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诸暨市妇幼保健儿童医院做祛疤手术多少钱义乌人民医院双眼皮多少钱Pensions in Nigeria尼日利亚的退休金计划Fewer ghosts, more savings少消耗 多储蓄After an unpromising start,Nigeria is beginning to encourage local saving and investment在一个不靠谱的开端之后,尼日利亚开始鼓励当地的储蓄和投资。FEW people in Africa are fortunate enough to have savings to fall back on in their old age. Having enrolled in a voluntary state-run pension scheme, Stephen Okikiola was always luckier than most. But it was not until Nigeria obliged firms with five or more employees to provide workers with pensions in 2004 that the former pharmaceuticals executive really started accumulating cash. “Its good to be able to rely on those monthly payments now that I am retired,” he says.在非洲,很少有人有足够的资金去做养老储蓄。Stephen Okikiola比大多数人幸运,因为他参加了国营的自发退休金计划。但是直到2004年尼日利亚迫使企业的五个或以上的雇员给给工人提供退休金,前制药公司的执行官们才真正地开始进行了存储。他说:“我已经退休了,能依赖于那些每月的付是很不错的。”Nigeria has spent a decade resurrecting its pension system. Back at the turn of the century, government employees were enrolled in a defined-benefit system (in which eventual payments are fixed).It had run up unfunded liabilities of 2 trillion naira (12.9 billion).Governments seldom put aside enough money to pay existing pensioners, let alone to cover future costs. Retirees often went unpaid. Most private companies, meanwhile, ignored their obligation to provide pensions for their workers. At those that did, allegations of mismanagement and fraud abounded.尼日利亚花了十多年去恢复他们的退休金制度。回顾本世纪初,政府雇员参加的是固定退休金制度(即期末薪金是固定的)。这加剧了高达2万亿奈拉养老金缺口(129亿美元)。政府很少给现有的退休人员准备充足的养老资金,更不用说承担未来成本。退休人员通常领不到退休金,而且大多数私人公司也不顾他们给职工提供养老金的责任。所有这些事情中充满了对管理不善的推诿和欺骗。All this changed with the reforms of 2004, which not only instituted mandatory pensions at most private firms, but also converted the government scheme from defined-benefit to defined-contribution (in which the risk of poor investment returns lies with the participants, not the sponsor). The management of the government scheme was also outsourced, and a regulator created to oversee the industry. Since 2005, pension schemes assets have grown by more than 25% a year on average, to about 4.2 trillion naira (26 billion).这些都在2004年的改革中发生了变化。他们给私人企业制定了强制养老保险计划,同时将政府的固定退休金制改为固定缴款制(低投资回报的风险由受益人承担,而不是发起人)。这种政府制度的管理是外包的,是产业监督的一个校准器。自从2005年起,退休金制度一年的资产平均增长率超过了25%,达到了4.2万亿奈拉(260亿美元)。That is still a relatively small amount, especially when judged against the governments massively expanded estimate of the size of the Nigerian economy. In April it nearly doubled its tally of GDP to 510 billion. That reduced pension-scheme assets to about 5% of GDP, compared to 170% in the Netherlands, 131% in Britain and 113% in America.这仍旧是一笔相当少的数目,尤其是与政府对尼日利亚经济的大量乐观预期相比时。GDP在四月几乎翻番为5100亿美元。这将退休金制度的在GDP中的占比减低至5%,而在荷兰占比170%,英国占比131%,美国为113%。Moreover, the vast majority of Nigerians work in informal jobs, and so do not have a pension: of a working population of perhaps 80m people, only around 6m participate in any sort of scheme. The government is trying to rectify that, too: a fresh set of reforms, passed in July, extended the obligation to provide a pension to firms employing three or more people. It also increased mandatory contributions from 7.5% of salary for both workers and employers to 8% and 10% respectively.此外,数量庞大的尼日利亚人从事于不能领取退休金的非正式工作:大约8000万的劳动力人口中只有6000万左右的人参加了这个计划。政府正在试图改变这种情况。在7月通过的一系列改革中,扩大了提供退休金的义务为每个公司要雇佣三人及以上。这同样使强制性供款增加,工人从工资的7.5%增加至8%,雇员至10%。As a result, savings are expected to grow further. By law, all the money must be invested inNigeria. The intention is to build a big pool of local cash that will reduce the countrys dependence on foreign aid, loans and investment. That goal has seemed all the more pressing since the prospect of rising interest rates in America caused an exodus of cash from emerging markets last year.因此,可以预计未来储蓄会增长。根据法律,所有的款项将投资于尼日利亚本国,以期建造一个本币现金池以降低国家对外国的援助、贷款及投资的依存度。似乎这个目标自从美国利率的上升预期导致新兴市场中的大量现金外流之后就非常迫切了。Nigerias overwhelmed infrastructure needs billions of dollars a year in investment. Pension schemes looking for long-term, local investments to match their liabilities could fund desperately-needed roads, ports, railways and houses. PenCom, the national regulator, is trying to promote investments in electricity generation, perhaps via the governments huge privatisation programme. It also wants more forays into private equity.尼日利亚过多的基础设施需要一年几百万美元的投入。退休金计划寻求长期的、本地的投资去应对他们在公路、港口、铁路和住宅方面的紧迫需求。PenCom是一个本国监管机构试图通过政府的宏大的私有化计划促进发电方面的投资,同时也希望削弱私人股本。As things stand, however, pension funds are shunning alternative assets. Overall, infrastructure accounts for less than 2% of their assets, compared with 68% for government bonds and 13% for shares. That is partly because there are only two registered infrastructure funds inNigeriaand no dedicated infrastructure bonds, according to Stanbic IBTC Pension Managers,Nigerias biggest pension-fund administrator.These are new and intimidating asset classes for local fund managers, says Kayode Akindele, of 46 Parallels, an investment manager.然而照目前的情况来看,退休金计划回避了资产的其他选择。总的来说,相比于68%的政府公债和13%的股份,基础设施的占比低于资产的2%。一部分原因是因为根据尼日利亚最大的养老基金管理机构Stanbic IBTC的养老基金管理,尼日利亚只有两个基础设施基金,且并不致力于基础设施融资。投资经理Kayode Akindele以及46个同行称,这是给本土基金经理上的最新令人畏惧的资产课程。Meanwhile, for the lucky few, life has improved. Former civil servants say they no longer have to queue for hours to collect their payments—the money goes straight to their accounts. And things have become more transparent. “Ghost workers” used to account for a huge proportion of payments disbursed, according to Demola Sogunle, the boss of Stanbic. Those days, he says, are now over.同时,对于少数幸运者来说,生活质量提高了。前公务员说工资直接会打到他们的账户中,不再需要排几个小时的长队去领了。同时事情也变得更有效率了,Stanbic的总裁Demola Sogunle称,曾经绝大一部分付的工资流向了“影子工人”,而现在这种情况已经一去不复返了。译者:李美娜 译文属译生译世 /201410/338821东阳整形美容医院 Poverty, crime and education贫困、犯罪与教育The paradox of the ghetto贫民窟的悖论Unnervingly, poor children seem to fare better in poor neighbourhoods令人奇怪的是,穷人家的孩子若是生活在贫困区域,表现反而更好。THE poorest people in Leicester by a wide margin are the Somalis who live in the St Matthews housing estate. Refugees from civil war, who often passed through Sweden or the Netherlands before fetching up in the English Midlands, they endure peeling surroundings and appalling joblessness. At the last census the local unemployment rate was three times the national average. But Abdikayf Farah, who runs a local charity, is oddly upbeat. Just look at the children, he says.生活在Leicester郊区最穷的人是索马里人,他们生活在St Matthews住宅区。在他们来到英国中部之前,作为内战的难民,索马里人经常穿越瑞典或者荷兰。他们忍受环境的盘剥,因没有工作而担惊受怕。在最近的人口普查中,当地的失业率是不列颠全国平均水平的三倍。但在当地从事慈善事业的Abdikayf Farah却莫名的乐观。他说,看看那些孩子就明白我为什么乐观了。Close to Mr Farahs office is Taylor Road Primary School—which, it turns out, trumps almost every school in Leicester in standardised tests. Its headmaster, Chris Hassall, credits the Somali immigrants, who insist that their children turn up for extra lessons at weekends and harry him when they seem to fall behind. Education is their ticket out of poverty. Poor district, wonderful school, well-ordered children: in Britain, the combination is not as unusual as one might suppose.紧挨着Farah办公室的是泰勒路小学——这个小学在Leicester地区的标准化测验中的成绩优于本地区绝大多数学校。该校校长Chris Hassall赞叹道,Somali的移民,坚持让他们的孩子在周末补课,而当孩子们的成绩落后的时候,就敦促校长严格要求。教育是他们摆脱贫困的通行。贫困的街区、完美的学校、秩序井然的孩子们:在不列颠,如此的组合并不是人们通常想的那么稀奇。Britain has prized the ideal of economically mixed neighbourhoods since the 19th century. Poverty and disadvantage are intensified when poor people cluster, runs the argument; conversely, the rich are unfairly helped when they are surrounded by other rich people. Social mixing ought to help the poor. It sounds self-evident—and colours planning regulations that ensure much social and affordable housing is dotted among more expensive private homes. Yet “there is absolutely no serious evidence to support this,” says Paul Cheshire, a professor of economic geography at the London School of Economics (LSE).自19世纪以来,不列颠的人们就赞同这样一种理念:不同经济水平的人比邻而居。当穷人聚居起来时,贫穷和种种不便的问题也随之集聚,这引发争论;相应的,富人的邻居都是富人的时候,富人也会得到偏袒。不同阶层混居当能帮助穷人。这个想法听上去是自洽的——并且也影响了管理规则的制定。这些规定使得社交更为便利、价格更为合适的公寓布局在更为昂贵的私人住宅中。然而“绝对没有过硬的据表明这个看法是对的”,伦敦经济学院的经济地理学教授Paul Cheshire如是说。And there is new evidence to suggest it is wrong. Researchers at Duke University in America followed over 1,600 children from age five to age 12 in England and Wales. They found that poor boys living in largely well-to-do neighbourhoods were the most likely to engage in anti-social behaviour, from lying and swearing to such petty misdemeanours as fighting, shoplifting and vandalism, according to a commonly used measure of problem behaviour. Misbehaviour starts very young (see chart 1) and intensifies as they grow older. Poor boys in the poorest neighbourhoods were the least likely to run into trouble. For rich kids, the opposite is true: those living in poor areas are more likely to misbehave.并且有新的据表明这个观点是错误的。美国杜克大学的研究者追踪了研究英格兰和威尔士超过1600名儿童,从5岁一直观察到12岁。他们发现穷人家的男孩如果生活在生活裕如的邻居边上,很容易进行反社会行为,从说谎、辱骂这样的小过失到诸如打架、偷窃商品和恣意毁坏公共物品的行为。其行为评定的依据是根据常用的问题行为判断标准。这些孩子的行为不端问题起源很早,而在他们长大之后这些问题出现频繁。生活在周遭最贫困环境的男孩最不可能陷入麻烦。对于富家子弟,结论是反过来的:生活在贫穷区域的那些更容易行为不端。The researchers suggest several reasons for this. Poorer areas are often heavily policed, deterring would-be miscreants; it may be that people in wealthy places are less likely to spot misbehaviour, too. Living alongside the rich may also make the poor more keenly aware of their own deprivation, suggests Tim Newburn, a criminologist who is also at the LSE. That, in turn, increases the feelings of alienation that are associated with anti-social conduct and criminal behaviour.研究者们提出了如下的原因解释这一现象。较为贫穷的区域是警方重点布控的地方,这阻止了孩子们成为恶棍;也可能生活在高档区域的人们较少检举不端行为。伦敦经济学院的犯罪学家Tim Newburn认为,生活在富人旁边也可能会让穷人感觉到自己是被剥夺了。于是,穷人们那种被遗弃的感觉越发强烈,最终导致反社会行为和犯罪行为。Research on Englands schools turns up a slightly different pattern. Children entitled to free school meals—a proxy for poverty—do best in schools containing very few other poor children, perhaps because teachers can give them plenty of attention. But, revealingly, poor children also fare unusually well in schools where there are a huge number of other poor children. That may be because schools have no choice but to focus on them. Thus in Tower Hamlets, a deprived east London borough, 60% of poor pupils got five good GCSEs (the exams taken at 16) in 2013; the national average was 38%. Worst served are pupils who fall in between, attending schools where they are insufficiently numerous to merit attention but too many to succeed alone (see chart 2).对于英格兰学校的研究却有一些不同的情形。有资格接受学校免费午餐—贫困的标志之一 的学生在学校里(没有其他贫困学生)表现最好。这是因为老师可以给予他们足够的关注。不过,也有发现表明,在全是贫困学生的学校里,穷人家孩子的表现也是出奇得好。这也许是因为学校别无他法,只能把关注点都集中在他们身上。在东伦敦一个贫瘠的自治区,Tower Hamlets,60%的穷学生在2013年的GCSE测验(16岁开始测验)中得到5的好等级,全国平均水平是38%。表现最差的是不算很贫穷但又不是很富裕人家的孩子,在所就读的学校,他们的人数没有多到可以得到关注,但想要出人头地他们的人数又太多了。Mr Cheshire reckons that America, too, provides evidence of the limited benefits of social mixing. Look, he says, at the Moving to Opportunity programme, started in the 1990s, through which some poor people received both counselling and vouchers to move to richer neighbourhoods. Others got financial help to move as they wished, but no counselling. A third group received nothing. Studies after 10-15 years suggested that the incomes and employment prospects of those who moved to richer areas had not improved. Boys who moved showed worse behaviour and were more likely to be arrested for property crime.Cheshire认为,美国也有据表明混合社会的局限性。他认为,在始于20世纪90年代的“奔向机遇”的项目中,通过这个项目,一些穷人在搬去与富人为邻之前接受了咨询和金融券。一些人正如期待的那样得到了金融帮助,但是没有接受咨询。第三组什么也没获得。经过10年到15年之后,研究表明,收益和就业都得以保障的那些人并没有任何提升。搬过去的男孩子表现出更严重的行为问题,并且更可能因为金钱犯罪而被逮捕。In Britain, this pattern might be partly explained by the existence of poor immigrant neighbourhoods such as St Matthews in Leicester. The people who live in such ghettos are poor in means, because they cannot speak English and lack the kind of social networks that lead to jobs, but not poor in aspiration. They channel their ambitions through their children.在不列颠,这种现象可以得到部分实。诸如住在Leicester St Matthews区的贫困移民的存在就可以实这点。生活在这些地区的人们平均生活水平属于贫困状态,因为他们不会说英语,也缺乏那些可以提供工作的社会关系网络,不过他们不乏进取的勇气。他们把自己的进取之心传递给了自己的孩子。Another probable explanation lies in the way that the British government hands out money. Education funding is doled out centrally, and children in the most indigent parts tend to get the most cash. Schools in Tower Hamlets receive 7,014 (,610) a year for each child, for example, compared with the English average of 4,675. Secondary schools also get 935 for each poor child thanks to the “pupil premium” introduced by the coalition government. Meanwhile Teach First sends top graduates into poor schools. In America, by contrast, much school funding comes from local property taxes, so those in impoverished areas lose out.另外一个可能的解释跟不列颠政府的资金流向有关。教育基金的出是集约式的,最需要援助的孩子会得到最多的资金。Tower Hamlets的学校每个孩子每年可以获得7014英镑。而英格兰平均水平是4675英镑。由于联合政府的“小学生奖金”,中学的贫困学生每位也会得到935英镑。与此同时,“优先教学”项目将优秀毕业生送入贫困地区的中学。与此相比较的是,在美国,多数学校基金来自当地财政,这样的话那些欠发达地区的学校就被忽视了。As the Duke University researchers are keen to point out, all this does not in itself prove that economically mixed neighbourhoods are a bad thing. They may be good in other ways—making politicians more moderate, for example. But the research does suggest that the benefits of such districts are far from straightforward. Patterns of social segregation reflect broader social inequality, argues Mr Cheshire, who has written a book about urban economics and policy. Where mixed neighbourhoods flourish, house prices rise, overwhelmingly benefiting the rich. Spending more money on schools in deprived areas and dispatching the best teachers there would do more to help poor children. Assuming that a life among wealthy neighbours will improve their lot is too complacent.杜克大学研究者尖锐地指出,所有这些并不能明,经济混合社区就是个坏东西。他们也许会在其他方面有益—比如让政客们更为中和。不过这些发现这些区域的益处表现得并不明朗。社会分离的模式反映了更严重的社会不平等,Cheshire争论道(他写过一本关于城市的经济与政策的书)。当混合社区繁荣起来后,房价上涨,获益的毫无疑问是富人。在贫瘠地区投入更多资金,并将最好的教师分配过去会更好的帮助孩子们。生活在富人中能极大改善穷人家孩子们状况的想法,显然是过于想当然了。翻译:唐宇·无心 校对:王颖 译文属译生译世 /201502/358604义乌疤痕修复价格

义乌市第一人民医院做隆胸手术多少钱义乌去疤痕哪个医院最好 Dont care about your kids,huh?,I got two,Alright.你是不怎么关心你家的孩子吧 我有俩呢 好吧iPhone users,this is in the news, iphone users are reporting that新闻报道 iPhone用户报道称Siri will correct them if they try to say Bruce Jenner instead of Caitlyn如果他们说布鲁斯·詹纳 会被Siri纠正为凯特琳In an alleged story,Siri is now asking to be adressed as Steve.相关新闻 Siri要求别人称他为史蒂夫Time,once again, ladies and gentlemen,for something that America cant get enough of.女生们先生们 又一次到了美国欲罢不能的节目的时刻了Something we call, shut up.something we call fan correction.我们称之为 闭嘴 我们称之为 粉丝纠错This is a segment where viewers try to find mistakes on our show.这一节中 观众们将试图找我们节目的错误Real viewers try to find real mistakes.现实中的观众 真来挑错We are the only show that Dares our viewrs to find an error.Ok?只有我们节目敢让观众们来挑错 好吗That has the courage to do it.只有我们有这个勇气So far hundreds of challengers over the last several years, not one winner.几年来已有几百人挑战 但无一人成功Not one. No ones found a mistake.无一人 没人挑到过错误Tonight a fan named Braxton Anderson thinks he caught a mistake.今晚一名叫布鲁克斯顿·安德森的粉丝 自认为发现了错误He said it happened during one of our shows at Comic-Con last week.他说是发生在我们上周漫展节目的一期上Hey Conan, Last weeks episode you had a segment where you dressed a killer whale as Yoda from Star Wars. 嘿 柯南 上周的一集中有一节 你把一只虎鲸扮成了《星战》的尤达大师Pretty cool costume for Comic-Con. who are you? who are you supposed to be? 好酷的漫展装啊 你是谁 你扮演的应该是谁You gave him all-red life savers.Everyone knows volda carries a green lifesaver.你给了他一根红色电光剑 人人都知道 尤达大师的电光剑是绿的This is why I rcommend you go home,isolate yourself from friends and family所以我建议你回家 跟家人和朋友隔离开来and , watch, the trilogies and may the force be with you.好好把三部曲重新看一遍 愿原力与你同在201606/451675义乌芙洛拉整形医院割双眼皮手术多少钱

义乌市正规美容医院These huge tracts of rainforest close to the Queensland coast are essential because they regulate the flow of water and the sediment it contains.位于昆士兰海岸附近的大片树林是不可或缺的,因为它们调节了水流量和其中的沉积物。Thats important, because theres an awful lot of water here.这一点至关重要,因为这里的水量很大。Hot,humid tropical air gives rise to vast amounts of rainfall.炎热,潮湿的热带空气产生了大量降雨。It pours for at least 120 days a year.一年至少120天下雨。And as much as 60 centimeters can fall in a single day.一天的降雨量,可高达60厘米。Its one of the wettest places on earth.这里是地球上最潮湿的地方之一。Left unchecked by the forest, the water would wash out sediments and smother marine life.如果没有雨林的截留,雨水将刷走所有沉积物,使海洋生物窒息。But waterways flowing off the rainforest are relatively clear, and many are spectacular.但经过热带雨林的缓冲和过滤,雨水就变得清澈,甚至壮观了。201504/372110 义乌治疗胎记多少钱义乌芙洛拉医院冰点脱毛多少钱



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