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楼主:度共享 时间:2017年11月21日 10:39:00 点击:0 回复:0
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Brazils history has been expressed through its national passion for music.巴西的历史已经表达了这个国家对音乐的热情。Samba, the countrys dominant musical style, was used by politicians in the 30s in an attempt to create unity and a sense of national identity in this vast multiracial state.桑巴这一全国主要的音乐形式,在30年代被政客使用以在这个巨大的多民族国家试图创造团结和民族身份的感觉。Regional musicians fought back, determined to promote a more down-to-earth image of Brazil.而传统地区的音乐家们奋起反击,决心促成巴西一种更为实际的形象。And in the 50s, Bosnova gave Brazil a new sophisticated internatinal identity.在50年代,巴萨诺瓦赋予了巴西一种新的复杂的国际身份。But in the 60s, everything changed.但在60年代,一切都为之改变。In a era of repression, music becomes a battleground in the new struggle to determine the identify of Brazil.这是一个压迫的时代,音乐在新的难以确定巴西身份中成为一个战场。1964 was a strange year for Brazilian music.1964年对巴西音乐而言是奇怪的一年。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/222968Farewell to Arms对扶手说再见Good afternoon, this is your captain speaking. We are at cruising altitude and will be in flight for another three hours, so you’d better get comfortable.下午好,我是这架飞机的机长。我们已经到达了巡航高度并且将继续飞3个小时,所以,请各位乘客确保舒适。That means figuring out who gets the arm rest you, or your neighbor in the next seat. Oh, I know the seats are built so that one arm rest is shared by two passengers. Sure, we could have given all the seats their own arm rests, but then airplane flights would be so much less interesting from a social psychology point of view. And hey you dont really mind, do you?这意味着要确定出谁得到扶手—你,还是你邻座的人。我知道座位的设置使得两名乘客公用一个扶手。当然了,我们本可以是所有的乘客都有他们自己的扶手,但是这样一来,从社会心理学的观点看来,这段飞行的乐趣就将大打折扣。所以,其实你们并不介意,对吗?Turns out you do. In a study conducted by three social psychologists, 426 pairs of people were observed on some twenty flights to see if there is a pattern to who gets the disputed armrest. The subjects observed were always one male seated next to one female. Guess who got the armrest most of the time?结果明你们还是很在意的。3名社会心理学家曾做过一个研究,他们观察了20次飞行中的426对乘客,希望能看出谁得到这个让人亦喜亦忧的扶手问题上是否有特定的模式。实验观察基本上是基于一名男性和一名女性邻座的情况下。猜一下谁得到扶手的时间最长呢?Yep, the men. Twice as often? Three times? Try five times as often. Men dominated the social space that didnt clearly belong to either person. Adjusting the experiment to only include people of equal size, that number dropped. But the men still took the arm rest three times as often as the women.是的,男人。概率是两倍?还是三倍?甚至达到了5倍。男人配着不明确属于任何人的社会空间。把实验调整到参与人数体型相近的时候,这个数字下降了。但是占据扶手的男人的数量任然是女人的三倍。In post-flight interviews, 68 percent of the men said they were bothered when the other person took the armrest, while only 42 percent of the women felt annoyed. Men under forty reported the strongest irritation.在飞行之后的采访中,68%的男人称当其他人占据扶手的时候他们会感到烦恼,只有42%的女人会有同样的感受。对于40岁以下的男人这种刺激反应最为强烈。So... are all men just pushy cads? Well, one can debate what these data show. But this much is clear: that little strip of plastic is a mini-battleground.所以,所有的男人都这么有好胜心吗?当然,你可以对这些数据提出异议。但是这多少能表明,对这个小小的塑料制品的争夺也是一个小小的战场。 /201208/193105Science and Technology Palaeontology Remember the tooth科技 古生物学 牙齿的痕迹A link is made in an ancient ecosystem古代生态系统中的线索WHO ate whom in the food chains of the past is rarely clear.在古代谁以吃谁为生是不清楚的。Though it is obvious which species were predators and which prey, the subtle specialisations of feeding habit that allow many types of carnivore to co-exist are rarely preserved in the fossil record.尽管谁是捕食者和谁是猎物是很明显的,但是专门的微妙的捕食习惯,能让多种食肉动物能够共存的资料很少有保存完好的化石记录。Rarely, but not never.很少有记录不表示没有。That is why the recent discovery of a Jurassic ammonite with a sharks tooth embedded in its shell has excited palaeontologists.这就是为什么最近发现侏罗纪菊石,连同壳上面的鲨鱼牙齿让古生物学家非常兴奋。The ammonite in question, Orthaspidoceras, a species that thrived 155m years ago, was part of the collection of an amateur who did not realise the significance of what he had found.发现的鹦鹉螺是,一种叫Orthaspidoceras的生活在一亿五千五百万年前的生物,化石是由业余爱好者收藏的,他没有意识到他发现的化石的意义。Romain Vullo of the University of Rennes, however, did-and he has brought the discovery to the attention of the scientific world in the pages of Naturwissenschaften.法国雷恩大学的Romain Vullo却明白,而他在《自然科学》杂志上的几页论文吸引了科学界的注意。Ammonites were both predators and prey.鹦鹉螺既是捕食者也是猎物。They occupied a position in the Mesozoic oceans similar to that of modern squid.他们生活在中生代的海洋中,跟现代乌贼相似。Like squid, they were swimming tentacled molluscs-a group called the cephalopods.跟乌贼一样,鹦鹉螺是游动的有触须的软体动物,属于头足纲动物。Unlike squid, though, they had protective shells.不像乌贼,鹦鹉螺有保护壳。These shells were divided internally into gas-filled chambers.这些保护壳的里面有充满气体的分隔小室。The result had neutral buoyancy, allowing the animal to move (like squid) by jet propulsion.结果就是鹦鹉螺有浮力,让其像喷气发动机推进一样的运动,这点跟乌贼一样。Modern pearly nautiluses, whose relationship to ammonites is much debated, have a similar arrangement.现代珍珠一样的鹦鹉螺跟远古鹦鹉螺的亲缘关系尽管还有待验,但是现代鹦鹉螺也有类似的充气推进机制。What ammonites-or, at least, some of them-ate became clear earlier this year when an X-ray showed a small crustacean in the jaws of a species called Baculites.鹦鹉螺吃什么的问题今年有了,x光显示杆鹦鹉螺的咽喉中有小甲壳类动物的痕迹。But what ate ammonites has never been shown in such an unambiguous manner.但是什么吃鹦鹉螺从来没有像现在一样模棱两可。Some ammonite fossils have tooth marks that look as though they were made by huge reptilian predators called mosasaurs.一些鹦鹉螺化石上有牙印,看上去仿佛是巨大爬虫类捕食者比如沧龙留下的。Some appear to have been attacked by the beaks of other cephalopods.有些牙印似乎是被其他头足纲攻击的痕迹。And some seem to have been bitten by sharks.有些牙印似乎是鲨鱼留下的。On top of that, coprolites, as palaeontologists politely describe fossil faeces, have turned up with ammonite shells in them.最重要的是,对古生物学家礼貌地描述中的粪化石的研究表明,有些粪便中有鹦鹉螺的壳。Based on comparisons with modern evacua, these are probably from sharks.随着现代技术的发展,研究表明这些粪便来自于鲨鱼。But which sharks? Dr Vullos ammonite nails one culprit.但是哪种鲨鱼吃鹦鹉螺呢?Vullo士的化石标本确定了其中的一个罪魁祸首。The tooth belongs to a species called Planohybodus.化石中鹦鹉螺外壳上的牙齿属于一种叫做平弓鲨的物种。And that is a surprise.这是一个惊喜的发现。Those modern sharks that eat shelled animals have robust teeth for crunching through hard exteriors.觅食有壳动物的现代鲨鱼通常长着强壮的牙齿,可以咬穿坚硬的外壳。The teeth of Planohybodus, in contrast, were slender and pointed-the sort usually associated with grasping and tearing at flesh.相反,平弓鲨的牙齿,是那种纤细而突出的,一般让人联想到抓住和撕裂肉。In a modern predator, that would indicate the habit of eating fish.在现代掠食者中,拥有这种牙齿意味着习惯吃鱼。That a shark with teeth like this would try to make a meal of an ammonite is, at first sight, odd.长着这样牙齿的鲨鱼,会试图吃掉鹦鹉螺,美餐一顿的理论,乍一看有点古怪。But second thoughts provide a possible explanation.但想一想就有了合理的解释。Ammonites manoeuvrability would have depended crucially on their buoyancy control.鹦鹉螺的灵活性主要建立在浮力控制上面的。Even a small puncture to the shell, which a pointed tooth would be well able to deliver, would let the water in and cause that control to vanish.即使是壳上的一个小洞,可能就是这样尖牙造成的,就会让水进入壳内,鹦鹉螺从而无法控制浮力。Since ammonites could not withdraw entirely into their shells for self-defence, it would then just be a question of dragging the creature out of its chamber in order to eat it.鹦鹉螺不能完全缩回外壳内自卫,于是就很可能就会被从外壳中拽出,成了其他生物的美食。And for that, sharp, pointed teeth are ideal.这样说来,锋利的尖牙是完美的武器。 /201212/216353

Everybody loves the swimming pool. But how clean is the water in the average backyard or public pool? If you trust chlorine to take care of germs, youre in for a surprise.人人都爱游泳。但是在普通人家后院的泳池和公共泳池里的水到底有多干净呢?如果你信任氯的杀菌功效,本文可能会让你大吃一惊。Chlorine and other disinfectants do indeed help to clean the water, but some germs can survive in even the best-kept pool. For example, cryptosporidium may live in pool water for several days. Crypto causes a diarrheal illness and may rinse off the bodies of infected people or diapered children into the pool. If you swallow infected pool water, you may become sick. Other germs may live for a few minutes or a few hours in a chlorinated pool: Giardia, Shigella, and E. Coli may cause diarrheal illnesses.氯和其它消毒剂并不能帮助清理泳池,一些细菌甚至能在保养最好的泳池内存活。例如,隐孢子虫能在泳池里生活好几天。隐孢子虫能引起腹泻。受感染者或使用尿布的儿童都能将隐孢子虫带到泳池内。如果你呛了一口隐孢子虫滋生的池水,你可能会生病。经过氯消毒的泳池内,一些细菌也许能存活几分钟或者几小时,例如:鞭毛虫,志贺氏杆菌,大肠杆菌,它们都能引起腹泻。Pseudomonas Aeruginosa may cause an ear infection called swimmers ear and also a skin infection called ;hot tub rash,; that is usually associated with very warm pools and spas. While keeping the correct chlorine and ph levels will minimize water-borne illness, prevention is also a good idea.通常在水温较高的泳池和喷泉里,绿脓杆菌会感染人的耳部和皮肤,引起“游泳耳病 ”和“热水浴缸皮疹”发生。控制好水中氯的含量和ph值能最大限度减少水生疾病的发病率,但是做好防护工作仍不失为一个好办法。Keep diapered children in the water for only brief periods and keep sick people out of the water altogether. And, dont ever swallow pool water.不要让带尿布的孩子在水中停留太长时间,同理也要让病人远离泳池。记住,千万不要吞下泳池的水。原文译文属!201208/194882

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