诸暨市妇幼保健儿童医院双眼皮多少钱

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年01月23日 13:51:57
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The government of Shandong province is investigating chicken farms following accusations of illegal use of antibiotics and hormones there, the province’s food safety office said.山东省食品安全办公室表示,在有养鸡场被指控非法使用抗生素和激素之后,当地政府就立刻投入调查。The action came after China Central Television reported on Tuesday that several Shandong chicken farms feed chicken antibiotics and hormones every day to reduce their death rate and shorten their growing period.这次事件源于中国中央电视台的周二的一篇报道,报道指出几个山东养鸡场每天用抗生素和激素喂鸡,以便减少他们的死亡率及缩短他们的生长期。Two such farms in Gaomi and Pingdu sold their chickens to a slaughterhouse in Pingdu, which belongs to Liuhe Group, the company that provided chicken to the China division of Yum Brands in Shanghai, which owns the KFC fast-food chain. The logistics center of Yum then delivered the chicken to its fast-food stores, including KFCs, the report said.像在高密市和平度市的两个农场就在平度市把鸡卖给六和集团屠宰场。该集团把鸡提供给上海百胜餐饮集团中国分部,该集团旗下拥有肯德基快餐连锁店。报道称,百胜物流中心把鸡运送到包括肯德基快餐连锁店等快餐店。The owner of the farm in Gaomi told CCTV that the chickens have always been in inferior health because they have to reach full growth in about 40 days.鸡场的农场主告诉中央电视台,鸡一直在亚健康状态,因为它们必须在40天左右的时间完全长成。The chickens are fed large doses of antibiotics all the time, the manager said, because cutting it off would kill them immediately.经营者说,鸡一直都是用大量的抗生素喂养的,因为如果停用抗生素,它们会立刻死亡。 /201212/216266

Britain is one of the most racially tolerant countries on the planet, a survey claims. The global social attitudes study claims that the most racially intolerant populations are all in the developing world, with Bangladesh, Jordan and India in the top five.最近一项全球社会态度调查表明,英国是全世界种族观念最为淡薄的国家之一;而最无法容忍外来民族的国家全都来自发展中地区,孟加拉国、约旦和印度位列前五位之中。By contrast, the study of 80 countries over three decades found Western countries were most accepting of other cultures with Britain, the U.S., Canada and Australia more tolerant than anywhere else.相反,在过去30年对80个国家的调查中,西方国家对其它民族的接受程度最高,其中英国、美国、加拿大和澳大利亚的接受程度远远高于其他国家。The data came from the World Value Survey, which measured the social attitudes of people in different countries, as reported by the Washington Post.The survey asked individuals what types of people they would refuse to live next to, and counted how many chose the option #39;people of a different race#39; as a percentage for each country.据《华盛顿邮报》报道,调查数据来源于世界价值观调查,这是专门调查不同国家地区社会态度的机构组织。该机构询问不同国家的个人“你最不想和什么样的人做邻居?”,统计出选择“不同种族” 选项的数量,并计算出该国家的种族排斥度。Researchers have suggested that societies where more people do not want neighbours from other races can be considered less racially tolerant. The country with the highest proportion of #39;intolerant#39; people who wanted neighbours similar to them was Hong Kong, where 71.8 per cent of the population would refuse to live next to someone of a different race.研究者称,如果一个地区有越多的人不愿意和外来民族做邻居,则说明这个地区的种族接受度越低。最不愿意和外来民族做邻居的地区是香港,种族排斥度极高,有71.8%的香港人都希望自己邻居和他们是“同类”。Next were Bangladesh on 71.7 per cent, Jordan on 51.4 per cent and India with 43.5 per cent. Racist views are strikingly rare in the U.S., according to the survey, which claims that only 3.8 per cent of residents are reluctant to have a neighbour of another race.排名第二的是孟加拉国,排斥度为71.7%,约旦和印度以51.4%和43.5%的排斥度分列三、四位。调查显示,美国的种族意识低得惊人,只有3.8%的人不想有外来种族的邻居。Other English-speaking countries once part of the British Empire shared the same tolerant attitude - fewer than five per cent of Britons, Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders showed signs of racism. People in the UK are also tolerant of other differences such as speaking a foreign language or practising an alternative religion - for example, fewer than two per cent of Britons would object to having neighbours of a different faith to them.其余曾经隶属大英帝国的英语国家同样没有强烈的种族意识。在英国、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰,只有不到5%的人有种族主义倾向。英国人同样接受除种族以外的不同,比如说使用另一国语言或有不同信仰。数据显示,反对邻居信仰不同宗教的英国人低于2%。Similarly, fewer than one in 20 people in most South American countries admitted harbouring prejudice against other races. The Middle East, which is currently dealing with large numbers of low-skilled immigrants from south Asia, seems to be a hotbed of racial tension, however. Europe is remarkably split - the west of the continent is generally more tolerant than the east, but France is a striking outlier with 22.7 per cent of the French rejecting neighbourhood diversity.南美洲的结果同样如此,平均每20人里只有不到1人承认对外来种族的邻居心怀偏见。而中东地区,当前虽然有大量低水平的南亚移民,却在种族问题上剑拔弩张。欧洲大陆的情况也很不一致:总体来说,西部大陆对外来民族的接收情况要高于东部。但法国却是个例外,有22.7%的人排斥民族多样性。Some have pointed out problems in the survey data, claiming that because the polls span a long period of time they are an unreliable guide to current attitudes. However, a more serious flaw could be the fact that in most Western countries racism is so taboo that many people will hide their intolerant views and lie to the questioners.有些人指出,这项调查时间跨度过长,不能准确反映出当前的真实情况。而且还有更严重的问题:在大多数西方国家,种族主义是个禁忌,因此许多人会递交与自己真实想法相违背的。Max Fisher of the Washington Post suggested that maybe #39;Americans are conditioned by their education and media to keep these sorts of racial preferences private, i.e. to lie about them on surveys, in a way that Indians might not be#39;.《华盛顿邮报》记者马克斯?费舍尔说,也许“美国人深受教育和媒体影响,从而掩藏自己的种族倾向,在调查中做出不实回答。但印度人则不会考虑这些。” /201306/245012

两个人谈恋爱,感情深厚然后搬到一起住似乎已经不是什么新鲜事了。不过近几年,在英国、瑞典以及日本等国,恋人们却开始流行“分开同居”了。英国国家统计局的一份报告中说,英国有近35%的人选择这种同居方式。这到底是怎么回事呢?Living Apart Together (LAT) is a term for couples who, while committed to each other, decide to have separate homes rather than one shared residence.“分开同居”(Living Apart Together,英文缩写为LAT)指一对情侣保持固定的情感关系但却不住在一起。There are three approaches LAT couples can take, concerning decision to keep separate domestic residences. The majority are the "gladly apart", along with the "regretfully apart" (due to work commitments, family responsibilities, legal or residency requirements, or other reasons) and the "undecidedly apart" (committed but not especially moving towards cohabitation at the time).伴侣选择“分开同居”一般有以下三种情形:“乐意分开”、“无奈分开”(由于工作原因、家庭责任、法律或居住要求,以及其它原因)和“暂时分开”(有感情基础,但还没有朝同居那个方向考虑)。Those gladly apart couples claim that their motives include:自愿选择“分开同居”的伴侣们列出的原因有:LAT having "kept their relationship fresh".“分开同居”能够让他们的关系时刻保持新鲜感。Having both an intimate relationship and one's own space is a treat.既能保持一段亲密关系又能拥有自己的空间,这是一种享受。The anticipation of time together always being special.盼望相聚的日子总是很特别。Having bases in two cultures – for example both a busy city and a country village.能够在两种不同文化的氛围中生活——比如,一个是繁忙的都市,一个是静谧的乡村。Freedom to do things without consultation, and the freedom not to do things in one's own abode.在自己的地盘,想做什么或者不想做什么都由自己来决定。Independent finances and homes meaning that financial dispute and negotiation is not a source of friction in the couple's relationship.独立的经济和住所意味着在两人的关系中经济纠纷不会成为关系破裂的原因。Ability to focus on work or one's own activities without interruption at times when one wishes to work.在想要专心工作的时候能够集中注意力,不会有人打扰。 /201003/99451

  Teachers have been dubbed "gardener", "engineers of human souls" and is respected by the whole society as a career.教师被人们称为“园丁”、“人类灵魂的工程师”,是受到全社会尊重的一种职业。January 21, 1985, the Ninth Meeting of the Sixth NPC Standing Committee decided that each year on September 10 as Teacher's Day. Teacher's Day scheduled for September 10, to consider the new school year, as new weather, the teachers have new feeling. Iraq began full admission of respecting teachers, teachers can teach and students can learn to create a good atmosphere.1985年1月21日,第六届全国人大常委会第九次会议决定,每年9月10日为教师节。定教师节为 9月10日,是考虑到新学年开始,学校要有新的气象,师生要有新的感觉。新生入学伊饱即开始尊师重教活动,可以给教师教好、学生学好创造良好的气氛。Meanwhile, a national holiday in September less convenient time to focus on all aspects of organizational activities and highlight reports, attaching importance to the promotion of the country, respect for knowledge and talent of the good society as a whole.同时,9月份全国性节日少,便于各方面集中时间组织活动和突出宣传报道、促进全国范围内形成尊师重教、尊重知识、尊重人才的良好社会风尚。教师节祝福语:We all like having you as our teacher. You have our respect and gratefulness.我们喜欢您做我们的老师,我们尊敬您、感激您。We are more thankful than we can express.对您的谢意,我们无法用语言来表达。You have been a qualified teachers and even better friend. Thank you for all that you have done.您不仅是一位合格的教师,更是一位好朋友,谢谢您所做的一切。Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.教育不是灌满一桶水,而是点燃一团生命的火焰。The man who can make hard things easy is the educator.能使艰难之事变得容易的人是教育者。Send you our everlasting feeling of gratefulness and thankfulness on this special day.在这特别的日子谨向您致以我们永恒的感激之情。It is the most appropriate time to show you our thanks.现在是向您表达感激之情最为恰当的时刻。This small gift is only a tiny token of our gratefulness. We all want to thank you.这件小小的礼物略表我们的感激之情。我们大家都很感谢您。I am truly grateful to you for what you have done.我深深地感激您所做的一切。 /200909/83772

  Several of China#39;s leading carmakers are relaunching brands from the past, including Mao Zedong#39;s famous Red Flag limousine, in a bid to capitalise on nostalgia for an era when China made very few cars — but those they made were grand ones.中国数家领先汽车制造商正重新启用昔日的品牌,包括毛泽东的座驾、著名的“红旗”牌豪华轿车。此举意在利用人们的怀旧之情——当年中国的汽车产量虽然很少,但它生产出来的汽车都很有气派。But there is scant evidence that Chinese car buyers are hankering for the good old days when state-owned manufacturers made cars named after Beijing, Shanghai or the red flag of communism.但几乎没有什么据显示,中国购车族渴望回到“美好的往昔”——那时,国有制造商生产以“北京”、“上海”或代表共产主义的“红旗”为品牌的汽车。China may be the world#39;s largest car market, but China has yet to build a car industry to be proud of. Foreign carmakers dominate the market, and the local industry is losing market share.中国也许是全球最大的汽车市场,但中国尚未建立起值得骄傲的汽车产业。外国汽车制造商主导着中国市场,本土汽车产业正失去市场份额。Chinese manufacturers are hoping to reverse that trend by unveiling a range of bigger, glitzier, sportier and more innovative models at the Beijing motor show, which opens today.中国制造商希望扭转这一趋势。在今日开幕的北京汽车展上,它们将发布一系列更大、更亮丽、更具运动感、更加创新的车型。Analysts say it could be a critical moment for the Chinese industry, which has less than 30 per cent of the local market.分析师们表示,对占本土市场份额不到30%的中国汽车业来说,这可能是一个关键时刻。Three decades after Beijing set out to build a world class car industry — signing landmark joint venture agreements with Volkswagen and General Motors to partner state-owned manufacturers — brands owned by Volkswagen and GM still dominate, while Chinese brands remain stuck in the hyper-competitive low end of the market.30年前,北京方面开始打造世界级的汽车产业,中国国有制造商与大众汽车(VW)和通用汽车(GM)签署了里程碑式的合资协议。今天,大众和通用旗下的品牌仍占据中国市场主导地位,而中国品牌仍徘徊在竞争极其激烈的低端市场。In general, foreign-branded cars are seen as more reliable, more stylish, more impressive and better value for money than Chinese-branded models, which continue to compete almost entirely on price.总体来说,与中国品牌的车型相比,外国品牌的汽车被视为更可靠、造型更时尚、更令人印象深刻,也更加物有所值。中国品牌仍几乎完全靠价格竞争。In the past year, Beijing has taken several steps to reverse the decline, banning most official fleet purchases of foreign brands and forcing overseas makers like GM and VW to develop indigenous brands with their joint venture partners in a bid to ensure a more rapid transfer of -technology.过去一年里,北京方面已采取多个步骤扭转本土品牌的颓势,包括禁止大多数公车采购选择外国品牌,并迫使通用和大众等海外制造商与各自的中方合资伙伴一起研发自主品牌,以求实现更快的技术转移。Nissan will launch Venucia, its own brand with joint venture partner Dongfeng Motors, at the Beijing auto show, for example. But most industry analysts say those measures are likely to provide only a small boost to local carmakers#39; market share — or could depress it even -further.例如,日产(Nissan)将在北京汽车展上发布其与中方合资伙伴东风汽车(Dongfeng Motors)联合研发的自主品牌启辰(Venucia)。但是,多数分析师表示,此类措施很可能只会小幅提升本土汽车制造商的市场份额,甚至还有可能进一步压低它们的份额。Klaus Paur, car industry analyst at Ipsos in Shanghai, says: ;In the past few years we have seen a dramatic loss of market share for Chinese branded vehicles, while international carmakers have done a very good job of penetrating the lower end of the market.;益普索(Ipsos)驻上海的汽车业分析师包亦农(Klaus Paur)表示:“过去几年里,我们看到中国品牌汽车的市场份额大幅下降,而海外汽车制造商在打入低端市场方面做得很出色。”;Sometimes international car manufacturers understand Chinese consumers better than Chinese manufacturers do,; he adds.“有时候海外汽车制造商比中国同行更加了解中国消费者,”他补充说。Western carmakers are increasingly adapting their cars for the Chinese market: BMW, for example, will launch a long-wheelbase version of its ever-popular 3 series especially for the China market where many cars are chauffeur driven.西方汽车制造商日趋针对中国市场调整汽车的设计。比如,宝马(BMW)将发布畅销的3系车型的长轴距版,这是专门面向中国市场开发的,因为这里有许多高档车是由专职司机驾驶的。Chinese carmakers like Geely, Great Wall and SAIC — the three strongest — are working hard to enter the middle to upper segments of the market and many are launching sports utility vehicles to capture a trend toward more individualistic purchases by younger buyers. ;But they are always running a little bit late,; says Mr Paur.中国汽车制造商,如吉利(Geely)、长城(Great Wall)和上汽(SAIC)这三家最强大的企业,正努力打入中高端市场。不少厂家将发布运动型多功能车(SUV),以求抓住年轻买家购买更具个性色车型的趋势。“但它们总是慢一拍,”包亦农表示。Ivo Naumann, head of AlixPartners in Shanghai, says: ;The product still has to improve to be really on par with international brands.;咨询集团艾睿铂(AlixPartners)上海主管罗曼(Ivo Naumann)表示:“这些产品仍需要改进,才能真正与国际品牌平起平坐。”;At the end of the day, I think it#39;s a question of scale. None of the independent Chinese carmakers has a scale that could -truly compete with large global carmakers,; he adds, noting that even Geely, which also owns Volvo, produces fewer than 1m cars a year while the global market leaders produce several times that.“归根结底,我认为这是一个规模的问题。非合资的中国汽车制造商没有一家能够真正在规模上与大型海外同行较量,”他补充说。罗曼指出,即便是旗下拥有沃尔沃(Volvo)的吉利,汽车年产量也不到100万辆,而全球市场领先车企的年产量几倍于此。Meanwhile, prevailing winds increasingly favour global carmakers, analysts say. As China gets richer, car buyers often want to upgrade to foreign models and as the first big wave of car buyers replaces their first car, many are increasingly willing to pay for foreign reliability, not to mention resale value.与此同时,分析师们表示,情况越来越有利于海外汽车制造商。随着中国变得更富,汽车买家往往想要升级至国外车型,同时随着首批购车族纷纷换车,其中许多人越来越愿意为国外车型的可靠性(且不提转售价值)掏钱。Even Beijing#39;s decision to force foreign carmakers to create indigenous joint -venture brands could cannibalise demand for independent Chinese brands, says Bill Russo of Synergistics, a consultancy, who is also a former head of Chrysler in China.汽车业咨询公司Synergistics总裁、克莱斯勒(Chrysler)前中国区负责人罗威(Bill Russo)表示,甚至连北京方面迫使外国汽车制造商创建自主合资品牌的决定,也可能侵蚀市场对非合资中国品牌的需求。Kevin Wale, head of GM in China, told the Financial Times: ;It#39;s tough to establish a global reputation ... and once you have done that it tends not to go away.;通用汽车中国公司总裁甘文维(Kevin Wale)对英国《金融时报》表示:“建立全球声誉是很难的……而一旦你建立起来了,这种声誉往往会一直伴随着你,不会离开。;The Japanese and -Koreans built up global reputations, but it took them 20 or 30 or 40 years — and that still did not erode the global advantage of those that existed before. I think our reputation [in China] will last for an incredibly long time.;“日本和韩国厂家建立起了全球声誉,但它们花了20、30甚至40年,即便那样也没有削弱比它们更早的老品牌的全球优势。我认为我们(在中国的)声誉将持续相当长的时间。”译者:和风 /201204/178937。

  Marriage rates in America are at an all-time low. Young men and women are delaying marriage into their late 20s and early 30s, sometimes to their detriment of their health and well-being.结婚率在美国正处于历史低点。年轻男女都将结婚推迟到30岁左右,有时到他们的健康和福祉都受损时。And yet, with the average cost of a wedding hovering around ,000, it#39;s no wonder that those in their early- to mid-20s are reluctant to tie the knot -- they likely don#39;t have the money to do it.然而,一场婚礼的平均成本在28000美元附近徘徊,难怪那些20多岁的人都不愿意结婚了,他们可能没有钱去做这件事。On Thursday, author and Los Angeles Times columnist Meghan Daum offered another possible explanation for low marriage rates:周四,笔者和洛杉矶时报专栏作家Meghan Daum为低结婚率提供了另一种可能的解释:;We#39;ve been sent an insidious little message [about marriage]: that being committed to a partner means having graduated to a certain standard of bourgeois living,; she said at a public forum in Beverly Hills, Calif. Daum explained that there is an unspoken cultural assertion that in order to earn the ;right; to be married, couples must first reach upper-class status. ;With unwritten cultural rules like that,; she said, ;it#39;s no wonder marriage gets put on the back burner.;“我们已经收到一条潜在的小消息[关于婚姻]:对另一半承诺意味着获得一定标准的资产阶级生活,”她在加州比弗利山庄的一个公共论坛上说。Daum解释说有个不成文的文化标准,为了获得结婚的权利,夫妻首先必须取得上流社会的地位。“在这不成文的文化规则下,”她说,“难怪婚姻被搁置。”In the U.S., just 20 percent of adults aged 18 to 29 are married, and four in 10 Americans surveyed by the Pew Research Center in 2010 said they believe that marriage is obsolete.在美国,年龄在18岁到29岁的成人中只有20%结婚了,皮尤研究中心在2010年调查的美国人中有十分之四的人表示他们认为婚姻是过时的。 /201304/235006

  

  

  

  

  When any market crashes, it’s a shock. Fora real nose dive it normally takes something unexpected and dramatic to kick itoff. Gold is misunderstood and it is viewed as “the mad metal”, so here arethree things to remember whether you love or hate gold.任何市场崩溃时都会有震荡。对于真正的一落千丈,它通常需要一些意想不到的戏剧性的事情来开启。黄金是误以为“疯狂的金属”,所以不管你对黄金是爱是恨这里有三件事情要记住。1. Gold is a commodityTo many people gold is something special.It’s more than just another metal that comes out of the ground. This may wellbe because since the dawn of time gold has been a status symbol and status iswhat breeds success or simply just breeds.Whatever you feel about gold, it is just ametal. That isn’t necessarily a bad thing and it doesn’t mean it needs to becheaper.Gold supply has not kept up with demand soits price should rise. Where once gold was used on things that could be easilyrecycled. Now gold is used in things that don’t get recycled in a way that thegold is being recovered. So gold is being lost.1.黄金是一种商品对许多人来说黄金是与众不同的。它不仅仅是来自地下的又一金属。这很可能是由于从黎明伊始,黄金一直是一种身份的象征,地位等同于育成功或只是简单的繁荣兴旺。无论你对黄金有何感受,它只是一种金属。这倒未必是件坏事,也并不意味着它需要更便宜。黄金供不应求,所以它的价格应该上涨。曾经用于黄金的东西都可以很容易回收。现在黄金用在无法回收的东西上。所以黄金在流失。2. Gold is not a stable store of valueIt is a myth to believe gold is a constantstore of value. Like anything else the price of gold is created by supply anddemand. When the Spanish pillaged South America and brought the gold and silverback to Europe, there was rampant inflation. More gold meant gold money wasworth less and the price of things in gold went up.2。黄金不是一种稳定的价值贮存体认为黄金是一种恒性的价值贮存体是一个误区。像任何其他东西一样,黄金价格由供需决定。当西班牙掠夺南美,把金银带回欧洲,就产生了恶性通货膨胀。更多的黄金意味着黄金贬值,黄金加工物的价钱上升。3. Gold is volatileGold used to be worth a lot less than it istoday. As we have seen recently at ADVFN, you don’t have to look hard to see goldis as vulnerable to swings in values as any other commodity.The key to investing in gold is being ableto watch the gold price live. A free ADVFN account will allow you to follow itlive and direct at home or on your tablet or smartphone via our free app.3.黄金具有挥发性黄金过去远没有今天这么值钱。正如我们最近在ADVFN所看到的,你无需很难才能看到黄金的价值像任何其他商品一样容易波动。投资黄金的关键在于能实时看到金价。一个免费的ADVFN帐户将允许您直接在家里或在你的平板电脑或智能手机上通过我们的免费应用程序进行实时跟踪。 /201305/239222

  阿富汗战争:鼓起你的勇气这是一个血腥的阿富汗一周,尤其是英国,这个时候不能失去信心。据说阿富汗是帝国的坟场。19世纪这里是英军的伤心之地,20世纪又成了前苏联的伤心之地。阿富汗人以凶猛残暴著称。经过8年令人沮丧的战争,人们很容易地认为,北约在重蹈过去在兴都库什群山中灾难的覆辙。现在不是灰心丧气的时候。安全要改善,经济活动要鼓励,政权要巩固,叛乱分子要利诱分化。但是,要让这一切发生,必须让塔利班看到,阿富汗政府和她的外国盟友正在赢得胜利,而不是失败。The war in Afghanistan: Hold your nerveIt has been a bloody month in Afghanistan but America’s allies, especially Britain, should not lose heartAFGHANISTAN is said to be the graveyard (墓地)of empires. The British army came to grief there in the 19th century, the Soviet one in the 20th. Such was Afghans’ reputation for ferocity(凶暴) that Rudyard Kipling told those left wounded on Afghanistan’s plains: “Jest roll to your rifle and blow out your brains.” These days British soldiers are again dying in Afghanistan, along with Americans, Canadians and many others. The Taliban are resurgent(复活的,复兴的). Each fighting season is bloodier than the last. President Barack Obama is deploying an extra 20,000 troops there this year. But some allies are aly on their way out. The Netherlands will withdraw fighting forces next year, followed by Canada in 2011. Now the public in Britain, which has the second-largest contingent in Afghanistan, is agonising over the country’s role in the war after a dful month in Helmand (see article).After eight years of disheartening warfare, it is tempting to see NATO’s mission as a repeat of past misadventures(运气不佳的遭遇) in the Hindu Kush. The Soviets lost even though they had more troops than NATO has today, a more powerful Afghan army and were supported by a cadre of motivated Afghan communists. But such comparisons are wrong. Unlike the anti-Soviet mujahideen, who were backed by America, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, the Taliban have no superpower sponsor. In the 1980s Soviet aircraft were shot down with American-made Stinger missiles; today NATO has mastery of the skies. The Taliban are a Pushtun (普什图语的)faction, not a national movement; their insurgency is largely limited to the southern half of the country.Afghans may feel anger over the death of civilians killed by foreign forces, frustration at the chaos and insecurity, and dismay (气馁)at the corruption of President Hamid Karzai’s government. But opinion polls say that most want Western troops to stay; they remember the misery of the civil war and the oppression of Taliban rule too well. They want the West to do a better job of securing the country.The price of friendshipFor America Afghanistan is a war of necessity; it is from there that Osama bin Laden ordered the attacks of September 11th 2001. For many European allies, though, it is less vital—a war of solidarity(团结) with America, a war of choice. Such operations quickly turn unpopular when they go badly, and governments tend to inflate their aims. Gordon Brown, the British prime minister, talks of promoting “an emerging democracy”.Critics say the effort is misconceived: the real danger is in Pakistan, where al-Qaeda’s leaders are now hiding. But helping Pakistan fight Islamic militants will only be harder if the Taliban and al-Qaeda can claim victory in Afghanistan. Others say the West is being over-ambitious. It can never hope to create a stable democracy in Afghanistan; all it needs is a small contingent(条件) to protect Kabul, and some special forces and bombers to deal with any returning al-Qaeda fighters. But such a minimalist (极简抽象的)approach is what allowed the Taliban to regroup.The cost to NATO countries is immediately apparent: tens of billions of dollars and the lives of more than 1,200 soldiers. The cost of leaving is harder to measure but is probably larger: the return of the Taliban to power; an Afghan civil war; the utter destabilisation of nuclear-armed Pakistan; the restoration of al-Qaeda’s Afghan haven; the emboldening of every jihadist in the world; and the weakening of the West’s friends.America will naturally take on most of the task in Afghanistan. But allies are vital. They share the burden, they confer political legitimacy(合法性) and their joint commitment makes it harder for too many to drop out. Yet some are expending a disproportionate amount of blood. Britain is among them, but it is not alone. As a share of their population Canada, Denmark and Estonia have suffered more military fatalities.Friends and alliesBritain’s ambition to be a global “force for good” comes at a cost. As America’s best friend, with privileged access to intelligence, it feels compelled to take part in America’s wars. As the most capable militarily of NATO’s European members (together with France), it helps to rally others. But fighting in Afghanistan is not just about prestige. With its large population of Pakistani origin, it has much at stake in helping to maintain the stability of Afghanistan and Pakistan. London has been attacked by al-Qaeda more recently than New York.So what should Britain do? To begin with, the government must act with conviction(信念), rather than wish the problem away. It cannot be at war with a peacetime mind-set. As a share of the budget, defence spending has shrunk since 2001. The defence ministry is a parking place for weak ministers or a stepping-stone for strong ones. Priority should be given to manning fully the army’s ranks, and probably expanding them. More must be done to provide helicopters, transport aircraft, drones and better-protected vehicles. This would wreck budgets and upset the navy and air force. So be it. Losing a war is even more demoralising than losing ships or jets. The government should have announced a Strategic Defence Review a long time ago, not delayed it until after the election.At the very least Mr Brown should agree to the army’s request for a permanent uplift of 2,000 troops for Helmand. Western forces are never going to garrison the whole province, let alone Afghanistan. But what they hold must be held securely. And above all, they must train and expand the Afghan army and police so they can gradually take over. That will not be cheap, but it is the best way to bring home Western troops.In many ways, the push to pacify(平息) Afghanistan is only just starting, now that the war in Iraq is ending. America’s marines launched a big operation in Helmand on July 2nd. Afghanistan’s presidential elections take place next month. It will not be clear until the autumn, and probably not until late next year, whether Mr Obama’s “surge” has worked.This is not the time to lose heart. Security must be improved, economic activity encouraged, government strengthened and insurgents offered inducements to defect. But for those things to happen, the Taliban must see that the Afghan government and its foreign friends are winning, not losing. Keke View:当美国总统布什向世界宣布美军要在阿富汗打一场样式很特殊的反恐怖战争,以彻底消灭制造九一一事件的幕后黑手及其同盟者塔利班武装之时,有眼光的战略家们都认为美国无疑会赢得这场战争。但是自10月7日美军开打以后,特别是反塔联盟在战争中发挥的作用,使世人愈感到始料不及,战争一次又一次地出现戏剧性变化,许多分析家们的预测都跟不上形势的发展。 /200907/78690

  

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