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来源:央广诊疗    发布时间:2017年10月23日 19:54:40    编辑:admin         

Suppose one day scientists pick up a transmission they think isgenerated by aliens.假如有一天,科学家收到到外星人发来的信号该怎么办呢?Now what? Do we build a landing strip andbreak out the welcome wagon?我们有建造飞碟起落跑道来欢迎它们吗?Well heres the thing about picking up alien broadcasts.关于接收到外来广播的事情是这样的。The receivers scientists are currently using to listen to space noise are designed to find constant signals,or signals that are pulsing at regular intervals.科学家接者收目前会听航天噪音,然后找出不变信号或者找出那些常规跳动的信号。But any message carried by these signals wouldprobably be lost because the receivers cant pick up the modulation, or rapid variations, in thebase signal.但是任何携带信息的信号都可能丢失,因为接收者在信号基地不能收集到变调或快速变化的信号。The SETI institute, which searches for extra terrestrial life, has compared picking up asignals modulation to picking up the sound of a flute when its masked by the noise of a waterfall.对外星智能的探索研究院,专门寻找外星生物。它他们对接受到信号的变调和被瀑布声掩盖的笛声做了比较。Luckily, scientists would still have enough data to pinpoint where in the sky the transmission iscoming from.幸运的是,科学家们有足够的数据来确定信号广播的位置。And any slow changes in the broadcast frequency would reveal information aboutthe rotation and movement of the aliens planets.广播频率的细微变化都会揭露外星人星球的旋转和运动情况。Okay, but how will we know if they are friendly?我们怎样才知道那些是友好的信号呢?Well, If we ever do detect a transmission, thiswould be huge news. 如果我们发现了外来广播,那就是很大新闻了。The government would definitely allocate funds to building largerinstruments capable of picking up signal modulations.政府一定会拨款建造更大的仪器,能够接受信号变调。However, even once scientists are able tomeasure the modulation, it isnt certain that well be able to understand the message.不管怎样,即使科学家能够测量变调,也不能确定我们能明白这些信息。I guesseveryones hoping that if the aliens are anything like us, theyll send simple pictures and easy-to-decode messages.我想每个人都希望外星人与我们多少有点相似之处,会发简单的图画和容易解码的信息。 201408/320723。

But as Puck passes the boat, the team get a stark reminder of just how much danger she and her family are facing.但当帕克穿过船只时,小队突然想起它和这个家庭要面对多少危险啊!Oh, she has a shark bite.噢,它被鲨鱼攻击过。Did you see that? Did you see that scar?看到了吗?伤疤?Oh, I see that.我看到了。Its a new one.是新的。Yeah. Its new. Thats bad.是新的,真糟糕。A big shark bite.真是很大的伤口。Its in the same size as the previous shark bite.在同一边还留着上次的伤疤。It looks like whatever happened. She got in the way that a tiger shark or something be fine.它在虎鲨的掠食路线上。到底发生了什么,小海豚看起来很好。Its highly likely Puck took the bite, protecting little Samuel.很有可能帕克挡住了鲨鱼,保护了莎木。Dolphin mums will risk their lives to protect their calves.海豚妈妈冒着生命危险,保护它们的孩子。You know this morning that Puck has a looking like a shark bite scar, but shes healed that.今天早晨,我注意到帕克身上有一大块鲨鱼的咬痕,但已经愈合了。They heal remarkly fast and there is not a mark on Samuel, so obviously he remains unscathed.恢复的很快,莎木身上没有咬痕,显然它没有受到伤害。But since nearly 80 percent of the dolphins here have shark bite scars, hes bound to get one sooner or later.这里80%的海豚都有鲨鱼的咬痕,不久它也会有一块。Pucks choice of this shallow sandy bay is no chance.帕克别无选择,只能呆在浅水,多沙的地方。Its the safest place for Samuel to play.这里很安全,莎木可以放心玩耍。During a shark season like this, its a perfect spot, shallow, beautiful water.在鲨鱼季里,像这样美丽的浅水地总是很吸引人。You can see everything around you.你能看到周围的一切。Big tigers show up, they would be able to see it miles away.如果有几只虎鲨出现,几英里外就可以看到。Look at them! Hes kiddy.看,它真是可爱。Now Samuels three months old.莎木现在三个月大了。Puck allows him a lot more freedom.帕克给了它点自由空间。He races alone, chasing a tiny sholer fish.它赶着一小群鱼往前游。Its his first time hes been this far away from Puck, but hes clearly enjoying his freedom.这是它第一次离帕克那么远,但很明显,它享受这一切。Skiing along at his back, hes trying to track the fish just beneath the surface.后背轻轻掠过,它想把鱼儿困在下面。201406/306112。

Food names食物名称Stressed are the cheesemakers乳酪制造商鸭梨山大Europeans want their food names back. Americans are peeved欧洲人想要回他们的食品名称.这让老美们很不开心。IN 1925 Ron Buholzers family leftSwitzerlandand settled in lush, green, ruralWisconsin. Here, like so many Wisconsinites, his family started to make cheese. Since then four generations of cheesemakers have worked in the family firm. Their most popular product is feta, a crumbly cheese that goes well in Greek salads. Mr Buholzer worries that he may soon be banned from selling it, because the European Union is trying to “claw back” food names that Americans consider generic but which Europeans believe should only apply to products made in specific bits of their continent. That includes feta, Parmesan and maybe even bologna.1925年,Ron Buholzer家族离开了瑞士定居在繁华、富饶的威斯康辛乡间。在这儿,他的家族和很多威斯康辛本地人一样生产乳酪。从那时起,四代乳酪制造商工作在家族企业里。他们最受欢迎的产品是羊乳酪,这是一种脆蹦的乳酪,混着希腊沙拉味道可口。Buholzer担心他可能很快就要被责令不准卖这种商品了,因为欧盟正试图“弥补性回收”食品名称,这些名称在美国人看来算是同类的商品,而在欧洲人看来则应该只应用于专为部分欧洲大陆生产的产品上。这就包括了羊奶酪,帕尔马奶酪可能甚至包括大腊肠。Aly Mr Buholzer is barred from exporting his feta toSouth Koreaif he calls it “feta”. Also, any new feta products sold in Canada that are not from Greece will soon have to be called “like” or in the “style” of feta—and not use Greek symbols. The EU is demanding protection for 145 food names, including feta, asiago, Gorgonzola,munsterand fontina.Buholzer已经不被允许以“羊奶酪”命名的产品出口到南韩。同样,任何售往加拿大的心羊奶酪产品,只要不是从希腊出口的,立马改名为“类似”或“羊奶酪风格”—并且不准用希腊商标。欧盟正要求保护145种食品名称,其中包括羊奶酪,艾斯阿格芝士,戈尔根朱勒干酪,明斯特干酪以及意大利果仁味羊奶干酪。American cheesemakers are unwilling to accept this as a feta accompli. On the contrary, they are preparing for a food fight. A group has sprung up to fight the European threat: the Consortium for Common Food Names. Negotiations over the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, a proposed free-trade deal between the EU andAmerica, may stumble over the issue. The EU, meanwhile, is leaning on governments everywhere to stamp on foodmakers who purloin European names.美国乳酪制造商不想接受这种事实。相反的是,他们正准备着进行一场食品抗争。他们建立了一个小组来对抗欧盟的威胁:公共食品名称联盟。在跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协定框架下进行谈判,欧盟和美国已达成的自由贸易协定可能会在这件事上磕磕碰碰。同时,欧盟正依靠政府部门去禁止偷窃欧洲名称的食品制造商们。Americans are unimpressed. They see all this as an attempt to erect trade barriers and raise prices by reclaiming words that have long since passed into general use. Many members of Congress have urged Barack Obamas administration to resist the Europeans demands. Some will use this as an excuse not to ratify a trade deal unless the EU gives way.美国人民很不开心。他们认为这种行为属于建立贸易壁垒并且利用回收这些早已广泛使用很久的名称趁机提高价格。很多国会成员们已经敦促奥巴马政府拒绝欧洲的提议。一些人希望借助此事为借口禁止一些贸易协定的审批除非欧盟在这件事上让步。Americadoes offer legal protection for foods from geographic regions under trademark law. For example, Parmigiano Reggiano cannot be called that unless it really comes from the right parts ofItaly. Likewise, Americans may call fizzy wine fromCalifornia“champagne”, but that is not what it says on the bottle. There is no easy way to determine which names deserve protection. Are French fries safe? Or Italian dressing? Or even that symbol of American pride, the hamburger?在商标法里,美国确实为地理区域食品名称提供了法律保护。例如,除非帕尔玛干酪真正来自意大利的帕尔玛,否则不能任何叫做这个名字。同样的,美国人们也会称加州的泡沫酒为“香槟”,但是在包装瓶上没这么写。决定哪些名字应该受到保护绝不是件简单事。薯条这个名字很安全吗?意大利调味料呢?甚至是美国人民骄傲的象征,汉堡呢? /201407/314862。

Business商业报道Pharmaceuticals药物Give, and it shall be given unto you赠人玫瑰手有余香Drug companies in Japan invest in curing diseases of the poor日本药品公司投资为穷人治病JAPANs pharmaceutical firms are an inventive bunch: only the American and British drugs industries produced more new medicines between 2005 and 2008.日本制药企业是充满创造力的工厂,在2005到2008年中,只有美国与英国的制药工业研发的新药比日本多。But their record on healing the diseases of the poor is not so good.不过他们在治疗穷人上表现欠佳。The Access to Medicine Foundation, a non-profit group, tracks drug firms efforts to serve patients in developing countries; and in its ranking of the 20 biggest ones, Japanese firms occupy four of the bottom six rungs.非盈利组织The Access to Medicine Foundation记录了制药公司在救助发展中国家病人上的表现。在20所最大的制药公司中,日本公司在最后6位中排名第四。That may change. On November 8th the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund announced its first grants, to advance treatments for malaria, tuberculosis and Chagas disease, a potentially fatal and frequently debilitating ailment sp by ghastly, bloodsucking “kissing bugs”.但这数字有可能改变:11月8号,全球健康革新科技基金宣布它的首笔用于改进疟疾、肺结核和锥虫病的治疗手手段的拨款。The fund, launched earlier this year, is a public-private partnership that includes five Japanese drugmakers: Astellas, Daiichi Sankyo, Eisai, Shionogi and Takeda.这基金成立于今年早些时候,是由5家公私合营的日本制药企业组成的,成员为Astellas, Daiichi Sankyo, Eisai, Shionogi and Takeda。Criticism of pharma companies for restricting low-income countries access to drugs reached a head at the turn of the millennium, when makers of life-saving HIV treatments refused to provide them at affordable prices to patients in Africa.在千年之交制药厂限制低收入国家购买药物途径,那时HIV治疗品制药厂拒绝以合理的价格将药品卖给非洲病人。The resulting outrage forced the drug firms to rethink their policies.这一行为遭到指责。而这一引起公愤的结果迫使制药公司重新思考他们的政策。Today most of the biggest ones tout themselves as allies in the fight against infectious disease.现在大多数大型制药公司作为联盟联合起来与传染疾病作斗争。In some cases this means donating medicines, or licensing technology to makers of generic drugs.某些情况下这意味着捐药或者下放技术给一般药物厂。In others it means collaborating to develop a new vaccine or treatment.或者意味着合作开发新疫苗和治疗方式。For example, GlaxoSmithKline, a British firm that tops the Access to Medicine Foundations index, will next year seek regulatory approval for a malaria vaccine.例如GlaxoSmithKline一家英国制药厂将会在明年寻找疟疾疫苗的调整方法。The Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation helped to finance its development.比尔盖茨夫妇基金将会投资这一研发。With the GHIT Fund, the five Japanese firms are trying a slightly different model.这5家日本企业希望用GHIT基金来发展一个有所不同的模式。Each will put in 1m a year for five years.在5年中,每家公司每年会投100万美金。Together with investments from the Gates Foundation and Japans government, the fund will add up to more than 100m.加上来自盖茨基金和政府投资,这一基金将会有超过1亿美金的资金。This will be doled out to partnerships between Japanese and foreign institutions.这会少量的发放给日本和外国研究所。For instance, researchers at Osaka University and Gulu University in Uganda will get 735,000 to improve the effectiveness of another proposed malaria vaccine.马上,Osaka大学和乌干达Gulu大学的研究者就会获得735,000用于提高另一种疟疾疫苗的效率。An important question for the fund, as with any similar endeavour, is how much the resulting new treatments will cost.对于这个基金来说一个重要的问题就是在同等努力下研发新治疗方法要花多少。GSK plans to sell its malaria vaccine at 5% above the cost of production, with proceeds pumped back into research for infectious diseases.GSK计划以生产价的105%来出售他的疟疾疫苗,作为研究传染性疾病的后续资金。Even so, some advocates worry it will still be too expensive.即使这样,一些持者担心定价仍有点高。B.T. Slingsby, a former Eisai executive who now runs the GHIT Fund, says that drugs developed in its research programmes will be licensed without royalties in the poorest countries.之前B.T. Slingsby Eisai的总经理,现在GHIT的经营者说这个项目研发的药品在那些贫穷国家中被免版税使用。In other markets, the fund will aim more or less to break even.在其他市场中该基金则希望或多或少的打破平衡。The companies beneficence may reap long-term rewards, however.但是公司的利益可能是长期回报。For some time they have been seeking to expand their presence beyond Japans shores.有时他们在寻求途径希望自己的定位不仅仅是日本企业。In 2011 Takeda bought Nycomed, a Swiss drugmaker, for about 14 billion.2011年Takeda以140亿美金的价格买下了瑞士制药厂Nycomed。In 2008 Daiichi Sankyo spent nearly 5 billion on Ranbaxy, an Indian drugmaker that has since been plagued by safety issues.2008年Daiichi Sankyo投资近50亿在Ranbaxy。这是一家因为安全问题惹上麻烦的印度制药公司。The GHIT Fund will be a far smaller, and less controversial, investment.GHIT基金会成为缩小规模减少争议的组织。But it will help the firms build links with prestigious research institutions in America and Europe, and eventually introduce Japanese drug brands to patients, and health ministries, in emerging markets.但他会帮助公司与欧美知名研究机构建立联系,并最终让新兴市场的病人和卫生部知道日本品牌。Aid now may lead to profit later.然后或许就可以创造利益。 /201311/265456。

Ivy League grade inflation常春藤联盟分数贬值Grade expectations分数期望An “A” is not what it used to beA等分数今非昔比,光芒褪色“WE DO not release statistics on grade-point averages so we cant speak to the accuracy of the information you have.” That was a flack for Yale, but other Ivy League colleges—with the partial exception of Princeton—were equally reluctant to discuss their grading practices with The Economist.“我们并不发布有关平均绩点的统计数据因此无法回应你所持有的信息的准确性。”这是耶鲁大学的宣传手段,但是其他的常春藤联盟高校,除了普林斯顿大学之外,都不愿与《经济学人》讨论他们的打分详情。Are they trying to hide something? Perhaps. Stuart Rojstaczer, a critic of grade inflation, has estimated average grades over time by combining dozens of unofficial and official sources. The results are startling (see chart). In 1950, Mr Rojstaczer estimates, Harvards average grade was a C-plus. An article from 2013 in the Harvard Crimson, a student newspaper, revealed that the median grade had soared to A-minus: the most commonly awarded grade is an A. The students may be much cleverer than before: the Ivies are no longer gentlemens clubs for rich knuckleheads. But most probably, their marks mean less.他们是不是试图逃避什么?也许是吧!斯科特·罗伊斯塔柴尔这个对分数贬值进行批判的学者通过综合各种非官方和官方资源估计了平均分。结果令人震惊。1950年,罗伊斯塔柴尔估计哈佛的平均分是C+。来自《哈佛深红报》学生报纸的一篇文章透露该校的平均成绩已经遽升至A-;最常见的打分是A。或许现在的学生要比从前的聪明很多,常春藤联盟高校不再是富裕的笨孩子的绅士俱乐部。但更可能的是,他们的分数的含金量不如从前高。Universities pump up grades because many students like it. Administrators claim that tough grading leads to rivalry and stress for students. But if that is true, why have grades at all? Brilliant students complain that, thanks to grade inflation, little distinguishes them from their so-so classmates. Employers agree. When so many students get As, it is hard to figure out who is clever and who is not.高校提高分数是因为许多学生喜欢高分数。管理者声称严格的打分制会激化学生们的竞争意识会增加他们的压力。但是倘若这一假设属实,那我们干嘛还要分数?成绩优异的学生抱怨感谢分数贬值,他们不再能够在那些资质平平的学生中脱颖而出。招聘方也同意这种说法。当所有的学生都拿A时,实在是难以区分谁更聪明。 /201409/327772。

Germany and the euro德国与欧元The Merkel method默克尔之道Two books that take a close look at the woman at the centre of the euro crisis两本深入观察这位处于欧元危机中心的女人的书Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis. By Alan Crawford and Tony Czuczka.《安格拉默克尔:危机炼成的总理之位》,Alan Crawford 和 Tony Czuczka著。Europes Deadlock: How the Euro Crisis Could Be Solved—And Why it Wont Happen.《欧洲之僵局:欧元危机能如何解决—以及为什么这不会发生》,David Marsh著。ANGELA MERKEL, Germanys chancellor since November 2005, is now the longest-serving national leader in the European Union. Her country is more dominant in the EU and the euro zone than ever. She is Germanys most popular politician, at home and abroad. She is unchallenged within her party, the conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU). And she is coasting to another election victory in September.安格拉默克尔,自2005年11月以来一直担任德国总理,是目前欧盟中任职时间最长的国家领导人。她的国家在欧盟和欧元区中比其它任何时候都要处于更加主导的地位。无论是在国内还是国外,她是德国最受欢迎的政治人物。在她所在的政党,保守的基督教民主联盟(CDU),无人能挑战她的地位。而且,她正在全国巡回,准备赢得9月选举的又一场胜利。Yet she faces a huge and continuing problem: the euro crisis. This is the big test for her political legacy. Making matters worse, many analysts now point fingers of blame at Germany. It is too austere, too insistent on fiscal consolidation even in recession, too prone to put the burden of adjustment on deficit countries, too dominated by lawyers, not economists. These complaints and her political longevity make Mrs Merkel an interesting subject for a book. Several have come out in German, but this work by Alan Crawford and Tony Czuczka, two Bloomberg journalists, is one of the first to appear in English.然而,她面临着一个巨大且持续的问题:欧元危机。这是对她政治遗产的一场大考。更加糟糕的是许多分析家现在都将矛头指向了德国。它太过于紧缩,甚至在衰退时期仍太过于坚持财政整顿,太过于倾向将调整的重担让赤字国家去承受,太过于听从法律人士而非经济学家。这些抱怨加上她长久的政治生命,使得默克尔女士成为写书的有趣的话题。德国已经有一些该题材的书出来了,但这本由两位彭社记者Alan Crawford和Tony Czuczka所著的书是英语世界中的第一本。The two authors tell the euro story well, but their most interesting material is about her past. Such details, which include her upbringing in communist East Germany, her position as a woman in a mans world and her background as a research chemist, help to define her domestic politics and her approach to the euro. They also make her easy to underestimate: in 1998 she unsentimentally helped to push out her political mentor, Helmut Kohl, the man who did most to create the euro. She may be slow-moving, but she has been more effective than many with more obvious flair and charisma.这两位作者对于欧元的故事讲述得很好,但他们最有趣的材料是关于她的过去。她在共产主义东德的成长教育、她作为一个女人在男人世界中的地位以及她作为一位化学家的背景,这些细节都有助于定义她的国内政治和她处理欧元的手法。他们也使得她容易被低估:1998年,她无情地帮助赶走了她的政治导师赫尔穆特科尔,科尔是为欧元的产生出力最多的人。她也许动作缓慢,但她总是比其它许多人更加有效果、拥有更多明显的才华和领袖魅力。At home she is cautious, sceptical of governments ability to change things, solicitous of allies and quick to cut down challengers. Despite preaching change to other EU countries, she is no radical reformer. Indeed, she has pulled the CDU leftward, partly out of conviction but also to create more coalition options and steal votes from the Social Democrats. In the euro crisis she has favoured small, slow steps. When she is in doubt or gets conflicting advice, her instinct is often to do nothing. As an easterner, she has often leant as much towards Poland as towards France, Germanys traditional EU partner.在国内她是谨慎的,怀疑政府改革的能力,热切关心盟友以及对挑战者快速地斩草除根。尽管她游说其它欧盟国家作出变革,但她不是位激进的改革者。的确,她将CDU拉向左倾,部分是处于信念,但也是为了创造更多的结盟选项以及从社会民主党挖选票。在这场欧元危机当中,她偏向于小且慢的步伐。当她不确定时或是听到不一致的建议时,她的直觉常常是什么都不做。身为一个东德人,她常常更偏向于波兰,这个在欧盟中的德国的传统伙伴,而非法国。All this may be fine at home, since Germany is humming along nicely. But it is problematic in the euro crisis. From its start in Greece in early 2010, Mrs Merkel has been reluctant to lead, careful of committing taxpayers money and insistent on punishing the profligate. She has been bad at telling her voters how much they gain from the euro and how much they might lose if it falls apart. She has also favoured a simple morality tale of blaming fiscal incontinence for the crisis, when loss of competitiveness and failure to reform matter far more. And she has often found it hard to work with others: she eventually forged a relationship with Frances Nicolas Sarkozy, but has not got on with his successor, Franois Hollande.所有这一切在国内也许是可行的,因为德国一路都过得很愉快。但这对于欧元危机是有问题的。自从欧元危机于2010年初在希腊爆发,默克尔女士总是不大愿意领导,对花纳税人的钱很小心,坚持惩罚挥霍浪费者。她不善于告诉其选民他们从欧元中获益多少以及如果欧元解体他们可能损失多少。当面临竞争力丧失和改革失败这些更加紧要的事情时,她也喜欢以一种简单的道德故事的方式将危机归咎于不一致的财政政策。而且她也常常发现难于他人合作:她最终与法国尼古拉萨科齐打造了关系,但对于他的继任者弗兰西斯奥朗德则没有。David Marshs short book is a more sceptical take on the euro crisis. A seasoned Bundesbank-watcher and historian of the euro, he has long argued, as did the Bundesbank, that the single currency cannot work without fiscal and political union. Yet he acknowledges that this is unlikely to happen, not least because it would lack political legitimacy. So his preferred solution is to reduce the number of countries in the euro. But that too would not be easy, he concedes. In Berlin, the fear is that if any country quits, the euro could unravel all the way to the Rhine. Mrs Merkel clearly still has much to do to save the single currency.David Marsh的短篇书对于欧元危机更加持怀疑态度。这位经验丰富的联邦观察者和欧元历史学家,他与联邦一样,长期一来一直认为在没有财政同盟和政治同盟的情况下,单一货币是行不通的。然而他承认这不大可能会发生,主要是因为这缺乏政治上的合法性。所以他的首选方案是减少在欧元区中的国家数目。但这也不是容易的,他退了一步。在柏林,人们害怕的是,一旦有国家退出,那么欧元的解体将一路蔓延至莱茵河。很明显,默克尔女士仍有很多事情要做,以拯救这单一货币。 /201404/286355。

Downtown L.A., the ultimate modern American city, but Los Angeles skyscrapers are built over the graves of thousands of extinct Ice Age beasts. 洛杉矶市中心是美国最具现代化气息的城市,但在洛杉矶高楼大厦的下面,却是成千上万早已灭绝的冰河时代动物的尸体。Today all we have are memorials to these vanished animals, but imagine if they had survived into the present day, they would have had to adjust to a very human world. 如今,我们拥有的只不过是对于这些灭绝的动物的记录,但想象一下,如果它们今天还活着,它们就不得不想方设法融入人类的世界。The reality is, mammoths never made it beyond the end of the last Ice Age, but many other creatures did. And over the past 14,000 years or so, theyve had to adapt to an increasingly human landscape, a landscape of concrete and steel. 事实上,直到冰河时代的结束前,猛犸象都没有融入人类的世界,但是有一些动物却成功了。而在过去的14000多年里,这些动物也不得不一次又一次地适应人类对其领地的扩张,扩张后建立的则是钢筋和混凝土堆砌的高楼大厦。In this program, we will travel back into the past to investigate why the giant beasts of North America became extinct and to find out how those animals that did survive have adapted to life in our modern world.这本期节目里,我们将回到过去进行一下调查,为什么这些北美洲的大型野兽们会灭绝,而我们同时也将寻找那些幸存下来的生物能够融入人类现代生活的原因。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201310/261449。

A guy walks into a bar, and sits down next to an electron.有一个人走进了酒吧,刚刚好坐在了电子的旁边。The electron has two empty beers in front of him, and was working on a third.电子面前已经摆了两个空啤酒瓶子了,正在与他的第三瓶奋战着。My life is a worst, says electron.我的生活真的很糟糕电子说道,I just got fired from my job, my dog bit me, my wife left with another guy.我刚刚被公司辞退了,我的要咬我,老婆也和别的男人跑了!The guy says, Why are you so negative?这个人问道:你为什么这么负面呢?OK, now the explanation.OK,现在来解释一下。The nucleus of an atom is composed of neutrons and protons.原子核由中子和质子两种微粒构成。Around this nucleus swirls a cloud of electrons.在原子核外部,电子云围绕原子核旋转。Why are theelectrons there?为什么这里会有电子呢?They are attracted and held in place by an electromagnetic interaction with the nucleus.电子通过与原子核的电磁相互作用,被吸引到了这里。The nucleus has a net positive charge, while electrons carry a negative charge.原子核带正电荷,而电子则带负电荷。And opposite charges attract.而我们知道,异性相吸。I get it! Why so negative? Hes talking to an electron.我懂了。谁叫你带负电呢?他对电子说的话应该是这样理解的吧。Right!So electrons have a negative charge,while protons, neutrons and nucleus have a positive charge?是的。那么,也就是说电子是带负电荷,而质子、中子和原子核都是带正电荷?Almost! The protons have the positive charge, while the neutrons, as their name suggests, have no charge at all.这样说也差不多!质子是带正电荷的,而中子就像他的命名所暗示的一样,是不带电的。If you have three protons in the nucleus, youll need three electrons to make whats called a stable atom.如果一个原子核中有三个质子,那么必须要有三个电子,这个原子才能够称得上是稳定的原子。 201405/297253。