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来源:周助手    发布时间:2018年04月23日 06:23:31    编辑:admin         

Say what you will about the Chinese, but they know how to make wholesale changes, and sometimes those changes are inarguably for the good. As noted in an editorial in The Lancet last week, the life span of the average person in China in 1950 was 40 years; by 2011 it was around 76. (The average life span in the ed States in 2011 was 79.)不管你怎么说中国人,他们的确知道该如何实现大规模变化;有时候,这些变化是无可争辩的好事。正如《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)杂志上周在一篇社论中指出的,1950年,中国人的平均寿命为40岁,而到2011年这一数字已经达到76岁左右(2011年美国人的平均寿命为79岁)。The causes of this near doubling of life span are no secret: China has developed public health programs that have reduced communicable diseases to a manageable level. This is certainly good news. But it means that people are now dying of noncommunicable diseases, or chronic diseases that are largely preventable. These diseases, most common in wealthier nations, are caused not by malnutrition in the classic sense but by overconsumption of disease-causing foods as well as lack of exercise and environmental dangers.寿命几乎延长一倍的原因,倒也不是什么秘密:中国开展了把传染病减少到可控水平的公共卫生项目。这当然是个好消息。但它也意味着,人们现在死于很大程度上可以预防的非传染性疾病或慢性疾病。这些疾病在富国最常见,它们不是由传统意义上的营养不良造成的,而是源于过度消耗致病食品,以及缺乏运动和环境危害。Because things are moving so fast in China, and because that country can learn from the example of the ed States and others, perhaps it can pull off a public-health leapfrog and avoid the West’s fate of a rapid and tragic increase in obesity levels and the diseases with which they’re associated.由于中国办事的速度非常之快,而且可以从美国等国家借鉴经验,我认为它可以在公共卫生领域大大迈进一步,避免走上西方可悲的老路:即肥胖和相关疾病发作率的迅速飙升。And there’s hope: The authors of the Lancet editorial wrote that Li Bin, China’s new minister of health and family planning, “has the political will, together with the support of international colleagues, to meet the urgent challenge” of these noncommunicable diseases and the problems they pose for China’s future.希望是有的:《柳叶刀》那篇社论的作者写道,中国新任卫生计生委主任李斌“拥有政治意愿和国际同行的持,可以去迎接迫在眉睫的挑战”,抗击这些非传染性疾病,以及它们给中国未来发展带来的问题。In high-income countries, excess weight is the third-leading risk factor in death. The importance of addressing this was brought home again last month with the publication of a new study and editorial, also in The Lancet. The work looked at 22 different cancers in Britain and their association with body mass index (B.M.I.), a simple but more effective measure of obesity than weight alone. The conclusions of the study, which involved a whopping 5.24 million people, were both notable and not entirely unexpected: When adjusted for factors like age and smoking, a higher B.M.I. was associated with a large increase in risk of cancers of the uterus, kidney, gallbladder, and liver, and smaller risk increases for at least six other types of cancer.在高收入国家,超重是第三大致死风险因素。上个月,同样发表在《柳叶刀》上的一篇新研究和社论,再次清楚展示了这个问题的重要性。该文章在英国研究了22种不同的癌症与身体质量指数(BMI)之间的关联;BMI是测试肥胖的指标,很简单,但比单纯采用重量指标更加有效。这项研究覆盖了524万人之多,其结论值得重视,但也并不是太出人意料:剔除年龄和吸烟因素的影响后,较高的BMI大幅增加了人们患上子宫、肾、胆囊和肝脏癌症的风险,而对于患上其他至少六种癌症,风险也有较小程度的提高。Most people are aware of the links among obesity, diabetes and heart disease, but cancer is only occasionally discussed. And although that association is not news precisely, there are a couple of aspects of the new study that make it notable. The sheer size and carefulness of the study add credibility to the obesity-cancer link. And by showing that the more obese a person is, the greater the likelihood of his developing certain cancers, it’s powerful.大多数人都知道肥胖和糖尿病、心脏疾病之间的联系,但对它与癌症的关系很少提到。虽然这种联系算不上什么新闻,但好几项新的研究,让它显得引人注目。本项研究的规模和细致程度,增加了肥胖和癌症关系的可信度。通过显示一个人越是肥胖,他患上某些癌症的可能性就越大,它具备了强大的说力。The ways in which obesity makes an individual more prone to cancer are far from well understood. Finding those ways may lead to more successful treatment of cancer, and it’s important and continuing work. But identifying what kind of policy might work to reduce obesity — regulations, taxes, subsidies for nonfattening foods, education about better diets and so on — is, or should be, the primary work of public-health officials, activists and forward-thinking politicians.肥胖为什么会让一个人更容易患上癌症,这种机制我们还远没能充分理解。研究这些机制,可能会带来更好的癌症疗法,这个工作很重要,而且也在持续进行中。但是,弄清楚什么样的政策可以减少肥胖——法规、税收、为健康食品提供补贴、增进人们对饮食的了解等等——是(或者说应该是)公共健康官员、活动人士和具有前瞻性思维的政治人士的首要工作。With a staggering 70 percent of our adult population overweight or obese, the ed States was until recently the world’s leader in this unenviable race. Recently, Mexico (71.3 percent), took our place. (In China, the combined obesity-overweight rate is hovering at under 30 percent, still frightening.) Yet Mexico, which many Americans and Europeans haughtily consider primitive, was the first major nation in the world to institute significant soda and junk food taxes. That law went into effect early this year, and the results are aly positive: Sales of soda are slipping.美国成人的超重率或肥胖率高达70%,直到最近,美国在这个不讨喜的世界排名中一直位居第一。近来,墨西哥(比率为71.3%)夺取了冠军。(在中国,综合肥胖超重率徘徊在30%左右,也很可怕。)虽然很多美国人和欧洲人傲慢地认为墨西哥是个落后国家,但它却是全球第一个对汽水和垃圾食品课以重税的大国。该法规于今年年初生效,现在已经显示了积极成果:汽水销量正在下滑。In the 21st century, it is inevitable that nearly every citizen of the world has been and will continue to be affected by the scourge of junk food and liquid candy. Even though intelligent proposals abound, few countries have attempted to curb their marketing or sales. Without limits, the consumption of unhealthy foods will result in higher rates of obesity, and therefore an increase in associated diseases and premature deaths.在21世纪,全球几乎每一个公民都已经并将继续受到垃圾食物和含糖饮料的影响,这是不可避免的。尽管明智的提议比比皆是,试图遏制市场营销或销售活动的国家却寥寥无几。如果没有限制,那么消耗不健康食品就会导致肥胖率升高,从而导致与之相关的患病率和早逝率升高。If we know how to diminish needless human suffering and mortality, why would we not? As Mexico has shown, it’s the responsibility of government to protect its population from hyper-processed food.如果我们知道该如何减少不必要的人类痛苦和死亡,那为什么不行动起来呢?墨西哥的状况已经表明,政府责无旁贷,理应保护公众免遭过度加工食品的侵害。China has the potential to apply the lessons learned not only from its own positive experience dealing with communicable disease, but from the tragic mistakes made by so-called developed nations. It has a chance to turn the tide against disease-causing diets before it’s too late. Sadly, we may need its example to wake up to our own problems.中国不仅可以运用自身控制传染病的积极经验,还可以借鉴所谓的发达国家在这个悲惨失误上的教训。现在为时还不晚,中国仍有机会力挽狂澜,和饮食引起的疾病做斗争。可悲的是,我们可能需要中国做出的表率,才能对自己的问题有所醒悟。 /201409/326620。

That is one bad hare day! The incrediblyfluffy Angora rabbits who are so engulfed by their bushy fur you can hardlytell there is a living creature within it.全身被皮毛覆盖的安哥拉兔,根本看不出来里面藏有一只兔子。Yes, believe it or not, there really is arabbit underneath all that fur, although it seems to be having a very bad orvery good hare day.是的,这些皮毛之下竟然藏着一只兔子,信不信由你。貌似如此之多的皮毛对兔子来说既有好处也有坏处。Like a giant dust bunny, Ida the EnglishAngora is the proud owner of possibly the worlds longest or at least softesthair for a rabbit - which can get as long as 10 or more inches.像巨型灰兔子一样,这只叫做艾达的英国安哥拉兔拥有兔子界最长或者至少是最柔软的皮毛——最长的可达到10多英寸。Bred and coiffed by Betty Chu, professoremeritus at San Jose State University, the rabbits tour across the state fordisplay in shows as part of the Northern California Angora Guild.这些兔子为圣何塞州立大学的名誉退休教授 Betty Chu所有,作为北加州安哥拉协会的一部分,这些兔子巡游整个州,出现在各式各样的节目中。Long famed and desired for their incredibly soft fur or wool, Chu uses scissorsto shear her rabbits, never once harming her fluffy friends.长久以来,这种兔子就以其异常柔软的皮毛闻名和受人喜欢,Chu用剪刀修理这些兔子,她的这些毛绒绒的朋友从来没有受到伤害。Incredibly, while the rabbits hair literally engulfs it, the bunny itselfweighs only six or seven pounds at max.难以置信的是,这些被皮毛吞没的兔子每只最多只重达6或者7磅。Preparing the rabbits for display is an arduous and delicate task - and Betty uses aspecial brush and hairdryer that doubles up a vacuum cleaner to give addedvolume.向观众展示这些兔子的准备工作既费力又复杂——她使用的是一种特别的刷子和吹风机,再加上一个真空吸尘器,从而让兔毛更显蓬松。Her rabbits hair grows back at the rate ofone inch a month and she uses the wool that she gets from her rabbits forscarves, hats and gloves.被修剪后,兔毛以每个月一英寸的速度生长,她利用减下来的兔毛来制作围巾、帽子和手套。Indeed, breeding the rabbits is Chu#39;s passion and she doesn#39;t makeany money from it and is involved in it purely for the enjoyment she gets fromthem as pets.养兔子是Chu的爱好所在,她无法从中赚钱,她这么做仅仅是为了获得养宠物的乐趣。Angora rabbits are #39;also very lovable, theycan be litterbox trained like cats and they would follow owners like dogs,#39; shesaid according to The Huffington Post.安哥拉兔子非常的讨人喜欢,你可以像猫一样训练它们,而它们又会像一样听话,她说。 /201407/310202。

We#39;ve heard of people being reunited with their wedding rings after losing them, but one U.K. woman#39;s story may take the cake.夫妻丢失婚戒再度找回的故事并不稀奇,但一位英国女士的故事绝对可在此类故事中拔得头筹。Brenda Caunter lost her wedding band 41 years ago while gardening in her yard. She and husband Dave searched for the ring to no avail, and Dave ended up replacing the nine carat ring, according to The Daily Mail.41年前,Brenda Caunter 在修整家中花园的时候丢失了她的婚戒。据 Daily Mail 的报道,她与丈夫 Dave 遍寻婚戒无果,最终不得不重新买了戒指来替换丢失的那枚 9 克拉钻戒。But this week, more than four decades after the ring went missing, it was reunited with its owner. Dave spotted one of their neighbors using a metal detector and asked him to check the area where Brenda lost the ring, on the off chance that it might still be there. And sure enough, it was.但是就在本周,丢失了长达四十多年的婚戒与它的主人再度重逢。Dave 发现他们的邻居正在使用一台金属探测器,便请求他检查一下当初 Brenda 丢失戒指的区域,抱着碰运气的态度,看看戒指是否还在原地。果真,戒指仍在那里。;When we got the phone call to say it had been found I didn#39;t know what to say,; said Brenda, pictured above with Dave and the ring.“当我接到电话说戒指找到了,我不知道该说些什么。” Brenda 说。(照片中的她与 Dave 一起,戴着那枚戒指)It seems like lost wedding rings have a way of turning up, especially when they#39;re lost in someone#39;s yard. In November 2012, a woman was reunited with the ring she lost in her sister#39;s yard 17 years prior. And in 2011, a Swedish woman found her wedding ring growing around a carrot in her garden 16 years after she lost it.似乎丢失的婚戒都会自己找着回家的路,特别是那些被丢失在花园里的戒指们。2012年11月,有位女士在家的花园里找到了她17年前丢的婚戒。2011年,一位瑞典的女士在一棵胡萝卜边发现了自己丢失16年的婚戒。 /201309/258725。