is quieter, softer and less slippery than other traditional floor materials. In case of a fall, it reduces impact. 地面由细孔橡胶铺成,不包含也不需要化学密封材料或蜡油,因为这些东西常常会藏纳细菌等物质,可能引起感染和过敏反应。橡胶比其他传统地面材料要安静、柔软、防滑。在发生摔倒的情况下,还可以减轻冲击。6. Room Surfaces 6. 室内表面All surfaces in the room other than the floor are made of Corian or similar solid-surface materials commonly found in homes as kitchen countertops. The material is nonporous and seamless, making it easy to clean and minimizing the chances for mold, mildew or bacteria to grow. That all reduces the risk of infection. 室内除了地面以外的其他表面都采用可丽耐人造石(Corian)和其他常用作住宅厨房台面的硬表面材料。这些材料无孔无缝,容易清洁,并将发霉、生长细菌的概率最小化。这些都会降低感染风险。7. Entry Workstation 7. 入口工作站The workstation is located at the entrance to the patient room. As a staff member or other person enters, the sink lights up in red to indicate that hands should be washed. When hands are disinfected, a green light blinks. A dashboard in the wall stores a computer, where information on the patient can be found and entered. 这个工作站位于病房入口。当医院人员或其他人员进入的时候,洗手台就会亮起红灯,表示需要洗手。双手消完毒之后,就会有绿灯闪烁。墙面上的一个仪表板放了一台电脑,可以查阅、录入病人的资料。8. Bedside Caregiver Hub 8. 床边护理中心At the bedside caregiver hub, a wall panel holds another computer. Other technology is embedded in the wall, and when the panel is closed, ultraviolet light kills bacteria that might have formed on surfaces. The computer keyboard, like all others in the room, is a flat, nonporous typing surface that#39;s easy and quick to clean, unlike conventional keyboards, which can harbor bacteria. 床边护理中心的一个墙面面板容纳了另外一台电脑。墙面还植入了其他一些技术,当面板关闭的时候,就会有紫外线杀灭各处表面上可能已经形成的细菌。电脑键盘和病房内的其他所有键盘一样,都是一个平坦无孔的输入表面,清洁起来方便快捷,不像常规键盘那样可能会藏纳细菌。9. Patient Companion 9. 病人伴侣The mobile patient companion contains both an eating surface and a flat computer when flipped over. Operated by touch, the computer controls the screen on the footwall and the light and sound in the patient area. The surface has colored rings to indicate when power is low and icons to touch to call for help. 移动式病人伴侣包含一个就餐平面,翻过来就是一台平板电脑。电脑为触控式,控制着床尾墙面上的屏幕和病人区域的光线、声音。就餐平面上有表示何时电量不足的色圆圈,以及通过触摸寻求帮助的图标。 /201312/268306

Human beings waste an awful lot of time. Consider my process for writing this article: Begin writing, check email, make coffee, write some more, drink coffee, peruse Facebook, take a meaningless personality quiz (only to confirm what I aly knew), tell myself I shouldn’t procrastinate, write more, check email again, respond to a non-pressing message, and finally, get up to make more coffee. Believe it or not, at some point I actually finished writing the thing.人类把很多时间都浪费在了无谓的事情上。拿我写这篇文章的过程为例:我先是写下几个句子,然后收收电子邮件,泡杯咖啡,再写两句,喝口咖啡,然后上上Facebook,再做一个毫无意义的个性测试(只是为了确认一些我已经知道的事实),然后我告诉自己不能再拖延了,然后再一鼓作气写下两段,然后再收收邮件,回一两条无关紧要的消息,最后起身再泡一杯咖啡。不管你信不信,我最后居然还是写完了这篇文章。I have plenty of guilt about my shameful time management skills, but I’m afraid that I may have also contributed to what Dan Ariely, the DukeUniversity professor and renowned behavioral economist, describes as his “marginal depression” about humans’ wasted potential.我对自己糟糕的时间管理能力感到非常羞愧。杜克大学(Duke University)教授、知名行为经济学家丹o艾瑞里曾经把人类浪费时间的倾向称为“边缘抑郁症”,恐怕我就是患者之一。“You think about the amount of human creativity and human ability to do good and the amount of progress we can make and you see what people end up doing,” Ariely told me in an interview last week. “They’re just kind of squandering their time in all sorts of terrible ways and not fulfilling their own happiness, not doing anything useful. The human stupidity really weighs on me. It’s like a depression—a marginal depression.”艾瑞里在上周的一次采访中对我说:“我们不妨思考一下,人类有多少创意,有多少干正经事的能力,有多少进步的空间,再看看人们最后都在做什么。他们把大量的时间花在各种糟糕的事情上,而没有去追求自己的幸福,没有去做任何有用的事。人类的愚蠢的确让我很苦恼。它就像某种抑郁症——边缘抑郁症。”Ariely, whose first book Predictably Irrational highlighted how painfully incompetent we are at making optimal financial decisions (and poked holes in the theory of supply and demand), has been researching human fallibility for years. (No wonder the guy is a little despondent.) But there is reason for a small, newfound source of hope. Along with Stanford University computer science professor Yoav Shoham and Jacob Bank, a Stanford doctoral candidate, Ariely has co-founded a company that aims to help people make better use of their most precious resource—time.艾瑞里研究人类不靠谱的行为已经很多年了(难怪这哥们儿有点郁闷)。他的第一本书《怪诞行为学》(Predictably Irrational)揭示了我们在做最佳财务决策方面是多么的无能(并且该书还找到了供需理论的漏洞)。他的研究给治愈“拖延症”带来了一丝小小的希望。他与斯坦福大学(Stanford University)计算机科学教授约阿夫o肖汉姆和斯坦福大学士研究生雅各布o班克一道,创办了一家公司,旨在让人们更好地利用他们最宝贵的资源——时间。The trio’s first product is an application called Timeful, a name that their Mountain View, Calif-based company shares. At first glance, the iOS app seems like a slightly souped-up calendar tool: it automatically synchronizes with existing calendars and has a familiar interface. But the app also instructs users to pick from a list of health- and happiness-minded tasks—running, flossing, calling Mom or Dad—in addition to the usual personal or work-related to-do list. It then incorporates all of that data, which can include sleep patterns and designated productive times of the day, to suggest time slots for everything. “Figuring out what to do with your time is a really complex computational problem,” Ariely says.这家公司的总部位于加州的山景城,它的第一款产品是一个名叫Timeful的应用,可以在iOS平台上下载。第一眼看过去,Timeful有点像一个加强版的日历应用:它可以自动与你的现有日历同步,而且界面也和普通日历应用差不多。不过这款应用会要求用户列出一张与健康或幸福有关的任务清单,比如跑步、用牙线清洁牙齿、给父母打电话等等,此外也有与工作或生活有关的日常任务清单。此外它还包含了睡眠模式,并且你还可以指定一天的某个时间段为最有效率的时间。整合了以上所有信息之后,这款应用便会提供一份日程建议表,将一天的每件事安排得井井有条。艾瑞里表示:“要确定怎样合理安排你的时间,的确是个非常复杂的计算问题。”Much to my relief, Ariely posits that we are pretty much all unable to take all factors into account when deciding what to do, and when. Faced with myriad big tasks and smaller to-do list items, plus the difficulty of estimating how long it will take us to complete something and which time of day we’re best able to focus, we often turn to the easiest task at hand: re-ing unanswered emails or updating one’s Facebook status.让我颇感安慰的是,艾瑞里指出,人们在决定何时做什么事时,很少会把所有因素都考虑进去。人们一想到前头还有千头万绪的大事小情等着自己,往往就开始头痛。再加上我们经常搞不清干完某件事需要多长时间,也不知道自己在一天的几点到几点干事最专心,因此我们往往会先做手头上最简单的任务——再看一遍还没回复的电子邮件,或是更新一下Facebook。Translation: We procrastinate. A lot.换句话说:我们都是严重的拖延症患者。Making matters worse is the fact that most of today’s digital calendars aren’t well-equipped to remind us of the kinds of things we typically do outside of work but could possibly do during work—like calling Mom and Dad, running, or even flossing. In other words, today’s calendar apps seem to lack the smarts or focus in providing a more holistic view of our day, incorporating both what we need to do (like writing an article) and what we should aspire to do (like go for a lunchtime run).有些事情我们通常放在工作以外的时间做,但忽视了它们也有在工作时间做的可能,比如给父母打电话、跑步甚至是清洁牙齿。但是如今的大多数电子日历,并没有先进到能够见缝插针地替我们把这些事安排到工作时间里。换句话说,现有的电子日历应用依然不够智能,无法通盘考虑如何利用一整天的时间,无法把我们需要做的事情(比如写材料)和我们应该想要做的事情(比如利用午休时间跑步)结合起来。“The calendar is great to represent meetings,” Ariely says. “But we want to achieve many more things in life than meetings.” And yet, when we see an open slot in our calendar, he says, we think we can fill it with yet another meeting.艾瑞利也指出:“日历应用在提醒会议安排上表现得很好,但是除了会议之外,我们在生活中想要完成的事情还有很多。”可现在我们一看到日历上有空闲的时间,首先想到的就是再安排一个会议。Teaching someone how to make better use of their time doesn’t seem to work—so if an app automatically finds time for you to do the things you need to, want to, and should do, you are more likely to actually get them done. Therein lies the behavioral science at work in Timeful, with a few technological twists to help facilitate it.教别人如何更好地利用他们的时间是不管用的。如果一款应用可以自动为你安排时间,告诉你何时去做你需要做的事、想要做的事和应该做的事,那么你真正完成这些事的可能性就会更高,这就是Timeful背后的行为科学原理。当然,要真正实现这些功能,也离不开技术上的一些“绝活”。“The system needs to capture all of the things that are vying for your time,” says Bank, who serves as the company’s chief executive. “And it needs to help you make time for them.” According to the company, Timeful’s scheduling suggestions are based on a so-called Intention Rank, an algorithm that uses machine learning to rank activities within time slots. Underneath it is a data model—Timeful calls it its “Intention Genome”—that breaks down intentions to basic components and classifies them.该公司的首席执行官班克表示:“首先,系统需要捕捉所有占用我们时间的事情,然后它要帮你安排做这些事的时间。”据该公司表示,Timeful的日程安排主要是根据一种叫做“意向排名”的算法计算出来的,这种算法使用了机器学习技术来在时间空窗内安排活动。“意向排名”的基础是所谓的“意向基因”,它会把我们的意向分解成基本的元素并进行分类。“With many [other] productivity tools, you work for the system rather than the system working for you,” says Shoham, who has co-founded (and sold) two previous startups. He adds that the Timeful calendar is just the first app for the company, which raised nearly million in Series A funding earlier this year. Down the road, Timeful could integrate data from wearables and other information in order to make more informed suggestions to users.公司的另一名创始人肖汉姆表示:“Timeful还包含了很多其它的效率工具,可以说是你为系统工作,而不是系统为你工作。”肖汉姆还表示,Timeful日历应用只是该公司开发的第一款应用。该公司今年年初刚从第一轮融资中筹集到700万美元。未来Timeful还可以整合可穿戴设备和其它渠道的数据,以便为用户提供更合理的建议。Like any new productivity tool, there is a bit of a time-consuming learning curve with Timeful. The app doesn’t take long to set up, but it does take a while for the user to get used to having an interface that incorporates both a traditional calendar and a suggested list of tasks, some of which don’t have a clear beginning and end (such as laundry). The more information and preferences you feed the app—which, incidentally, takes more time—the better it will theoretically make suggestions tailored to you.像其它效率工具一样,Timeful也有一条学习曲线,需要一定的时间才能得心应手地使用。这款应用安装起来并不麻烦,但是它既有传统电子日历的界面,又有一个系统建议的任务清单,有些任务并没有明确的开始和结束时间(比如洗衣),用户要想适应这款应用还是要花些时间的。你为这款应用提供的信息和参数越多(这些需要花时间),理论上讲它为你建议的任务清单就更适合你的实际情况。Here’s another downer: Timeful arrives in a category bursting with calendar and productivity apps. And really, who has time to evaluate them based on algorithmic superiority? We’re all too busy tackling much more important tasks—like which pizza topping most closely matches our personality.艾瑞里短期内可能还难以从他的“边缘抑郁症”恢复过来,他表示:“一个人要想学会管理好自己的时间,本身就需要很长时间。”说这话时,声音中还带着一丝挫败感。(虽然凭借这款应用,艾瑞里可能成功地帮助人们解决了时间管理问题,但人性中的其他弱点仍然让他整夜忧思难眠。他喜欢指出,人类有44%的死亡是由糟糕的决策直接或间接导致的。)Inexplicably, I got mushrooms—about the only food that I hate with a passion. I’m sure there’s good reason for it, but I’ve got another pot of coffee brewing, and I’m pretty sure I just saw another email come in.另外还有一点也比较令人沮丧:Timeful所在的领域早已充斥了大量的日历和效率应用。说真的,谁有时间来比较它们的算法谁好谁坏呢?我们都忙着干更重要的事——比如在心理测试中研究在匹萨饼上放哪种食材更符合我们的性格。 /201408/317878Apple certainly seems committed to the idea that bigger is better.苹果(Apple)似乎决定将“越大越好”的理念贯彻到底。The tech giant reportedly plans to introduce a larger version of its iPad early next year. That’s according to a Bloomberg report, which cites anonymous sources saying that a new iPad measuring 12.9 inches diagonally is set to go into production in the first quarter of 2015.据报道,这家科技巨头计划在明年年初推出更大尺寸的iPad。彭社(Bloomberg)引用匿名人士的消息称, 一款12.9英寸的新iPad(对角线尺寸),预计将在2015年第一季度投产。Apple’s current iPads come with 7.9-inch or 9.7-inch displays. New versions in those sizes are expected to be unveiled early next month at a much-hyped, but as yet unconfirmed Apple event, according to a recent report.苹果当前的iPad屏幕尺寸分别为7.9英寸及9.7英寸两款。最近有报道称,预计将在下个月初召开的苹果发布会上,这两种尺寸iPad 都将推出新款。不过虽然坊间大肆炒作,但苹果官方至今仍未传出这场发布会的确切消息。The company is also expected to use the occasion to premiere its iPhone 6, including a model with a bigger 5.5- inch screen. Currently iPhone 5s models have a 4.9-inch screen.外界预测,苹果将在此次发布会上推出iPhone 6手机,包括配备5.5英寸屏幕的大尺寸型号。目前的iPhone 5S的屏幕尺寸为4.9英寸。Rumors of a larger iPad called the “iPad Pro” emerged last summer, but MacRumorslater reported that the company had put those plans on hold.在去年夏天曾经有传言称,苹果将推出名为“iPad Pro”的大尺寸iPad,但MacRumors论坛后来报道称苹果公司暂停了该计划。 /201409/326312

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