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诸暨市第三人民医院激光祛痣多少钱浙江省义乌復元医院激光去斑手术多少钱On two fronts and two continents,在两条战线上和两个大洲中,the proof of Einsteins theory now hangs in the balance.爱因斯坦的理论明现在依然悬而未决。Its February 1919, at top Mountain Hamilton in California,1919年2月,在加州汉密尔顿的山顶,William Wallace Campbell is examining and re-examining photographic plates which appear to indicate that Einsteins General Theory of Relativity,威廉·华莱士·坎贝尔一遍又一遍的检查并重新审视感光板,而结果似乎表明爱因斯坦的广义相对论。his theory of gravity, is wrong.他的引力理论,是错误的。But Campbell has competition from British astronomer Arthur Eddington,但坎贝尔与来自英国天文学家阿瑟·爱丁顿之间也在进行着竞争,who was on his way to photograph an eclipse in Africa.爱丁顿正在去非洲拍摄日食的路上。Eddington leaves Britain and heads south.爱丁顿离开英国并且向南方进发。He is in his late 30s, traveling in those days was not comfortable.他是在20世纪30年代末,在那些日子里,旅行可不舒。This is the tropics, the height of summer.这是热带地区,而且夏天太阳难耐。It must have been a very unpleasant place to be.要去的一定是一个很不舒的地方。In May of 1919, after 10 weeks at sea,在1919年5月, 在海上的10周后,Eddington and his assistant arrive on the shores of Principe,爱丁顿和他的助手到达圣多美普林西比海岸,a small island off the coast of West Africa.这是西非海岸的一个小岛。注:听力文本来源于普特 201205/183246浙大医学院附属四院整形美容科 Science and technology科学技术Slim pickings重拾苗条Evidence that the problem of obesity starts in the womb有据明肥胖始于子宫IN THE late 1980s David Barker, a British doctor, suggested that what a woman eats when she is pregnant shapes her childs physiology for life.上世纪80年代末,英国医生大卫巴克尔说妇女怀期间饮食会塑造孩子未来的生理机能。He called the idea fetal programming.他称之为胎儿计划。Such programming would allow an individual to make optimum use of available nutrients, on the assumption that his own diet will be similar to his mothers.这一计划让每个人以最佳方式利用营养,他假定自己的饮食和母亲的相似。If it was not similar, though, there could be problems.如果不相似,就有问题了。Dr Barker speculated that fetal programming—in mesalliance with the sp of fatty, sugary foods over recent decades—might explain the epidemic of obesity, heart disease and late-onset diabetes that plagues many rich countries.巴克尔推测胎儿计划与偏远地区普遍的高脂肪,含糖饮食的有关系。这也许就解释了肥胖,心脏病以及折磨很多富裕国家的糖尿病。It is a neat theory, but hard to prove.这是很明确的结论,但却很难明。On October 29th, though, Sir Peter Gluckman, an endocrinologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of Auckland, in New Zealand, presented evidence to support it at a conference organised in Lausanne by Nestlé, a Swiss food company.但在10月29日,新西兰奥克兰大学内分泌和进化生物学学家彼得格拉克曼,在瑞士洛桑雀巢食品公司一个会议上提供了据。Dr Gluckman carried out his study in Jamaica, in collaboration with Terrence Forrester, of the University of the West Indies.格拉克曼士在牙买加进行了试验,并且与西印度大学特伦斯福伦斯特合作。He picked Jamaica because malnutrition is endemic there.他选择牙买加是因为营养不良是那里的地方病。That allows the theory of fetal programming to be tested by finding out whether those who experienced malnutrition in the womb respond differently to food than those who were properly fed.这样一来,胎儿计划就能通过研究母体内营养不良与营养充足是否影响孩子的食物选择来明。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester began their study by looking at people who had survived childhood malnutrition.格拉克曼和福伦斯特从研究儿童营养不良的幸存者开始。Symptoms normally manifest themselves in one of two ways, known as marasmus and kwashiorkor.常常表现为一种或两种症状,身体衰弱症和夸希奥科病。Children with marasmus are simply emaciated.衰弱症的孩子只是瘦而已。One significant difference between the two syndromes is that children with marasmus are twice as likely to survive malnutrition as those with kwashiorkor.夸希奥科病的孩子下腹则膨胀得像电视上那些饥荒浮肿的人。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester looked at 240 people aged between 25 and 40 who had survived one syndrome or the other as children, and found a systematic difference between them.格拉克曼和福伦斯特士观察了240个患有综合症的25到40岁之间成人和儿童,发现了二者有规律性的差别。The marasmus survivors tended to have had low birthweights.身体衰弱症的患者出生体重偏轻,The kwashiorkor group had normal birthweights. Low birthweight is an indication of a malnourished mother.夸希奥科病的人群出生体重正常。出生体重轻就表示母亲营养不良。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester thus hypothesise that the capacity for a marasmus-style response to malnutrition, with its higher survival rate, is programmed into fetuses by maternal malnourishment.两位士据此假设身体虚弱消瘦体质是因为营养不良,消瘦体质存活率很高,计入母亲营养不良所致。Fetuses carried by well-nourished mothers do not, as it were, anticipate the risk of malnutrition, and thus respond to it less well.福伦斯特士研究营养充足的母亲则不像营养不良的母亲那么易导致孩子营养不良,孩子也就不容易得消瘦症了。That suggests fetal programming is a real phenomenon.这些研究明胎儿计划确实存在。But can it help explain obesity, diabetes and so on?但它能否解释肥胖,糖尿病等病症呢?To investigate this, the two researchers then offered their volunteers foods that were either high in protein and low in fat, or low in protein and high in fat—but which, crucially, tasted the same, so that they did not know what they were eating.为了研究这个问题,两位士又给志愿者食用高蛋白低脂肪或者低蛋白高脂肪的食物,关键的是味道一样,志愿者就不知道自己吃的是什么了。They found that those who had survived marasmus ate differently from those who had survived kwashiorkor.他们发现得过消瘦症的人与得过夸希奥科病的人吃的不一样。The bodies of marasmus survivors seemed to demand more protein in their food.前者的食物似乎需要更多蛋白质。When offered a diet low in protein and high in fat, they consumed more of it.如果给他们低蛋白高脂肪的食物,他们就会吃得更多。That kept their protein intake constant, but meant they were eating 500 calories a day more than a normal maintenance diet.以此保蛋白质的摄入量,同时就意味着他们每天比正常人多摄入500卡路里的食物。Kwashiorkor survivors did not overeat in this way.得过夸希奥科病的人就不会这样暴饮暴食。This, then, may be the key that unlocks the puzzle.以上就是解开谜团的关键。Diets of the past would tend to have been lean.过去的饮食太不平衡了如果时间决定一切,Anticipating scarcity by overeating in times of plenty would be no bad thing if times of scarcity were a real risk.短期的饮食过量导致的营养缺乏并不会有严重后果。Bodies that expected food to be plentiful, by contrast, should ration themselves to avoid the consequences of chronic overeating.与此相反,对于想吃大量食物的人,则应该约束自己避开长期性饮食过量。An inability to do that is the price paid for protection from famine by those predisposed to marasmus.做而易患消瘦症的妇女因为穷又买不起蛋白质足的食物,就没法让自己营养充足了。This study thus makes a prediction: as diets become high in sugar and fat in places where malnutrition was once common, those who suffered marasmus as children will become overweight more rapidly than those who suffered kwashiorkor.这项研究预测:在高脂肪高糖类的地区营养不足很常见,那些得消瘦症的人,比如儿童,就会比夸希奥科病患者更快肥胖起来。If that turns out to be the case, it will be evidence that Dr Barker was right. What is not yet clear is whether the children of todays overfed westerners will experience programming in the opposite direction, and have their appetites restricted.如果真实情况就是这样,就明巴克尔教授结论正确。对营养过剩的西方人来说,小孩在母亲肚子里的时候是不是与非洲孩子情况相反,平时是不是注意了饮食限制,目前则尚不清楚。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230161义乌市中心医院隆鼻多少钱

义乌打溶脂针费用Science and Technolgy科技Forensic science司法科学Ignorance is bliss无知即是福Forensic scientists know too much about the cases they investigate法医科学家对他们调查的案子知道得太多AS ALL fans of crime fiction know, DNA is the gold standard of forensic science. Or is it? Itiel Dror, a cognitive psychologist at University College, London, thinks this doctrine of infallibility needs to be questioned. His problem is not with the technology itself, but with the way it is deployed. For he has gathered evidence that DNA examiners interpretations of their results are, at least in complex cases, open to subjectivity and bias.所有的罪案小说迷都知道,DNA是司法科学的黄金标准。它到底是么?一位伦敦的大学认知心理学专家Itiel Dror认为这个说法的正确性有待考验。他的问题不是针对技术本身而是它进行的方式。因为他已经搜集了据明DNA鉴定者对他们结果的解释至少在复杂的案子里易受主观性和偏差的影响。When Americas National Academy of Sciences produced a report on the state of forensic science in , it criticised many of the methods then in use. Citing earlier research by Dr Dror, the reports authors stated, for example, that fingerprint examiners claims of zero error rates were scientifically implausible. DNA, however, was spared their criticism. Now Dr Dror and Greg Hampikian, a forensic biologist at Boise State University in Idaho, have published a study in Science amp; Justice that suggests all is not shipshape in the domain of the double helix either.当美国国家科学院在年发表了一片关于司法科学现状的报告时,它批判了很多当时正在应用的鉴定方式。引用这篇报道的作者Dror士早前做的研究,例如,指纹鉴定者宣称的零误差在科学上是不合理的。然而DNA省去了他们的批判。现在,Dror士和伊西的爱达荷州立大学的法医学生物学家Greg Hampikian在;科学与正义;上发表了一篇研究,表明所有的东西都不是井然有序的,在双螺旋线的领域里也不是。Dr Drors and Dr Hampikians experiment presented data from a real case to 17 DNA examiners working in an accredited government laboratory in North America. The case involved a gang rape in the state of Georgia, in which one of the rapists testified against three other suspects in exchange for a lighter sentence, as part of a plea bargain. All three denied involvement, but the two DNA examiners in the original case both found that they could not exclude one of the three from having been involved, based on an analysis of swabs taken from the victim.Dror士和Dr Hampikian士的实验提供一个真实案例的数据给17个在一家受认可的北美政府实验室里工作的DNA鉴定员。这起案件涉及到一宗乔治亚州的轮奸案,其中一名强奸犯为了让自己获得轻判做了不利于其它三名嫌疑者的言,作为认罪辩诉协议的一部分。其他三名嫌疑人全部否认参与强奸,但是根据从受害者处提取的药签分析,原案中有两位DNA鉴定师都发现他们无法排除三名中的其中一名参与了强奸。As is almost always true in forensic-science laboratories, these examiners knew what the case was about. And their findings were crucial to the outcome because in Georgia, as in many other states, a plea bargain cannot be accepted without corroborating evidence. However, of the 17 examiners Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian approached—who, unlike the original two, knew nothing about the context of the crime—only one thought that the same suspect could not be excluded. Twelve others excluded him, and four abstained.由于在司法科学实验室里总是什么都是对的,这些鉴定师们知道这个案子到底是怎么回事了。而且他们的手指对于出来的结果是至关重要的,因为在乔治亚,同时也在很多其它州,认罪辩诉如果没有确实的据是无法被接受的。然而,在Dror士和Hampikian接触的17个鉴定师中——他们不像开始两位鉴定师那样,对犯罪内容一无所知——只有一位认为一样的嫌疑不能被排除。另外十二位把他排除了,而四位弃权。Though they cannot prove it, Dr Dror and Dr Hampikian suspect the difference in contextual information given to the examiners was the cause of the different results. The original pair may have subliminally interpreted ambiguous information in a way helpful to the prosecution, even though they did not consciously realise what they were doing.尽管他们无法明,Dror士和Hampikian士怀疑鉴定师得到的上下文信息的区别是引起这些不同结果的原因。开始的两个人也许已经在下意识里以某种有益于控方的方式破译了模棱两可的信息,即使他们没有清楚地意识到当时他们在做什么。And DNA data are ambiguous more often than is generally realised. Dr Dror thinks that in about 25% of cases, tiny samples or the mixing of material from more than one person can lead to such ambiguity. Moreover, such is DNAs reputation that, when faced with claims that the molecule puts a defendant in a place where a crime has been committed, that defendant will often agree to a plea-bargain he might otherwise not have accepted.而且DNA数据往往比普遍了解的要模棱两可。Dror士认为在大约25%的案子里,小样本或者从不止一人身上取来的混合物质可能导致这样的二义性。此外,DNA的好名声就是这样,当面临宣称用DNA分子明被告所犯的罪的时候,被告通常会同意认罪辩诉,否则他也许不会接受。This one example does not prove the existence of a systematic problem. But it does point to a sloppy approach to science. According to Norah Rudin, a forensic-DNA consultant in Mountain View, California, forensic scientists are beginning to accept that cognitive bias exists, but there is still a lot of resistance to the idea, because examiners take the criticism personally and feel they are being accused of doing bad science. According to Dr Rudin, the attitude that cognitive bias can somehow be willed away, by education, training or good intentions, is still pervasive.这个例子没有明系统性问题的存在。但是它确实指出了一个科学上草率的方法。根据一位加利福尼亚州芒廷维尤的法庭DNA顾问Norah Rudin,法庭科学家正在开始接受那种认知性偏差的存在,但仍然有很多阻力,因为鉴定师个人会接受批评,觉得自己被谴责说自然科学学得差。根据Rudin士,认知偏差可以通过某种方式意识性去除的态度是普遍的,比如通过教育、训练或好意的方式。Medical researchers, by contrast, take great care to make drug trials ;blind;, so that neither the patient nor the administering doctor knows who is receiving the drug being tested, and who is getting a control drug or placebo. When someones freedom—and, in an American context, possibly his life, as well—is at stake, it surely behoves forensic-science laboratories to take precautions that are equally strong.相比之下,医学研究者非常注意使药物试验;不透明;,所以病人和用药的医生都不知道接受药物测试的是谁,和控制药物和安慰剂的是谁。在美国环境中,当某人的自由和他的生命也危在旦夕的时候,法医科学实验室应当采取相当的强预防措施。 /201210/202505义乌芙洛拉整形医院激光除皱多少钱 They can dance and they can sing. But only one of the robots on display at this years Taiwan Robot Fair can express an opinion. Designed by electrical engineering professor Rain Xi Low. Hes called a low head, created the image of a young and very expressive Albert Einstein. The Einstein robot can emulate 7 different human emotions including joy,disgust,and astonishment.这些机器人能唱能跳。但本届台湾机器人览会上只有一种机器人阐述了机器人新的发展方向。这款机器人由电子工程方面的教授Rain Xi Low发明。这款机器人是半身像,模仿了年轻时的爱因斯坦。这款机器人可以模仿人类七种不同的表情,包括喜悦,厌恶,惊讶。Theres a camera system installed in the eyes, and in the robots face, therere installed 36 motors,and every single one of the motors can take 256 positions. Like this, the robot can create very many different facial expressions.在机器人的眼睛中装有摄像系统,而机器人的脸上装有36个马达,每一个马达可以形成256种形态。这样,机器人就可以做出许多种不同的面部表情了。Lows robot has beend esigned to look like Einstein at 27 years of age when he published his famous theory of Relativity. The professor and his students plan to give him a body and legs so he can walk, although Einstein himself seems to have mixed feelings about the idea.Low教授是根据27岁时的爱因斯坦设计的机器人,27岁的爱因斯坦正是发表相对论的年纪。Low教授和他的学生们计划给机器人安装上身体和腿,这样它就可以走路了。不知道爱因斯坦在天有灵会作何感想。Rob Muir,Reuters.Rob Muir报道,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/195311义乌芙洛拉医院磨骨

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