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义乌第二人民医院祛疤手术多少钱网易医讯

2017年12月18日 13:15:30|来源:国际在线|编辑:光明养生
Banyan菩提The long arms of the law法律的长臂Across Asia, judges are having too much say in politics在亚洲,法官对政治施加了过多影响AFTER nearly three years, Yingluck Shinawatras stint as prime minister of Thailand drew this week to its inevitable close. The end came not with the bang of a people-power revolution that at one point seemed likely to unseat her; nor with the muted rumble of tanks in a coup like the one that toppled her brother Thaksin from the same job in 2006; still less with the raucous clamour of a contested election, though one had been called for July 20th. Rather, it petered out in the whimper of a court order. Not for the first time the Thai judiciary has intervened to solve a problem that a broken political system could not fix. And not for the first time its intervention was to the Shinawatras detriment.坚持了约三年之后,英拉·西那瓦的总理岁月也将在本周不可避免地走向终结。然而最终让她认输的,既非一度动摇她职位的人民力量革命的爆发,也非在2006年曾迫使英拉的哥哥他信去职的坦克的低吼与政变。一场具有争议的选举也在民众喧嚷的要求下被推迟到了6月20日,不过英拉的去职与之也关系不大。最终这个故事在法庭判令与阵阵呜咽中渐渐落幕。对于泰国司法来说,这不是第一次介入解决那些由破碎的政治体制无法解决的问题。而西那瓦家族吃司法介入的亏,也同样不是第一次了。However, Thailand is not alone in fighting political battles with legal weapons. A number of Malaysian opposition politicians find themselves in legal trouble, with potentially serious consequences. In Myanmar the opposition is planning demonstrations this month to demand reform to a constitution that places legal obstacles in the way of the countrys democratisation, and of the right of Aung San Suu Kyi, the opposition leader, to stand in a presidential election she would surely win. Even in China a purge of potential opponents of Xi Jinping, the president and party leader, takes the form of a series of prosecutions for corruption. More hopefully, in Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, a former army chief and military dictator, is fighting a charge of treason, in a trial testing the armys willingness to cede privileges and immunity to an elected civilian government.不过,利用法律武器进行政治斗争,可不仅仅是泰国一家。马来西亚的一些反对派政治家如今正深陷法律麻烦,可能会遭遇严重的后果。缅甸的反对派正在计划在本月展开一场示威游行,要求对一项妨碍国家民主化的宪法进行改革,并为反对派领袖昂山素季争取参加总统大选的权利。只要能参加选举,她就一定能获胜。即便是中国国家主席和党总书记习的清除潜在敌手行动中,也采取了对腐败提起公诉的形式。巴基斯坦则看来更有希望,前陆军参谋长,军事独裁者佩尔韦兹·穆沙拉夫正在与叛国罪的指控相斗争,这是一次对军方限制特权、不干预民选文职政府之意愿的检验。Various trends are at work. One, evident in India and Pakistan, is an enduring tradition of activism by a robustly independent judiciary. Often this has made the courts popular by comparison with the perceived lethargy, incompetence or malice of politicians. Public-interest litigation and its ability to make rulings suo moto (off its own bat) have encouraged Indias Supreme Court to meddle in environmental and social policy. It has forced Delhis buses, taxis and tuk-tuks to convert to compressed natural gas from dirtier fuels and has taken charge of Indias trees. The courts green interests might please liberals, but they rued a ruling last December that overturned a Delhi High Court decision lifting a ban on homosexuality. In Pakistan the courts helped bring down Mr Musharraf, but then proceeded to hound his civilian successor, Asif Ali Zardari, through his five-year term.这其中包含了很多不同的趋势。在印度与巴基斯坦,坚定又独立的司法部门有悠久的激进做派传统。相对于公众心目中陈腐,无能,又阴险的政治家,法院的这一形象更受民众欢迎。公益起诉的资格与独立作出裁决的能力使得印度最高法院乐于干预环境与社会政策。它已经让德里的巴士、的士、嘟嘟车都抛弃了落后的燃料,换上液化天然气,并且接管了全印度的树木。法院的绿色诉求或许能取悦自由派,不过他们也为去年十二月印度最高法院推翻了德里高级法院给同性恋禁令松绑的裁决而感到惋惜。巴基斯坦的法院正对打倒穆沙拉夫有功,不过随后的五年总统任期中,他们又盯上了穆沙拉夫那位文职的总统继任者,阿西夫·阿里·扎尔达里。Elsewhere, however, governments use the law as an instrument of political control. That is most obvious in one-party dictatorships such as China and Vietnam. But the suspicion of judicial persecution lingers even in countries whose governments present themselves as relatively liberal—such as Malaysias, which has lifted some repressive colonial-era legislation. Yet, after a close general election last year, a number of opposition politicians face charges for sedition or for breaches of the law on assembly. The most serious case has nothing to do with politics. It is the five-year sentence on a charge of sodomy against which Anwar Ibrahim, the leader of the opposition, is appealing.不过在其他地方,政府把法律当做了实施政治控制的工具。这在中国越南之类的一党专政国家尤为明显。不过,即使那些政府自我标榜为相对自由的国家,也无法摆脱司法迫害的嫌疑——譬如马拉西亚政府就推行了一些殖民地时代的镇压性法律。去年那场势均力敌的大选结束后,就有一些反对派政治家收到了煽动与妨碍法律制定的指控。其中最严重的案例甚至与政治都没有关系。反对党领导人安华·易卜拉欣被控罪并最终被判刑五年,他表示将上诉。When Barack Obama visited Malaysia last month, Najib Razak, the prime minister, stressed that the Anwar case was a judicial matter in which the government had no part. Yet it was the governments own appeal which led to Mr Anwars earlier acquittal being overturned. He is the figurehead who unites a diverse opposition torn at present by disagreement over the plan of one of its components, an Islamic party, to introduce fierce hudud punishments, such as amputations, in Kelantan, a state it governs. His disappearance into jail would be most damaging.上个月巴拉克·奥巴马访问马来西亚时,现任总理纳吉·阿都拉萨强调了安华案只是一起司法事件,政府没有参与其中。但正是政府的压力使得早先对安华的无罪裁决被推翻。安华是将反对派团结在一起的精神领袖,如今反对派内部四分五裂,原因是其中一家伊斯兰政党计划在其治下的吉兰丹州引入可怕的固定刑惩罚,而各反对派政党对此意见不一。安华入狱将重创反对派联盟。Thailand is illustrative of a third trend: for conservative judiciaries, when a time-honoured political dispensation changes, to find themselves, in effect, part of the opposition. Like much of the civil service, army and other pillars of Thailands royalist establishment, the judiciary abhors the Shinawatras alleged corruption with a special intensity in part because it fears their popularity, and hence their ability to overturn the accustomed order. In the Maldives, too, the courts helped get rid of a popular leader in 2012. Mohamed Nasheed was the first directly elected president after a long dictatorship. He threatened to shake things up, but lost a power struggle with a judge.泰国则代表了第三种趋势:保守的司法体制长久以来拥有超然的政治地位,但如今格局已渐渐改变,事实上司法部门已经成为了反对派的一部分。与公务员,军队,以及其他泰国保皇派主要群体一样,司法部门非常痛恨西那瓦家族的腐败。而且其中也有畏惧的成分。西那瓦家族拥有广泛的民众持,进而有能力颠覆现有格局。同样在马尔代夫,法院也在2012年为除去一位广受欢迎的领导人出了一把力。穆罕默德·纳希德是这个国家历经长期独裁后的第一位直选总统。 他曾出言要改天换地,但在与司法的权斗中败下阵来。The Singapore sting新加坡之痛The lesson drawn from all this by authoritarian ruling elites facing pressure for reform is how important it is to have the courts on your side. Not only does it avoid awkward stand-offs; it helps foster the impression that you are moving towards “the rule of law”. So, in Sri Lanka, the government of Mahinda Rajapaksa early last year impeached and sacked a troublesome chief justice. And in Cambodia laws now being considered would have the effect of emasculating judicial independence.面临改革压力的独裁统治都学到了一课:把司法拉拢到自己一边非常重要。这不单能避开麻烦的制衡状态,更能营造一种正在走向的印象。所以在斯里兰卡,马欣达·拉贾帕克萨的政府就弹劾并解职了一位麻烦的首席大法官。而柬埔寨的现行法律也被认为具有削弱司法独立性的作用。Cambodias strongman, Hun Sen, is known to cast an envious eye at an unlikely role model: Singapore. There, the ruling Peoples Action Party has been in power even longer than his own Cambodian Peoples Party (CPP). And it has managed this without resorting to the thuggery and coups that have ensured the CPPs grip. Part of the PAPs secret is its use of the law. Strict defamation and contempt-of-court laws inherited from the British were invoked against foreign critics and domestic opponents, forcing some into bankruptcy. Lee Kuan Yew, the founding prime minister, whose son now holds that job, justified this as necessary to protect Singapores leaders reputations, rather than as a way of hounding the opposition. But it had the same effect.众所周知,柬埔寨政治强人洪森非常羡慕一位可能不是榜样的榜样:新加坡。新加坡的执政党人民行动党比洪森的柬埔寨人民党掌权时间更久。而且人民行动党并不依靠人民党那套为抓紧政权所施展的阴谋与政变。法律就是人民党的一种秘密武器。严苛的诽谤与藐视法庭法源自英国,被用来打击外国批评家与国内反对派,其中有些人因此破产。首任总理李光耀认为这能保护新加坡领导人的名誉,而不是用来追击反对派。其实效果都一样。However, those in Cambodia and elsewhere make two mistakes when they see Singapore as a model of efficient authoritarianism applied in large measure through the legal system. One is that Singapore is an international city seen as under the rule of law. Its courts are respected, if not always the use the government has made of them. The other is that many Singaporeans are turning against the PAP, which is even trying to change its image.柬埔寨等国视新加坡为依靠司法实施高效威权主义的榜样,不过他们犯了两个错。首先新加坡是一个法治的国际化城市。要是政府不总是私自动用司法力量,那司法是很受尊敬的。其次很多新加坡人正转而反对人民行动党,甚至人民行动党自己也在寻求改变形象。 201406/303177Beneath the surface of a pond or stream its a fish-eat-fish world, and the tiny minnow is often lunch for larger fish such as pike. 在池塘或溪流的下面是一个鱼吃鱼的世界。小米诺鱼通常都是大鱼的午餐。Youd think a tasty minnow would try to remain inconspicuous, but this isnt always the case.也许你认为美味的小米诺鱼应该藏起来,不被发觉才对,然而事情并非总是如此。If a minnows skin is damaged by an attacking pike, it releases a chemical that attracts more pike. 如果一条小米诺鱼被一条梭子鱼攻击划破了皮,它就会释放出一种化学物质吸引来更多的梭子鱼。Why would a minnow thats aly beingattacked want to attract more trouble? 为什么一只已经被攻击的小米诺鱼想要引来更多的麻烦呢?Do injured minnows have some kind of crazy deathwish?难道那些受伤的小米诺鱼们有某个疯狂的想死的念头吗?This seemingly suicidal behavior is actually a clever survival strategy. 这个看似自杀性的行为实际上却是一个聪明的生存策略。The minnows chemical has two distinct functions. 小米诺鱼释放的化学物质有两大显著的功能。First, it warns other minnows about the danger. 首先,它能警告其他小米诺鱼这里有危险。Minnows travel inschools with close relatives, so this chemical alarm warns the others away from potentially dangerous waters. 通常小米诺鱼和自己的近亲们成群的游动,于是这种化学警钟就可以警告其他米诺鱼远离那些潜在的危险水域。Even if the original minnow is eaten, its brothers and sisters will live tore produce. 即使原先的小米诺鱼被吃了,它的兄弟们也可以活下来繁殖后代。From a genetic standpoint, this self sacrifice makes sense.从遗传学的角度来看,这种自杀式牺牲是可行的。You might wonder about the chemicals other function though–to attract more pike. 也许你会好奇这个化学物质的另一大功能—吸引更多的梭子鱼。A minnows skin is most likely to be damaged in an attack from a relatively small pike. 小米诺鱼被相对较小的梭子鱼袭击时更容易被划伤皮肤,而大个儿的梭子鱼则会将米诺鱼们一口吞下。Larger pike simply swallow their minnows whole. 也就是说,这种化学物质将会引来比眼前攻击者还要大的梭子鱼。Pike have no qualms about eating other pike, so if a bigone sees a smaller pike chasing a tiny minnow, that big pike will go after the larger mouthful,allowing the minnow to escape.梭子鱼对于吃自己的同类完全毫无顾忌,所以如果一条大梭子鱼看到一条小梭子鱼正在捕食一条小米诺鱼,大梭子鱼则会追赶小梭子鱼一饱口福,而让小米诺鱼获得一线生机。Its much like the end of Jurassic Park. 这一切很像《侏罗纪公园》的结局。The humans were about to be eaten by evil velociraptors,when the noise of their struggle summoned a bigger predator: 人类眼看着就要被可怕的暴龙们吃掉,正在这时,他们激烈的争斗声召唤出了更大的捕食者:Tyrannosaurus Rex. 雷克斯霸王龙。T-rex ate the raptors, allowing the humans to escape.雷克斯霸王龙吃掉了多伦多暴龙,而让人类逃出生天。 201407/312941

Asia亚洲Cyclones and climate change飓风与气候变化The new normal?习以为常?Physics suggests that storms will get worse as the planet warms. But it is too early to tell if it is actually happening物理学研究表明全球变暖将导致更猛烈的风暴,但一切尚未可知WAS typhoon Haiyan the strongest recorded storm to make landfall?台风海燕是有记录以来的最强登陆风暴吗?Meteorologists will never know. Reliable records go back only a few decades.气象学家们恐怕永远都不会知道。可靠记录只能回溯几十年。But it is surely one of them. Besides the devastation and the death toll, one way to assess its potency is to compare it with Katrina, the hurricane that devastated New Orleans in 2005.不过可以肯定,这是史上最强风暴之一。除了统计摧毁的建筑和死亡的人数,评估该风暴威力的另一个办法,是将它和2005年摧毁新奥良的卡特里娜飓风作比较。At its most intense, Haiyans peak wind speeds were probably greater than 300kph.在高峰期,海燕的最高风速可能超过每小时300公里,The best estimate for Katrina, when it hit land, is around 200kph.而卡特里娜登陆时,其风速估计在每小时200公里左右。Regardless of its precise position in the historical hierarchy, Haiyan—like Katrina—has provoked discussion about the effects of global warming on tropical storms.且不考虑台风海燕在历史上排行第几,海燕—如同卡特里娜—已激起关于全球变暖对热带风暴影响的讨论。Naderev Sano, the Philippines representative at a climate summit in Warsaw, was unequivocal, daring doubters to visit his homeland.在华沙举行的联合国气候变化大会上,菲律宾代表Naderev Sano态度坚定,他请全球变暖效应的怀疑者们去他的祖国看一看,The trend we now see is that more destructive storms will be the new norm, he said.并说:我们从眼下的趋势可以看到,更具破坏性的风暴将成为常态。In theory, a warmer world should indeed produce more potent cyclones.理论上,全球变暖确实将引发更具威力的风暴。Such storms are fuelled by evaporation from the ocean.这类风暴来自海洋的水气蒸腾。Warmer water means faster evaporation, which means more energy to power the storm.水温越高,蒸发越快,这意味着暴风将来得更猛烈。A warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture, which means more rain.而温暖的大气将储存更多水分,这将造成更多的降雨。But other factors complicate things.不过其他一些因素使事情变得复杂。Tropical cyclones cannot form when wind speeds in the upper and lower atmosphere differ too much.当高层和底层大气的风速相差悬殊时,热带气旋便无法形成。Climate models suggest, in the North Atlantic at least, that such divergent winds may be more common in a warmer world.气候模型表明,至少在北大西洋,如果气温升高,那这类风速甚异的气流可能会变得更常见。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reckons that the frequency of cyclones will stay the same or decrease while their average intensity goes up.政府间气候变化专门委员会估计,当飓风的平均强度增加时,它的频率或许会保持不变甚至降低。That is the forecast. But the evidence so far is messy.这些都只是预测。可迄今为止的据相当混乱。Meteorological records are of uneven quality, and tropical storms vary widely in intensity, which makes spotting trends tricky.气象记录的质量良莠不齐,热带风暴的强度变化不定,这使得认清趋势的任务变得棘手。One potent storm from 1979, Typhoon Tip, holds the record for the lowest atmospheric pressure recorded, another measure of a storms intensity.另一项台风强度的测算显示,1979年的超级强台风泰培保持了最低大气压的记录。Yet levels of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, were only 337 parts per million in 1979, compared with 394ppm in 2012.然而,相比2012年的394ppm,主要温室气体二氧化碳的浓度在1979年仅为337ppm。The IPCC concludes that, although there is good evidence for more and stronger Atlantic hurricanes over the past 40 years, there is no consensus on the cause of them.IPCC推断,虽然有充分的据显示,在过去的40年间,大西洋的飓风正变得更为频繁和猛烈,但IPCC表示,对于此现象的起因,业内并未形成共识。Worldwide, there is no trend in either the frequency or the intensity of tropical storms.在世界范围内,关于热带风暴发生的频率或强度的趋势依旧无迹可寻。And, given the rarity of such storms as Typhoon Haiyan, it will take a long time for any trend to become apparent.不仅如此,由于像台风海燕这样的罕见风暴的出现,在相当长一段时间内,风暴的趋势将愈加扑朔迷离。 201401/272691

and may trace their ancestry all the way back to the first dogs to enter North America. The Carolina dogs are pack animals with a strick hierarchy topped by an alpha male. Like most wild dogs, they hunt in groups. But many of the kills they make are small. Rabbits and small rodents make up a large part of their diet in what can become a collective feeding frenzy. At the end of the ice age, these dogs ancestors also had access to other sources of food. They may have hung around the camps of early native people, scavenging the scraps. 它们的祖先是第一批来到北美大陆的犬。卡罗来纳犬属于驮兽的一种,它们的等级制度十分严格,公犬则处于顶层。和其他野生犬一样,它们成群捕食。但是他们大多数的捕食对象体型较小。兔子和小型啮齿动物是他们的主要食物,不过它们捕食的数量很多。在冰河时代末期,这些犬种的祖先同样找到了其他的食物来源。他们可能徘徊在早期土著居民的住所边,吃着人类的残羹剩饭。But although they lived on the fringes of human society, the early wild dogs were certainly not pets. Exactly when they arrived in North America is still uncertain. But its likely that they slipped in after the extinction of the ice age beasts during a time of massive change. 但是尽管它们生活在人类社会的边缘,早期的野犬也绝对不是宠物犬。它们具体何时来到北美大陆还无法探寻。但是,它们很有可能是在北美大陆发生巨大转变,许多大型动物灭亡后来到的北美大陆。Eventually the continent became more settled. Over the next few thousand years, people adapted to the many regions of the continent and their varying lifestyles were shaped by the landscape they lived in. 终于,大陆的面貌变得更加定型。在接下来的几千年里,人类适应了大陆的很多地区,而他们多种的生活方式则是由他们居住的居住环境决定的。Then more than 14,000 years after the first people set foot in North America, another wave of immigrants brought changes that would have a dramatic impact on the landscape and wildlife of the new world.在14000多年前,当第一批人类踏足北美后,另一批移民者带来的巨大影响将会波及整个新世界的地貌以及野生生物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/264635

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