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义乌市皮肤病医院激光祛斑手术多少钱

2018年04月21日 04:07:21|来源:国际在线|编辑:赶集指南
FLORENCE, Italy — WE think of our senses as hard-wired gateways to the world. Many years ago the social psychologist Daryl J. Bem described the knowledge we gain from our senses as ;zero-order beliefs,; so taken for granted that we do not even notice them as beliefs. The sky is blue. The fan hums. Ice is cold. That#39;s the nature of reality, and it seems peculiar that different people with their senses intact would experience it subjectively.意大利佛罗伦萨——我们把自己的感官想成是通往世界的既定大门。很多年前,社会心理学家达里尔·J·贝姆(Daryl J. Bem)把我们通过感官获取的认知描述成“零级信念”。它们被如此强烈地视为理所当然,以至于根本没有被我们留意到,这其实是一种信念。天空是蓝色的,风扇会发出嗡嗡声,冰是冷的。这是现实世界的本质,而感官完好的不同族群会对此有主观体验的想法,似乎有些奇怪。Yet they do. In recent years anthropologists have begun to point out that sensory perception is culturally specific. ;Sensory perception,; Constance Classen, the author of ;The Deepest Sense: A Cultural History of Touch,; says, ;is a cultural as well as physical act.; It#39;s a controversial claim made famous by Marshall McLuhan#39;s insistence that nonliterate societies were governed by spoken words and sound, while literate societies experienced words visually and so were dominated by sight. Few anthropologists would accept that straightforwardly today. But more and more are willing to argue that sensory perception is as much about the cultural training of attention as it is about biological capacity.然而,人类确实就是这样。近年来,人类学家已经开始指出,感官知觉和文化有关。《深层感知:触摸的文化史》(The Deepest Sense: A Cultural History of Touch)的作者康斯坦斯·克拉森(Constance Classen)说,“感官知觉既是一种生理行为,也是一种文化。”有一个存在争议的说法因马歇尔·麦克卢汉(Marshall McLuhan)的坚持而出了名。他坚称,没有文字的社会是由口语和声音主导的,而有文字的社会会用视觉来体验词语,因此是由视觉统领的。如今的人类学家,基本不会简单地接受这个说法。但他们当中越来越多的人愿意提出,感官知觉和注意力的文化训练的关系,不亚于与生物学能力的联系。Now they have some quantitative evidence to support the point. Recently, a team of anthropologists and psychologists at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and Radboud University, both in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, set out to discover how language and culture affected sensory awareness. Under the leadership of Asifa Majid and Stephen C. Levinson, they made up a kit of systematic stimuli for the traditional five senses: for sight, color chips and geometric forms; for hearing, pitch, amplitude and rhythm variations; for smell, a set of scratch-and-sniff cards; and so forth. They took these kits to over 20 cultural groups around the world. Their results upend some of our basic assumptions.现在,他们获得了一些持这个观点的量化据。近日,一个由人类学家和心理学家构成的小组开始研究语言和文化对感官意识的影响。这些学者来自荷兰奈梅亨的两所院校:马克斯·普兰克心理语言学研究所(Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics)和奈梅亨大学(Radboud University)。在阿西法·马吉德(Asifa Majid)和史蒂芬·C·莱文森(Stephen C. Levinson)的带领下,他们配置了一个工具包,用来系统化地刺激传统的五感:对视力,使用色卡和几何形状;对听力,使用音调、振幅和节奏变化;对嗅觉,使用气味刮刮卡,诸如此类。他们把这种工具包带到世界各地的20多个文化群体中进行实验。研究结果颠覆了我们的一些基本假设。For example, it#39;s fairly common, in scientific literature, to find the view that ;humans are astonishingly bad at odor identification and naming,; as a recent review of 30 years of experiments concluded. When ordinary people are presented with the smell of ordinary substances (coffee, peanut butter, chocolate), they correctly identify about half of them. That#39;s why we think of scent as a trigger for personal memory — leading to the recall of something specific, particular, uniquely our own.举例来说,科学文献中有一个相当普遍的结论,借用一篇回顾30年实验研究的综述文章中的话来说,那就是“人类极不善于识别和指认气味”。当普通人嗅闻到常见物品(咖啡、花生酱、巧克力)的气味,他们可以正确识别其中大约一半。这就是为什么我们把气味当作个人记忆触发器的原因——它能勾起一些具体、特别且个人独有的回忆。It turns out that the subjects of those 30 years of experiments were mostly English-speaking. Indeed, English speakers find it easy to identify the common color in milk and jasmine flowers (;white;) but not the common scent in, say, bat droppings and the leaf of ginger root. When the research team presented what should have been familiar scents to Americans — cinnamon, turpentine, lemon, rose and so forth — they were terrible at naming them. Americans, they wrote, said things like this when presented with the cinnamon scratch-and-sniff card: ;I don#39;t know how to say that, sweet, yeah; I have tasted that gum like Big Red or something tastes like, what do I want to say? I can#39;t get the word. Jesus it#39;s like that gum smell like something like Big Red. Can I say that? O.K. Big Red, Big Red gum.;其实在30年来的这些实验中,受试者大多都讲英语。确实,讲英语的人容易识别牛奶和茉莉花均会呈现的颜色(“白色”),但却很难识别同样的气味,比如蝙蝠粪便和姜叶的共有气味。当研究小组使用美国人本应熟悉的一些气味时,比如肉桂、松脂、柠檬和玫瑰等等,却发现他们在指认这些气味时表现糟糕。研究者写道,闻到肉桂味的刮刮卡时,美国人会说:“我不知道怎么讲,这个很香甜,恩;我以前吃过这种味道的口香糖,比如大红牌(Big Red),或者有这个味道的什么东西,我想说什么来着?我想不起那个词了。天啊,就好像口香糖,有点像大红牌的。我能那么说吗?好吧,就是大红牌,大红牌口香糖。”When the research team visited the Jahai, rain-forest foragers on the Malay Peninsula, they found that the Jahai were succinct and more accurate with the scratch-and-sniff cards. In fact, they were about as good at naming what they smelled as what they saw. They do, in fact, have an abstract term for the shared odor in bat droppings and the leaf of ginger root. Abstract odor terms are common among people on the Malay Peninsula.嘉海人生活在马来半岛的热带雨林,以觅食为生。研究小组在他们那里发现,嘉海人对于气味刮刮卡的回答很简洁,而且更加准确。事实上,他们指认气味的能力,不亚于他们指认看到的东西的本领。他们还有一个抽象的术语,用来描述蝙蝠粪便和姜叶同样的味道。在马来半岛上的族群中,描述气味的抽象词语很常见。The team also found that several communities — speakers of Persian, Turkish and Zapotec — used different metaphors than English and Dutch speakers to describe pitch, or frequency: Sounds were thin or thick rather than high or low. In later work, they demonstrated that the metaphors were powerful enough to disrupt perception. When Dutch speakers heard a tone while being shown a mismatched height bar (e.g., a high tone and a low bar) and were asked to sing the tone, they sang a lower tone. But the perception wasn#39;t influenced when they were shown a thin or thick bar. When Persian speakers heard a tone and were shown a bar of mismatched thickness, however, they misremembered the tone — but not when they were shown a bar mismatched for height.该研究小组还发现,有几个社会——使用波斯语、土耳其语和萨波特克语的人——用来描述音调或声音频率的形容词是粗和细,而不是英语和荷兰语使用者说的高和低。在后来的实验中,研究者明了这些隐喻效力强大,足以影响人们的知觉。当荷兰语使用者听到一个音,同时看到高度与之不匹配的条块(例如,听到一个高音,看到的却是较低的条块),然后被要求唱出这个音的时候,从他们口中发的音调会比较低。但当他们看到粗细不同的条块时,知觉不会受到影响。当波斯语使用者听到声音,并看到粗细与之不匹配的条块时,他们就会记错音调——但看到高度与之不匹配的条块时,则不受影响。The team also found that some of these differences could change over time. They taught the Dutch speakers to think about pitch as thin or thick, and soon these participants, too, found that their memory of a tone was affected by being shown a bar that was too thick or too thin. They found that younger Cantonese speakers had fewer words for tastes and smells than older ones, a shift attributed to rapid socioeconomic development and Western-style schooling.该小组还发现,其中一些差异可以随时间改变。他们教荷兰语使用者把音调想成粗或细,很快他们就发现,这些受试者对音调的记忆,也受到了显示条块过粗或过细的影响。他们还发现,在讲粤语的人群中,由于社会经济的快速发展和西式教育的盛行,与年长者相比,年轻人对描述口味和气味的词汇量掌握较少。I wrote this in Florence, Italy, a city famous as a feast for the senses. People say that Florence teaches you to see differently — that as the soft light moves across the ocher buildings, you see colors you never noticed before.撰写本文时,我正好在意大利佛罗伦萨。这是一座出了名地提供感官盛宴的城市。有人说,佛罗伦萨教你用不同的眼光看待事物——柔和的光线在赭石建筑物上移动,让你看到以前从未注意过的颜色。It taught Kevin Systrom, a co-founder of Instagram, to see differently. He attributes his inspiration to a photography class he took in Florence while at a Stanford study-abroad program about a decade ago. His teacher took away his state-of-the-art camera and insisted he use an old plastic one instead, to change the way he saw. He loved those photos, the vintage feel of them, and the way the buildings looked in the light. He set out to recreate that look in the app he built. And that has changed the way many of us now see as well.它教会了Instagram的联合创始人凯文·斯特罗姆(Kevin Systrom)用别样的眼光看东西。斯特罗姆说,自己的灵感来自大约10年前通过斯坦福大学的海外交流计划在佛罗伦萨参加的一门摄影课程。老师拿走了他的高精尖相机,坚持让他用一台老旧的塑料相机,来改变他的观看方式。他很喜欢这样拍出来的照片和那种复古感,以及建筑物在光线中的模样。他设法在自己创建的应用中重现了那种模样。于是,这款应用也同样改变了我们很多人的观看方式。 /201409/329262Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba Holding Group continued its streak of deals yesterday, paying .22 billion for an 18.5% stake in one of China#39;s most popular online sites Youku Tudou. Part Youtube, part Netflix, Youku Tudou offers an array of content from self-produced talk shows and dramas to syndicated foreign shows like The Good Wife, and user created content. 中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Holding Group)续写了其交易记录,该公司已同意斥资12.2亿美元收购优酷土豆(Youku Tudou)18.5%的股份。作为中国最受欢迎的视频网站之一,优酷土豆兼具Youtube和Netflix的特点,提供的视频内容丰富多样,既有自创的脱口秀和戏剧,也有购买了播出权的海外节目(比如美剧《傲骨贤妻》(The Good Wife))以及用户自创内容。In an interview with The Wall Street Journal, Youku Tudou Founder and Chief Executive Victor Koo said the company held talks with a few companies in parallel, eventually deciding on Alibaba after a series of meetings in Shanghai, Beijing and Hong Kong in recent months. Koo spoke about how his company will make use of the funds, the rash of recent deals in China#39;s Internet sector, and the government#39;s recent crackdown on four American TV shows. The following is an edited excerpt of the interview. Reuters在接受《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)采访时,优酷土豆的创始人兼首席执行长古永锵(Victor Koo)表示,优酷土豆与数家公司进行过洽谈,最近几个月在上海、北京和香港举行了一系列会谈后,最终决定引入阿里巴巴的投资。古永锵谈到了优酷土豆将如何使用这笔资金、中国互联网行业最近的一系列交易以及政府最近禁播四部美剧的问题。WSJD: What was the motivation for taking the investment from Alibaba? 《华尔街日报》:接受阿里巴巴的投资是出于什么样的动机?Koo: When we first really considered a strategic investment, we talked to all potential partners and indicated Youku Tudou is an independently operated company so we were looking for strategic investments to take us to the next step. The strategic investment itself will help us accelerate our progress as well as the whole development of our Internet entertainment media platform.古永锵:在我们第一次真正考虑引入战略投资时,我们就与所有的潜在合作伙伴都进行了磋商,并表明优酷土豆是一家独立经营的公司,所以我们正在寻找战略投资以便使公司进入下一个阶段。这笔战略投资本身将有助于加快优酷土豆的进步以及我们的互联网媒体平台的整体发展。We#39;ve been around now for 7 or 8 years and we#39;re looking at this as an important strategic step to progress us to the next level with financial resources, strategic resources...because we see these opportunities happening around us, we want to leverage the market opportunity that is in front of us. 公司成立至今已有七、八年的时间,我们将引入战略投资视为通过财务资源和战略资源使公司发展到一个新水平的重要战略步骤,因为我们看到了身边的这些机会,我们希望利用摆在我们面前的市场机遇。WSJD: What is Alibaba#39;s motivation for making more investments into media and entertainment in China? 《华尔街日报》:阿里巴巴在中国媒体和领域进行更多投资的动机是什么?Koo: From their perspective, clearly the whole area of as well as entertainment media is a growth sector as China moves to a consumer-led economy. This is an area where traditionally they have not focused, and they really felt that by investing in Youku Tudou they [can leverage that]. I think we have a lot of common vision and common goals in terms of what [the and entertainment industry] can be in China. 古永锵:从阿里巴巴的角度看,随着中国向消费拉动的经济转变,整个视频及媒体行业显然是一个增长领域。这也是一个阿里巴巴之前未侧重的领域,而且阿里巴巴也确实认为,通过投资优酷土豆,他们将能够撬动该领域。我认为我们和阿里巴巴对于中国视频和行业的发展前景有很多共同的看法和目标。For example, the U.S. and Europe have a very developed media entertainment business, but in Asia you look at Korea for example, it#39;s a relatively small country but its culture and entertainment industry has widesp influence in Asia as well as the rest of the world. China has a huge population and a very sizable Internet space...that kind of reach can create a lot of interesting opportunities. With our base, I think whether it#39;s in terms of content and how it ties with Alibaba#39;s businesses in terms of commerce, big data, cloud as well as payment, there are a lot of interesting areas we will explore together. 例如,美国和欧洲拥有一个非常发达的媒体行业;在亚洲,以韩国为例,虽然韩国是一个相对较小的国家,但其文化和业对亚洲乃至全球其他地方都有广泛影响。中国拥有巨大的人口以及相当可观的网络空间,能创造大量有意思的机会。凭藉优酷土豆的用户数,我认为不管是内容,还是在与阿里巴巴的商务、大数据、云以及付业务的合作方式方面,两家公司都有很多可以共同探索的有趣领域。WSJD: What is your view on the recent crackdown by the government on several popular U.S. television shows including #39;The Good Wife,#39; which you feature on your site?《华尔街日报》:你如何看待中国政府近期要求包括优酷土豆热播剧《傲骨贤妻》在内的多部热门美剧在网站下线一事?Koo: Besides our strength in web-based original content, syndication is also an area where we started global syndication earlier than any of our competitors and have the broadest library here. Overall, what we see is that the regulatory authorities are highly supportive of this and of course there may be isolated incidents or content [that have problems] -- that is something that as an industry we need to cooperate and work with under the overall framework here in China. And so we don#39;t see that as a widesp phenomenon. I think it#39;s new enough that we#39;re also having communication [with the government]. 古永锵:我们除了在网络原创内容方面很有优势之外,全球整合动作也比竞争对手们先行一步,而且在这方面拥有最广泛的视频库。总体而言,我们看到的是监管机构对此高度持。当然,一些特例事件或者有问题的内容也是可能存在的,这一行业需要我们在遵守中国整体框架的前提下同心协力、共同建设。因此,我们不觉得此次美剧被下架会是普遍现象。在我看来,这件事尚属首次,我们也在和政府进行沟通。WSJD: What #39; s going on in China #39; s Internet sector now with all these big deals? 《华尔街日报》:伴随着这些大手笔交易的发生,中国的互联网领域将迎来何种时代?Koo: I#39;ve recently talked about the 20 years of the Chinese Internet -- in my view there are a couple of inflection points in these 20 years and 2013 and 2014 is definitely one of those inflection points. I think in five to ten years when people look back [they will see] this is the beginning of the multi-screen age, and mobile Internet and smart TVs, all these things are coming together. 古永锵:我最近一直在讲中国互联网的20年发展史。在我看来,这20年来有好几次重大拐点,2013年、2014年毫无疑问就是其中之一。我认为五到十年之后,那时的人们回看现在这段时期时,会觉得它拉开了多屏时代的序幕,移动网络、智能电视等等事物都在不断涌现出来。So you#39;ve seen an acceleration of industry growth as well as an acceleration of strategic cooperation of different forms, investments, partnerships, acquisitions, and mergers and so forth. These kinds of strategic tie-ups [happen] when you see a market opportunity and a market inflection that has encouraged the key players in the industry to be more open-minded or more proactive in terms of thinking outside the box and being more strategic. 因此你可以看到,视频行业的发展正在加快,不同形式的策略性合作、投资、伙伴关系、收购、合并等等也正在加速展开。当你捕捉到市场机会和市场变化时,这些策略性合作就会发生,要求行业内的重要参与者心态必须更加开放、跳出条条框框的思考必须更有前瞻性、更具有战略眼光。WSJD: How will this affect Youku Tudou#39;s cooperation with other companies? 《华尔街日报》:这将如何影响优酷土豆和其他公司的合作?Koo: Youku Tudou has an open cooperation strategy and that will continue to be the case, so we work with a wide variety of screen manufacturers, whether it#39;s smart TVs or set-top boxes because we have the leading content software service and user base in terms of . 古永锵:优酷土豆拥有开放的合作策略,并且将继续贯彻下去。有鉴于此,许多屏幕制造商都是我们的合作对象,无论是智能电视还是机顶盒,因为我们在视频行业拥有领先的内容软件务和庞大的用户基础。

Scientists know this much about polycystic ovary syndrome: It is one of the most common causes of infertility. It#39;s linked to diabetes and several other troubling health problems. It affects as many as 5 million U.S. women.关于多囊卵巢综合症,科学家知道的也就是这些:它是不不育的最常见原因之一。它与糖尿病和另外多种恼人的健康问题有关。它影响着多达500万的美国女性。But the condition, also known as PCOS, largely remains a mystery. Researchers are trying to better understand the disorder, which is generally defined by an excess production of the hormone testosterone, irregular ovulation and cysts-fluid-filled sacs-within the ovaries. Some teams are trying to improve its treatment to lessen its impact on women#39;s reproductive health and metabolism, or how the body uses or makes energy.但多囊症总体上还是一个迷。研究人员正在努力更好地理解这一病症。它大体上被定义为睾丸激素分泌过多、排卵不规律、卵巢内存在囊肿(积液囊)。有些团队希望改进治疗方案,减轻它对女性生殖健康和新陈代谢(身体使用或产生能量的过程)的影响。#39;We really need better options,#39; says Esther Eisenberg, project scientist of the Reproductive Medicine Network, a research collaboration set up and funded through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.尤尼斯#12539;肯尼迪#12539;施莱佛美国国家儿童健康与人类发育研究所(Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)设立并资助的研究协作团体“生殖医学网络”(Reproductive Medicine Network)项目科学家埃丝特#12539;艾森伯格(Esther Eisenberg)说:“我们真的需要更好的选择。”Even the diagnosis of PCOS can be tricky because the syndrome doesn#39;t look the same in everyone. What is called PCOS is likely a number of different diseases that manifest similar symptoms, such as acne, excess facial- and body-hair growth in reproductive-aged females, insulin resistance and abnormal menstrual periods, according to experts.多囊症的诊断有时候都很困难,因为这一综合症并不是在每个人身上都表现得一样。据专家说,所谓多囊症可能是一系列表现为相似症状的不同疾病,这些症状包括痤疮、育龄妇女面部和身体毛发过旺、胰岛素抵抗、月经不调等。Over 60% of women with PCOS are overweight or obese. Excess hair growth, called hirsutism, also can differ by ethnicity, as can body weight. Such demographic differences can cause doctors to have difficulty identifying PCOS in those patients. And since most girls have irregular periods when they first start menstruating, misdiagnosis may be more likely to occur with young adolescents.六成以上多囊症妇女都存在过重或肥胖的问题。毛发生长过旺(称为“多毛症”)的情况可能因为种族的不同而不同,体重问题也是如此。这些人口学差异可能导致医生在诊断这些病人的多囊症时发生困难。由于大多数女孩在刚开始来月经时都存在经期不正常的问题,在青少年身上或许更有可能发生误诊。Insulin resistance, an inability to properly process sugar, is common, regardless of body weight. This can greatly raise the risk in PCOS patients of developing diabetes. The uterine lining may build up excessively, which is related to the lack of ovulation, and endometrial cancer risk appears to be increased as well. And women with PCOS often have trouble conceiving because they may not ovulate regularly, and may be more likely to miscarry. There also are concerns about an increased risk of heart disease, although no definitive data support that notion.胰岛素抵抗(无法有效处理糖分)是常见病征,与体重无关。它可以极大地提高多囊症患者患上糖尿病的风险。子宫内膜可能会过度生长,而这与排卵缺乏有关。患子宫内膜癌的风险似乎也会增加。多囊症女性之所以存在生育困难,是因为她们的排卵可能不规律,流产的概率也可能更大。另外还有心脏病风险增加的担忧,不过没有确切数据持这样一种说法。Researchers fear a general rise in obesity is causing a spike in PCOS, too, though they don#39;t have enough longitudinal data to say definitively.研究人员担心,肥胖率的总体上升也在造成多囊症患病率的猛增。不过他们没有足够的纵向数据来得出确切的结论。PCOS appears to have a genetic component that may be triggered or influenced by environmental factors, like weight gain, later in life. But scientists are still trying to determine exactly what goes wrong. The symptoms of PCOS are at least in part due to excess androgens, the family of hormones to which testosterone belongs.多囊症似乎含有一种遗传成分,这种成分可能会受到年龄增大时体重增加等环境因素的诱发或影响。但科学家仍在试图明确究竟是什么地方出了问题。多囊症的症状至少在一定程度上是因为雄激素(指包括睾丸激素在内的一系列激素)过多。The womb environment also appears critical to its development. Daniel Dumesic, a professor of reproductive endocrinology and infertility at the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues found that by exposing mother monkeys with high doses of testosterone, their female offspring developed PCOS-like features after birth, including higher testosterone levels.子宫环境似乎也是形成多囊症的关键。加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)生殖内分泌与不不育教授丹尼尔#12539;杜麦西克(Daniel Dumesic)及其同事发现,将母猴暴露于高剂量的睾丸激素,它们的雌性后代在出生之后出现了类似于多囊症的特征,比如更高的睾丸激素水平。They now are studying whether the bodies of women with PCOS, because of excess testosterone, store fat in tissues where it shouldn#39;t be. Dr. Dumesic hypothesizes that this may impact the function of the ovary and perhaps fertility.现在他们在研究多囊症患者的身体是否会因为睾丸激素而在本不应储存脂肪的组织中储存脂肪。杜麦西克假想,这一点可能会影响卵巢功能和生育能力。Christopher McCartney, a professor of medicine at the University of Virginia, is examining whether the high levels of testosterone could increase the body#39;s secretion of another chemical, called luteinizing hormone, or LH, at puberty, contributing to the development of PCOS. LH, in turn, is needed for the ovaries to produce testosterone, so high levels of LH may be helping produce additional testosterone, leading to a vicious cycle, Dr. McCartney says.弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)医学教授克里斯托弗#12539;麦卡特尼(Christopher McCartney)正在检验高水平的睾丸激素是否有可能增加体内另一种化学物质“促黄体生成素”在青春期的分泌,从而促进多囊症的形成。麦卡特尼说,促黄体生成素又是卵巢产生睾丸激素所需的物质,所以高水平的促黄体生成素可能是在帮助形成过多的睾丸激素,构成了一种恶性循环。Why the syndrome increases the risk of diabetes remains unclear. One possibility is that because the body doesn#39;t respond well to insulin, it overcompensates to make more of it, which leads to increased levels of luteinizing hormone and lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as increased ovarian production of androgens.多囊症增加糖尿病风险的原因仍旧不明。有一种可能性是,因为身体对胰岛素的反应不敏感,作为补偿它便过多地生成胰岛素。过多的胰岛素会导致促黄体生成素水平提高、促卵泡生成素水平下降、卵巢雄激素分泌增加。Together, these slow or prevent ovulation, according to Richard Legro, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology and public health sciences at Penn State University College of Medicine in Hershey, Pa.据宾州赫希市宾夕法尼亚州立大学医学院(Penn State University College of Medicine)妇产科与公共卫生学教授理查德#12539;勒格罗(Richard Legro)说,这些因素会一起延缓或阻止排卵。#39;It#39;s likely that the menstrual and reproductive dysfunction is a harbinger of later metabolic abnormalities like diabetes,#39; Dr. Legro says.勒格罗说:“月经和生殖障碍可能是糖尿病之类后期代谢异常的先兆。”Treatments include hormonal contraceptives to prompt ovaries to stop producing testosterone and other hormones, plus anti-androgen medications like flutamide, usually used to treat prostate cancer, and insulin sensitizers for metabolic issues. Metformin, which isn#39;t an insulin sensitizer but is used to treat high blood sugar, is given as well on a case-by-case basis. Some of these treatments carry risks and most, with the exception of metformin, can#39;t be used when women are trying to get pregnant.治疗办法包括用激素避药,促使卵巢停止产生睾丸激素和其他激素,用通常用于治疗前列腺癌的氟他胺等抗雄激素药物,以及针对代谢问题用胰岛素增敏剂。本身不是增敏剂但用于治疗高血糖的二甲双胍也可酌情让病人用。这些治疗方法中的一部分存在风险,除了二甲双胍之外,大多数治疗方法都不能在妇女准备怀的时候使用。Lourdes Ibá#241;ez, a professor of pediatrics at the University of Barcelona, has been studying combination treatments for PCOS. She found that metformin, an insulin sensitizer called pioglitazone and flutamide taken together performed better than oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives appeared to actually worsen the girls#39; metabolic abnormalities.巴塞罗纳大学(University of Barcelona)儿科教授洛德斯#12539;伊瓦涅斯(Lourdes Ibanez)一直在研究多囊症的组合治疗。她发现,二甲双胍、胰岛素增敏剂“?格列酮”和氟他胺一起用的效果好于口避药。口避药似乎还加重了女孩的代谢异常。Six months after the 18-month treatment, no one in the combination therapy group has relapsed but 50% of those in the oral contraceptive groups have, according to a paper Dr. Ibá#241;ez published in 2013 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology amp; Metabolism.根据伊瓦涅斯2013年发表在《临床内分泌和代谢杂志》(Journal of Clinical Endocrinology amp; Metabolism)上的论文,经过18个月的治疗并观察六个月之后,组合治疗组里面无人复发,而口避药组里面50%的人复发。She is also studying whether the symptoms of PCOS can be prevented in girls at high risk for the condition. She conducted a tiny pilot study of 38 girls who were born with a low birth weight and had precocious puberty, which are often precursors to PCOS.她也正在研究能不能阻止患多囊症风险较高的女孩出现多囊症症状。她对38名出生体重低、性早熟(常常是多囊症的先兆)的女孩展开了一项微型试点研究。She began treating them with metformin between ages 8 to 12. At 18 years old, the rate of detectable symptoms in the treated group was 5%, compared with 50% of those in the untreated group. She hopes to run a larger trial to further explore the possibility of prevention.她在她们八岁到12岁的时候开始用二甲双胍治疗。在18岁的时候,治疗组出现可观测症状的比例为5%,未治疗组的比例为50%。她希望开展一场规模更大的试验,以进一步探索预防多囊症的可能性。Scientists also have focused on improving fertility in women with PCOS. With clomiphene citrate, the most commonly used agent for ovulation induction in women with PCOS, only about half the women who ovulate end up having babies, according to NICHD#39;s Dr. Eisenberg.科学家也一直在集中精力改善多囊症妇女的生育能力。据艾森伯格说,在用多囊症患者最常用的排卵诱导剂枸橼酸氯米芬(克洛米芬)的情况下,只有大约一半成功排卵的妇女最后生了孩子。Dr. Eisenberg, Penn State#39;s Dr. Legro and the Reproductive Medicine Network have been running a clinical trial to improve fertility. In a presentation to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in October, they showed that early results indicate a medication called letrozole, a drug commonly used for in vitro fertilization, appears to result in more live births than clomiphene.艾森伯格、宾大的列格罗以及生殖医学网络已经在做一次旨在提高生育率的临床试验。他们在2013年10月份向美国生殖医学会(American Society for Reproductive Medicine)做报告的时候表示,初步结果表明,常常用于体外授精的来曲唑产生的活胎数量似乎高于枸橼酸氯米芬。One of those success stories was Lindsey Maloney, from Fredericksburg, Va. She had so much facial hair she started waxing it off in the fifth grade and always struggled with her weight because of insulin resistance. She had her period only once in the seventh grade and was first diagnosed with PCOS at 15.弗吉尼亚州弗雷德里克斯堡的琳赛#12539;马洛尼(Lindsey Maloney)便是成功例子之一。由于面部毛发过多,她在上五年级的时候便开始动手脱毛;而因为胰岛素抵抗,她又总是因为体重问题而烦恼。她只在上七年级的时候有过一次例假,15岁时第一次诊出多囊症。When Ms. Maloney, now a 29-year-old school counselor, got engaged to her now-husband, her fertility worried her. When the couple heard about Dr. Legro#39;s study, Ms. Maloney enrolled and drove three hours to Hershey once a month for drugs to help her ovulate. She was randomly assigned to the letrozole group, she says.马洛尼现年29岁,是一名中学辅导员。在跟现在的丈夫订婚时,她因为自己的生育能力而担忧。夫妻二人听说列格罗的研究时,马洛尼加入了研究,每个月开车三小时到赫希去用帮助她排卵的药物。她说,她被随机分配到用来曲唑的小组。They now have a 2-year-old girl, Briley. Ms. Maloney and her husband are trying for a second child on their own and haven#39;t had any luck yet.现在他们的女儿布里利(Briley)已经两岁了。马洛尼和丈夫正在尝试自行育第二个孩子,目前尚未成功。Ms. Maloney has been taking metformin since she was a teenager, sees an endocrinologist every three months and buys supplements and organic foods without hormones in them, but her symptoms have remained, she says.马洛尼说,她从十几岁以来一直在用二甲双胍,每三个月都要看一次内分泌科医生,她还购买补充剂和没有激素的有机食品,但症状依然没有消失。#39;It#39;s not just on your ovaries. It#39;s a whole mess of endocrine problems that you have,#39; she says.她说:“不只是卵巢的问题,而是一大堆内分泌问题。” /201402/277278

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