原标题: 义乌整形美容医院打美白针多少钱豆瓣报
For the next 16 minutes, Im going to take you on a journey that is probably the biggest dream of humanity: to understand the code of life.在接下来的16分钟里 我要带大家踏上一段旅程这大概是全人类的终极梦想——解读生命的基因编码So for me, everything started many, many years ago when I met the first 3D printer.对我来说 早在多年前 当我遇到了第一台3D打印机的时候 这个梦想就开始了The concept was fascinating.这个概念真是太精了A 3D printer needs three elements: a bit of information, some raw material, some energy, and it can produce any object that was not there before.一台3D打印机需要三个要素:一些信息一些原材料和一些能量 它就能打印出原先没有的东西I was doing physics, I was coming back home and I realized that I actually always knew a 3D printer.我那时正在研究物理现象 在回家的路上我突然意识到实际上我早就知道3D打印机了And everyone does. It was my mom.每个人都知道 那就是我妈妈My mom takes three elements:a bit of information, which is between my father and my mom in this case,我妈妈获取了这三个要素:一点信息 这里指的是我爸和我妈的基因raw elements and energy in the same media, that is food, and after several months, produces me.同一种介质提供原材料和能量——那就是食物 历时几个月 产下我And I was not existent before.而我以前从来没有存在过So apart from the shock of my mom discovering that she was a 3D printer, I immediately got mesmerized by that piece, the first one, the information.除了震惊的发现我妈其实是台3D打印机以外 我还立即被另一个部分吸引了那就是第一个要素信息What amount of information does it take to build and assemble a human?到底需要获取多少信息才能育出一个人呢?Is it much? Is it little? How many thumb drives can you fill?很多还是就一点 要存满多少个U盘?Well, I was studying physics at the beginning and I took this approximation of a human as a gigantic Lego piece.我一开始是学物理的我想如果把人近似于看成是一个巨型的乐高玩具okay So, imagine that the building blocks are little atoms and there is a hydrogen here, a carbon here, a nitrogen here.小的乐高模块就像是原子 有氢原子 碳原子 和 氮原子So in the first approximation, if I can list the number of atoms that compose a human being, I can build it.按照最初的这个设定 如果能够列出组成人类的所有原子我就能组装出一个人Now, you can run some numbers and that happens to be quite an astonishing number.现在你可以大致计算一下得到的结果非常惊人So the number of atoms, the file that I will save in my thumb drive to assemble a little baby,所需要的原子的总数全部存到U盘里面 即便是组装一个小婴儿will actually fill an entire Titanic of thumb drives multiplied 2,000 times.用掉的U盘就能装满整个泰坦尼克号 再乘以2000倍This is the miracle of life.这就是生命的奇迹Every time you see from now on a pregnant lady,从现在开始你每看到一个妇shes assembling the biggest amount of information that you will ever encounter.她正在组装你从未见过的最大量的信息Forget big data, forget anything you heard of.不要谈大数据 不要谈以前听说过的任何事情This is the biggest amount of information that exists.这是现今存在的最大信息量But nature, fortunately, is much smarter than a young physicist, and in four billion years, managed to pack this information in a small crystal we call DNA.幸运的是大自然比一个年轻的物理学家要聪明多了在40亿年里把这些信息打包放进一个小晶体里 我们称之为DNAWe met it for the first time in 1950 when Rosalind Franklin, an amazing scientist, a woman, took a picture of it.1950年当时一位伟大的科学家罗莎琳富兰克林女士给DNA拍了张照 我们第一次认识了它But it took us more than 40 years to finally poke inside a human cell, take out this crystal, unroll it, and it for the first time.但是我们耗时四十年多年 才最终拨开人的细胞从里面拿出了这个晶体展开并解读它The code comes out to be a fairly simple alphabet, four letters: A, T, C and G.这个遗传编码由简单的字母表组成 只有四个字母:A T C和GAnd to build a human, you need three billion of them.要组装一个人 你需要30亿个这样的字母Three billion. How many are three billion?三十亿 三十亿有多大It doesnt really make any sense as a number, right?我们对这个数字没有任何概念 对吧So I was thinking how I could explain myself better about how big and enormous this code is.所以我在想我如何将这个编码数量的庞大性很好地传达给大家呢But there is -- I mean, Im going to have some help, and the best person to help me introduce the code is actually the first man to sequence it, Dr. Craig Venter.所以我需要点帮助 最合适来帮我介绍遗传密码的人 是第一个将基因排序的人 克雷格文特尔士So welcome onstage, Dr. Craig Venter.让我们欢迎克雷格文特尔士Not the man in the flesh, but for the first time in history, this is the genome of a specific human, printed page-by-page, letter-by-letter:不是他本人 这也是历史上的第一次是一个人类的基因组一页一页一个字母一个字母的被打印出来262,000 pages of information, 450 kilograms, shipped from the ed States to Canada总共262000页的信息量 四百五十千克 被美国船运到加拿大only thanks to Bruno Bowden, Lulu.com, a start-up, did everything.感谢布鲁诺?鲍登 Lulu.com网站 一个新兴公司做了所有这些事情It was an amazing feat.这真是令人赞叹的壮举But this is the visual perception of what is the code of life.但是这是生命编码比较直观的表达And now, for the first time, I can do something fun.现在 我是第一次做一些有趣的事情I can actually poke inside it and .我能戳进去从这里面挑一段来读一读So let me take an interesting book ... like this one.我来找一本有意思的……比如这一本I have an annotation; its a fairly big book.我放了书签在里面 这书太厚了So just to let you see what is the code of life.给你们看一下 什么是生命编码Thousands and thousands and thousands and millions of letters.成千上万的字母And they apparently make sense.它们当然都有意义Lets get to a specific part. Let me it to you: ;A, AAT, ATA.;让我们聚焦到具体的一部分 读给你们听:;A AAT ATA;To you it sounds like mute letters, but this sequence gives the color of the eyes to Craig.你们可能觉得像是听天书 但是这个序列决定了格雷尔眼睛的颜色Ill show you another part of the book.在看看书的另外一部分This is actually a little more complicated.这一段稍微复杂一些Chromosome 14, book 132: As you might expect. ;ATT, CTT, GATT.;第14号染色体 书本编号132 可能和你们想的一样 ;ATT CTT GATT;This human is lucky, because if you miss just two letters in this position two letters of our three billion这个人很幸运 因为如果他在这个地方少了2个字母 30亿中的2个字母he will be condemned to a terrible disease: cystic fibrosis.他就会患上一种非常可怕的疾病:囊肿性纤维症We have no cure for it, we dont know how to solve it, and its just two letters of difference from what we are.目前没有治疗的方法 我们还没有解决方法 它仅仅和我们是2个字母的区别A wonderful book, a mighty book, a mighty book that helped me understand and show you something quite remarkable.这是一部鸿篇巨着 这本有力的书帮助我理解一切 向你们展示一些非凡的东西Every one of you what makes me, me and you, you-is just about five million of these, half a book.我们每个人 你我他 只需要这些中的500万个半本书For the rest, we are all absolutely identical.剩下的基因我们都是完全相同的Five hundred pages is the miracle of life that you are. The rest, we all share it.500页 涵盖了你的生命奇迹 余下的 我们全都一样So think about that again when we think that we are different.讨论人与人差异的时候反思一下This is the amount that we share.这是我们共有的东西So now that I have your attention, the next question is: How do I it? How do I make sense out of it?所以现在请注意 下一个问题就是:怎么去读取这些信息?怎么理解和运用它们?Well, for however good you can be at assembling Swedish furniture, this instruction manual is nothing you can crack in your life.不管你在组装瑞典家具上有多在行 这么长的指令手册在你有生之年是不可能被破解的And so, in 2014, two famous TEDsters, Peter Diamandis and Craig Venter himself, decided to assemble a new company.因此在2014年两位着名的TED演讲者 彼得迪亚芒蒂思和克雷格文特尔本人 决定成立一个新公司Human Longevity was born, with one mission: trying everything we can try人类长寿公司就此诞生了 唯一的任务尽我们所能and learning everything we can learn from these books, with one target making real the dream of personalized medicine,解读出所有我们能在这些书本里读到的东西 只为达到一个目的:让个人化医疗成为现实understanding what things should be done to have better health and what are the secrets in these books.明白怎么做才能提高人类健康水平 了解这些书目背后的秘密An amazing team, 40 data scientists and many, many more people, a pleasure to work with.一个惊人的团队拥有四十名数据科学家和越来越多的人 和他们一起工作十分愉快The concept is actually very simple.实际上工作流程很简单Were going to use a technology called machine learning.我们用一种叫做机器学习的方法On one side, we have genomes -- thousands of them.一方面 我们有几千个基因组On the other side, we collected the biggest database of human beings: phenotypes, 3D scan, NMR -- everything you can think of.另一边我们建立一个超大的人类信息数据库:性状 3D扫描 核磁共振——所有你能想到的Inside there, on these two opposite sides, there is the secret of translation.在内部 在这两个端点之间 有神秘的翻译在进行And in the middle, we build a machine.我们在中间建了一个机器We build a machine and we train a machine --well, not exactly one machine, many, many machines --to try to understand and translate the genome in a phenotype.建好之后我们训练这台机器 实际上不只一台机器而是很多台试图去理解基因组并把它翻译成性状What are those letters, and what do they do?有哪些字母 它们控制什么性状Its an approach that can be used for everything, but using it in genomics is particularly complicated.这是普适的方法 可以用在所有问题上但用在基因组学上异常的复杂Little by little we grew and we wanted to build different challenges.一点一点有了进展后我们想要尝试更有挑战性的东西We started from the beginning, from common traits.最开始我们从常见的特征下手Common traits are comfortable because they are common, everyone has them.常见特征最容易因为它们太常见了每个人都有So we started to ask our questions: Can we predict height?我们开始提出如下问题 能预测身高吗?Can we the books and predict your height?能不能解读这些书本信息来预测身高?Well, we actually can, with five centimeters of precision.是的我们可以 存在五厘米的误差BMI is fairly connected to your lifestyle, but we still can, we get in the ballpark, eight kilograms of precision.身体质量指数主要跟生活习惯密切有关 但我们仍然能预测得差不多存在8千克上下的误差Can we predict eye color? Yeah, we can.眼睛的颜色能不能预测?是的我们可以Eighty percent accuracy. Can we predict skin color?80%的正确率 皮肤颜色?Yeah we can, 80 percent accuracy. Can we predict age?可以 80%的正确率 我们可以预测年龄吗?We can, because apparently, the code changes during your life.可以 因为很明显基因随着年龄产生变化It gets shorter, you lose pieces, it gets insertions.DNA 会变短 缺失一些片段或者插入另外一些片段We the signals, and we make a model.我们读取这些信号然后建立模型Now, an interesting challenge:Can we predict a human face?现在来个有意思的挑战:我们能不能预测人的面孔?Its a little complicated, because a human face is scattered among millions of these letters.这个略有点复杂 因为有几百万个碱基都对人脸产生影响And a human face is not a very well-defined object.而且人脸并不是一个构造十分精准的物体So, we had to build an entire tier of it to learn and teach a machine what a face is, and embed and compress it.所以必须要建立一整个单独的模块给机器去训练和学习人脸是什么再把这个模块压缩整合进去And if youre comfortable with machine learning, you understand what the challenge is here.如果你对机器学习有点概念的话就能够想象这个挑战是有多大Now, after 15 years -- 15 years after we the first sequence --this October, we started to see some signals.现在15年过去了 15年前我们读取第一条序列 今年10月 我们总算有了些进展And it was a very emotional moment.当时还是很激动人心的What you see here is a subject coming in our lab.你现在看到的东西来自于我们的实验室This is a face for us.这是我们的一张脸So we take the real face of a subject, we reduce the complexity,我们要对测试对象的面孔进行简化because not everything is in your face -- lots of features and defects and asymmetries come from your life.因为并不是所有的特征都是面孔的一部分—很多特点 缺陷和不对称是生活的痕迹We symmetrize the face, and we run our algorithm.okay把面孔调整对称之后 跟我们运算的结果比较The results that I show you right now, this is the prediction we have from the blood.我刚才给你看的结果 是我们根据血液预测的Now wait a second. In these seconds, your eyes are watching, left and right, left and right, and your brain wants those pictures to be identical.等一下 你们的眼睛正在左右两边交替看,大脑希望两幅图是一模一样的So I ask you to do another exercise, to be honest.坦诚来说 我其实想请大家做另一件事情Please search for the differences, which are many.找找两幅图的不同点 其实非常多The biggest amount of signal comes from gender, then there is age, BMI, the ethnicity component of a human.性别提供最多的信息接下来是年龄 BMI(体质指数)和种族And scaling up over that signal is much more complicated.再考虑更多因素会变得更加复杂But what you see here, even in the differences, lets you understand that we are in the right ballpark, that we are getting closer.但是这样的结果即便有很多不同 表示我们在正确的范围内正在逐步接近And its aly giving you some emotions.它已经给了你一些情绪反应This is another subject that comes in place, and this is a prediction.这是另外一个测试对象这边是预测结果A little smaller face, we didnt get the complete cranial structure, but still, its in the ballpark.脸小了一点 完整的颅骨结构没预测到 但至少像那么回事This is a subject that comes in our lab, and this is the prediction.这是又一个测试对象 这是预测结果So these people have never been seen in the training of the machine.机器接受训练时 它们从未看见过这些面孔These are the so-called ;held-out; set. okay这就是所谓的随机测试组But these are people that you will probably never believe.并且你们不认识这些人 可能说力不太够Were publishing everything in a scientific publication, you can it.我们在学术期刊上发表了这些结果 你们可以去读一下But since we are onstage, Chris challenged me.但既然我们在台上 克里斯向我提出挑战I probably exposed myself and tried to predict someone that you might recognize.我尽我所能暴露自己 尝试着预测 某个你可能认识的人So, in this vial of blood and believe me, you have no idea what we had to do to have this blood now, here这里有一小管血液——你们很难想象我们为了一管血液我们花了多少工夫in this vial of blood is the amount of biological information that we need to do a full genome sequence.这一小管血液中蕴含了大量的生物信息我们需要做一个完整的基因组排序We just need this amount. We ran this sequence, and Im going to do it with you.只需要这么多 我们已经完成了测序 下面我和你们一起做And we start to layer up all the understanding we have.我们综合了所有已知的信息In the vial of blood, we predicted hes a male. And the subject is a male.从这一管血液里 我们预测这是一名男性 被试者正是一名男性We predict that hes a meter and 76 cm. The subject is a meter and 77 cm.我们预测他身高1米76 被试身高1米77So, we predicted that hes 76; the subject is 82.预测他体重76kg 被试者是82kgWe predict his age, 38. The subject is 35.我们还预测了他的年龄 38岁 被试者实际上是35岁We predict his eye color. Too dark.我们预测了他眼睛的颜色 非常深的黑色We predict his skin color. We are almost there. Thats his face.我们预测他的皮肤颜色我们基本上是准确的 这是他的面孔Now, the reveal moment: the subject is this person. And I did it intentionally.现在到了揭晓的时刻:被试对象是这个人 我是有意拿自己做测试的I am a very particular and peculiar ethnicity.我属于一个特别又特殊的种族Southern European, Italians they never fit in models.南欧人 意大利人——从来都不符合模型预测And its particular -- that ethnicity is a complex corner case for our model.而且这一种族在模型里是一个复杂的边界情况But there is another point.但还有另一个重点So, one of the things that we use a lot to recognize people will never be written in the genome.最常用的来辨识人的方法不是由基因组编译的Its our free will, its how I look.是人们的自由意志 即我想让自己看起来怎么样Not my haircut in this case, but my beard cut.虽然我的发型不是我自己决定的 但胡子是的So Im going to show you, Im going to, in this case, transfer it -- and this is nothing more than Photoshop, no modeling --the beard on the subject.下面我们来看一下 我要进行下改变——单纯的用photoshop 不用建模——把胡子加上去And immediately, we get much, much better in the feeling. So, why do we do this?是不是立即觉得变得很相像了 因此 为什么我们要这样做?We certainly dont do it for predicting height or taking a beautiful picture out of your blood.当然不是为了预测身高或者描绘出你没有胡子时的完美照片We do it because the same technology and the same approach, the machine learning of this code,我们研究是因为同样的技术和手段 基因组的学习机器is helping us to understand how we work, how your body works, how your body ages,能帮助我们了解人类自身是如何工作的你的身体是如何协调工作的 你的身体是如何变老的how disease generates in your body, how your cancer grows and develops, how drugs work and if they work on your body.疾病在你的身体里是如何产生的 癌症是怎么出现和恶化的 药物是如何起作用的药物是不是能够对你的身体起作用This is a huge challenge.这是一个巨大的挑战This is a challenge that we share with thousands of other researchers around the world.这是一个我们和世界各地其他成千上万的研究者们一起面临的挑战Its called personalized medicine.它被称为 个性化医疗Its the ability to move from a statistical approach where youre a dot in the ocean, to a personalized approach, where we all these books从只能借助统计学方法每个人都只是沧海一粟 到能够实现有针对性的治疗通过解码这些基因信息and we get an understanding of exactly how you are.我们能够彻底了解每一个人But it is a particularly complicated challenge, because of all these books, as of today,但这是一项异常复杂的挑战因为到目前为止在这么庞大的基因组信息中we just know probably two percent: four books of more than 175.我们大概只了解2%:175本书里的4本And this is not the topic of my talk, because we will learn more.当然这不是我今天演讲的主题因为我们会了解更多There are the best minds in the world on this topic.有很多顶尖的人才在从事这项工作The prediction will get better, the model will get more precise.预测会越来越准确模型会越来越精准And the more we learn, the every time we will be confronted with decisions that we never had to face before about life, about death, about parenting.随着了解的逐渐深入我们需要做的决定会越来越多而且是一些从前没有想象过的决定 关于生命 关于死亡 关于养育So, this conversation and we are touching the very inner detail on how life works.因此 我们正在不断接近基因内部的细节以解开生命机体如何工作之谜And its a revolution that cannot be confined in the domain of science or technology.这是一项重要的革命 它不能被限制于科学技术领域This must be a global conversation.这是一个全球性的会话We must start to think of the future were building as a humanity.我们必须思考我们的未来 要结合起全人类的力量We need to interact with creatives, with artists, with philosophers, with politicians.我们需要和创意人员 艺术家 哲学家 和政治家 一起相互讨论和影响Everyone is involved, because its the future of our species.每一个人都被包含在内因为这是我们人类物种的未来Without fear, but with the understanding that the decisions that we make in the next year will change the course of history forever. Thank you.不要害怕 但是我们要明白我们接下来一年中所做的决定 都会彻底改变历史的进程 谢谢201706/512825The droppings also support other types of cockroaches,粪便也能养活其它种类的which spend part of their day resting on cave walls.它们一天大部分时间都呆在洞壁上These in turn become food for giant cave centipedes, some more than 20 centimetres long.这些也接连成为了洞穴大蚰蜒的美餐,有的蚰蜒能长到20厘米长。Bizarrely, there are crabs here, too. Sifting through the droppings for nutrients.奇怪的是,这里甚至还有螃蟹,它们从粪便中过滤营养物质。All these animals spend their entire lives within the cave.所有这些动物都在洞穴内度过一生Theyre totally dependent on the digested remains of food thats brought in from outside.它们完全依赖的食物消化残渣都是来自于外界Each evening, in just two hours, three million bats leave the safety of the cave每天傍晚,只是前后2小时内,300万只蝙蝠一起离开安全的洞穴。to hunt for insects in the forest outside. But not all will return.在森林捕食昆虫。但并非所有的蝙蝠都能返回。As they leave the cave, the stream of bats form a doughnut-shaped ring.蝙蝠离开山洞后,即在空中组成一个面包圈一样的队列。The wheeling bats seem to confuse a rufous-bellied eagle,旋绕的蝙蝠群似乎已将棕腹隼雕弄得晕头转向but they must still survive the attacks of other, more specialised birds of prey.但它们仍须躲过其它更专业的猛禽的攻击。201707/517060

Heres a sneak peek, exclusive look inside the brand-new A330neo that youll be flying on for next year. It will provide all the latest comfort and design features currently available in its bigger sister, the A350XWB, and will also include a whole range of new innovations. From now on, when you get on a plane, you will definitely know if its an Airbus or not.这是独家一窥明年您将能搭乘的全新A330neo内部空间。它将提供一切最新的舒适和设计功能,和它的姊机A350XWB目前搭载的相同,且也会纳入一系列新设备。从现在起,当您踏上一架飞机,您绝对会知道它是否是一架空中巴士。We are calling this ;Airspace by Airbus,; and this is not just another marketing slogan. No! This is a new brand that stands for Airbus cabin DNA, which is covering the leading elements of comfort, ambience, service, and design. And were applying that uniquely to our cabins so that you as a passenger or crew member will really see and feel the difference.我们称之为“空中巴士飞行空间”,这并非只是另一种营销标语。不!这是代表空中巴士机舱DNA的新品牌,它兼顾舒适、氛围、务和设计的各种首要元素。我们将那独一无二地运用在我们的机舱,好让身为乘客或机组人员的您能真的看见和感受到不同。This isnt tinkering or just in business or first class. Wherever youre seated in an Airbus, including in economy, passengers will experience a new way of flying forever. Heres Ingo again.这不是做做样子或只在商务或头等舱。无论您坐在一架空中巴士的哪里,包含经济舱,乘客们将永远体验一种新的飞行方式。再换Ingo说明。Lets start with the personal space, because that is most important for the passengers. Actually, we have our 18-inch-wide seat, which is a lot wider than our competition. We have an entertainment system solution that gives you full space for your foot and legs under the seat. We also have new bins, with 66 percent more volume that makes it easy and relaxed to arrive and to store your carry-on luggage.让我们从个人空间开始,因为对乘客来说,那是最重要的。事实上,我们拥有18英吋宽的座位,那比我们的竞业对手还要宽许多。我们有能提供你的腿和脚在座位下有足够空间的系统套装。我们还有新的置物箱,多出百分之六十六的空间,让存放您的随身行李更方便轻松。Ambience—what you also see here is about light, the magic of light. We added light con features and a full-color LED system. Finally, services—in terms of services, we provide entertainment system, connectivity system online-fit so that we are truly connected to the world.氛围--您在这另外看到的是灯光,灯光的魔力。我们增设灯光调控功能以及色LED系统。最后,务--就务方面,我们提供能上网的系统、连网系统,如此一来我们才真正和世界接轨。In fact, Airbuss designers have rethought every corner of the cabin. Take the lavatories—youll barely recognize them.事实上,空中巴士的设计团队重新思考了机舱内的每个角落。拿洗手间来说--你会几乎认不出来。The lavatories actually have now new features in terms of hygiene. So, we add aroma, we add sound, we add color lighting and anti-bacterial surfaces as were indicated that from our passengers as a clear improvement area.洗手间现在其实有全新卫生功能。我们添加香氛、添加音效、添加色灯光以及抗菌表面,因为乘客们曾指出洗手间是个可以改善整洁的区域。Can you have this level of comfort and cheaper tickets? The answers ;Yes,; because the A330neos 14 percent more fuel-efficient per seat in the current world.你可以享受这等级的舒适度和便宜点的机票吗?是“可以”,因为A330neo每个座位比现今世界上的还要省百分之十四的油。The A330 offers every passenger in economy class an 18-inch seat. Thats one inch wider than our competitors. In first and business class, we have the latest products on the A330. We have the fourth generation of in-flight entertainment, allowing passengers to watch hundreds of movies, communicate with people on the ground or communicate with passengers on board the aircraft. All of that combined with the fuel efficiency gives the A330 a great ride for the passengers at the best possible price.A330提供经济舱的每位乘客18英吋的座位。那比我们的对手宽一英吋。在头等和商务舱,我们在A330上有最新的产品。我们有第四代机上系统,让乘客能观赏数百部电影、与地面的人或机上乘客交流。那全部加上省油特性,让A330能以最优惠的价格提供乘客一趟优质之旅。Close to 200 A330neos have aly been bought by 10 customers, and they dont have to wait long. This is the fastest drawing board-to-delivery of a new airplane Airbus has ever done. But thats another story, and well have more on that soon.有近两百架A330neo已被十位客户购买,而且他们不需要等太久。这是空中巴士公司史上做过最快速的新机规划到出货计划。不过那是另一个故事了,我们很快会有关于那的更多信息。201612/484257This is the biggest underground river passage in the world,这是世界上最大的地下河通道so big a jumbo jet could fly through it.大到可以通过一架大型喷气式客机Its Deer Cave in Borneo.它就是婆罗洲的鹿洞The sheer size of Deer Cave allows some animals to gather there in huge numbers.鹿洞的容量很大,使得大批动物到此聚集A staggering three million wrinkle-lipped bats live here.这里住着数量惊人的300万只犬吻蝠The bats roost high on the walls and ceilings,这些蝙蝠倒挂在洞壁和天顶上where theyre well protected from the outside elements and safe from predators.它们在此完全不受外界因素的干扰,还能躲开天敌。And while theyre up here, the bats produce something very important.它们高悬在洞穴上方时会产生一种非常重要的东西This 1 00-metre-high mound is made entirely of bat droppings, guano.这堆100多米高的东西全都是蝙蝠的排泄物,粪便。Its surface is covered by a thick carpet of cockroaches. Hundreds of thousands of them.地面上爬满了密密麻麻的。它们的数量无以为计。Caves are one of the few habitats on Earth not directly powered by sunlight.洞穴是地球上少数几种不直接依赖阳光的生态环境之一In the absence of plants, this food chain is based on a continuous supply of bat droppings.在缺少植物的情况下,这里的食物链完全依赖供应不断的蝙蝠粪便The cockroaches feed on the guano and anything that falls into it.的食物就是粪便以及任何掉进里面的东西。201707/516668I dont know you ;bigbuffetboy85;我不认识你,bigbuffetboy85But if you think you can humiliate me and take my gold. Think again.但你如果觉得你可以羞辱我并拿走我的黄金,再想想吧。I am coming for you with lots of barbarians and dragons我会带很多野蛮人和飞龙去找你。I cant wait to destroy your village while you beg for mercy.我等不及要毁掉你的村落了,那时你会求我放过你。But you will get no mercy. I will have my revenge.但我不会放过你的,我要复仇。Laim, a scone for Laim. Right here.莱姆,莱姆的烤饼。在这儿。Its uh... Liam. You will regret the day to cross ;angryneeson52;.我是叫利亚姆。你会后悔惹到angryneeson52的。201703/498106

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201607/455209TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201609/463930栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201607/454652

It was when Murray marched south and wallace moved north to meet here on the Forth at Stirling当默里向南进军时 华莱士引军北上 他们在弗斯河畔的斯特林会师the key to Scotland that a chaotic wildfire uprising turned into a major military compaign.成为苏格兰战争的关键 它使得凌乱的星星之火 汇成了燎原的烈焰On the eve of the battle of Stirling Bridge,Wallace told the English We are not here to make peace,在斯特林桥之战前夜 华莱士传信给英国人 我们不是为和平而来but to do battle and to liberate our kingdom.而是要为王国的自由 浴血奋战The Scots gathered on the Abbey Craig Bridge.苏格兰士兵聚集在艾比科莱克桥Below, a narrow wooden bridge led to the castle and to the English脚下是一座狭窄的木桥 通向城堡和里面的英国人Wallace allowed about half of them to cross the fragile structure,enough for his forces to deal with.大约一半的人马被华莱士派去 穿越这脆弱的建筑 他觉得这些兵力足够了And so they did, rushing down from their perch, through the woods,and into the English ranks.他们没让人失望 从高处直冲下来 穿过树林 直抵英格兰军队驻扎地Wallace, on foot, with a great sharp sword,goes amongst the very thickest of his foes.华莱士 手提锋利的宝剑 徒步冲锋陷阵 奋勇杀敌The Scots vanquished the savage English,whom they put into mourning for death.苏格兰战士击溃了野蛮的英国人 他们在哀嚎中死去Some had their throats cut by swords,others were taken prisoners, others drowned.利剑刺穿了他们的喉咙 有些人做了俘虏 剩下的则被溺死One, the hated English taxman Cressingham, was skinned,His fat body made into a belt for Wallaces victorious sword.一个招致民愤的英国税官克莱斯汉姆被剥皮 他的臭皮囊被制成剑带 佩在华莱士的胜利之剑上 /201610/474376Talk about leaving a mark. Meet the worlds biggest dinosaur footprint.说到留下痕迹。现在发现世界上最大的恐龙足迹。It was discovered in a remote region of northwest Australia by a team of paleontologists from The University of Queensland.在澳大利亚西北部的偏远地区,一队来自昆士兰大学的古生物学家发现了该足迹。The track measures nearly 5 feet 7 inches, and it belonged to a sauropod.这个足迹近5英尺7英寸,属于蜥脚类动物。The massive footprint was just one of the interesting discoveries the team made in the area, otherwise known as ;Australias Jurassic Park.;巨大的足迹只是这个团队在该地区的有趣发现之一,该地区也被称为“澳大利亚侏罗纪公园”。This area preserves one of the most diverse dinosaur track faunas anywhere in the world.该地区是世界上恐龙足迹化石最丰富的地方之一。Researchers uncovered 21 different prints across the Dampier Peninsula coastline. And these tracks were found in rocks up to 140 million years old.研究人员在丹皮尔半岛海岸发现了21种不同的足迹。这些足迹在1亿4,000万年的岩石中被发现。译文属。201703/500932But in many other cases, the pieces speak of real hardship.但也有其他的东西 记录了真正的艰辛They were just the things the mothers found they happened to have on them at the time they had to get rid of the children.它们只是些 母亲不得不丢弃孩子的时候 碰巧身上所带的物件Some of these mothers had nothing at the last minute to offer their little babies有些母亲一无所有 离别的时候 除了一颗坚果except a nut,a nut meant which was meant to be worn as a pendant.戴在脖子上的坚果之外 没有别的什么可以赠予孩子了Look, theres a little hole where the string was supposed to be strung through there.瞧 这里有个小洞 可以用根绳子穿起来的Sometimes things which had a little work on them like this beautiful sewn heart there. 有时 一些物件是花了些许心思的 比如这个漂亮的编织心Or, most desperate of all perhaps,just this flimsy little piece of ribbon.但大部分都是来自最绝望的母亲的 只是这么一条细小的带子Imagine a mother on a point saying goodbye for the last time to her baby想象一下 一个即将与孩子永别的母亲 在分别的最后时刻just taking a bit of ribbon from her hair or her wrist只能从头发上或者手腕上扯下一截丝带and giving it, as she hoped, to her child.希望能够如其所愿 交到孩子手上Now, if this wasnt heartbreak enough,如果这些还不够让人心碎it only gets worse when you know that none of these things ever found their way to the children.那么若你得知 这些东西根本就没有如她们所愿 送到孩子手里 又会作何感想And of course, the Foundling Hospital couldnt hope to work miracles overnight.当然 育婴堂不能一夜之间制造奇迹Nearly half the babies died in a hast in the first year,几乎一半的病童第一年就匆匆夭折but that was a huge improvement over the usual figures.但是相比于平常数据 已经有了很大的进步 /201705/511615

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