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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月18日 18:37:05
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  The world#39;s biggest seed世界上最大的种子The secret behind the world#39;s largest seed is leaves that serve as good gutters. During rains, they channel lots of water and nutrients right to the plant#39;s thirsty roots.世界上最大的种子生成的秘密在于这种植物的叶子在下雨时候变为运输管道将大量水分及营养运送到植物饥渴的根部。Coco-de-mer palms (Lodoicea maldivica) produce these monster nuts, which are a type of seed. The biggest can tip the scales at up to 18 kilograms (roughly 40 pounds). That#39;s about as much as a 4-year-old boy. Yet the palm outperforms all other plants - at least in seed heft - with a below-poverty diet. These plants grow wild on nutrient-starved, rocky soil on just two islands in the Seychelles. (They#39;re part of an arc of some 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, off of the East Coast of Africa.)海椰子树上会长出这种硕大坚果,实际上这是一种种子。最大的可重达18公斤(约40磅重),约为一个四岁男孩的体重。此外这种棕榈树胜过其他一切树种,最起码它能以很少的补给育出来相对较大的种子。这些树只生长在非洲塞舌尔群岛中的两个小岛上,虽然其扎根生长的土质是岩石类营养贫乏土质,但他们还是疯狂的生长着。(这些树也是非洲东海岸印度洋上由115个岛屿组成的弧形中重要的一部分。)Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury works for the Seychelles Islands Foundation. Despite a scarcity of nutrients to fuel its growth, a palm forest is ;magnificent - it#39;s like a dinosaur could come around the corner,; he says. Winds can jostle hectares (acres) of stiff leaves. This makes a sound he describes as ;crackling.;Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury在塞舌尔群岛基地工作。尽管供其生长的营养缺乏,但这些棕榈树森林长势依旧壮观。;就像不知从哪会冒出来一只恐龙一样;,他这样形容道。当有风掠过这些树的树叶时,他会听见噼里啪啦的响声。Nitrogen and phosphorus are two natural fertilizers - nutrients - that these (and other plants) need. There isn#39;t much of either on the islands where these palms grow. So the plants are frugal. They sprout fronds using only about one-third the nutrients needed by leaves of 56 neighboring species of trees and shrubs. What#39;s more, coco-de-mer palms scavenge a lot of the nutrients shed in their own dying leaves. These trees can reuse 90 percent of that prized phosphorus from the fronds it#39;s about to drop. That#39;s a record for the plant world.氮磷是富含营养物质的两大天然肥料,正为这些树所需(其他树种也同样需要)。然而在这些树生长的地方恰恰缺少这两种肥料。因此这种植物在营养使用方面很节约。比如发芽长叶时,他们仅仅消耗1/3的营养,为周围56种树木和灌木的叶子生长所需。此外,海椰子棕榈树还可利用即将掉落的树叶上的营养物质,重复使用90%落叶上的磷。这是植物界中的一项纪录。译文属 /201505/377780

  Blue and White Porcelain of Yuan Dynasty元代青花瓷器The Yuan Dynasty is a key period for the development of the firing tech-niques of the Blue and White Porcelain in China. lts unique characteris-tics were based on the techniques of the former dynasties. The Blue and White Porcelain had become major porcelain product of China by the Ming and Qing Dy-nasties.元代是中国青花瓷器烧制工艺发展历史上的重要时期。这一时期在前代“釉下”等工艺的基础上逐步确立、完善了青花瓷器的烧制技术,并形成了自身的独特风格。到明清时期,青花瓷器已经发展成为中国瓷器中的主要产品。The Blue and White Porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty is large in size, with thick roughcast. Generally there are big bottle, big pot, big bowl and big plate, with the traditional flavor of the Tang and Song dynasties. Due to the underdeveloped tech-niques, there are two infer-faces on the body and sever-al veins inside the body. The roughcast is not as smooth as that of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, while the glaze of the Blue and White Porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty is thicker than that of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, due to more iron in the raw material of the glaze.元代青花瓷器在造型方面具有胎骨厚重,形制巨大的特点。常见的器形有大瓶、大罐、大碗、大盘等,这种造型继承了唐宋以来的传统风格。由于当时的旋削技术较差,瓷器身上常有两道接口,一般大罐内也多有旋纹。元代青花瓷器的胎质,在淘洗技术上不如明清时期细致。元代青花瓷器的釉层一般比明清时期略厚,白釉地子的闪青程度也较明清为重,可能是当时施釉较厚和釉料中含铁量较多的缘故。There are lines like bamboo on the foot of the porcelain. The body is connect-ed with the foot when glaze has not been coated. The body is decorated with lines of lotus, clouds and lots of flowers.Dense decoration was not only applied to the blue and white porcelain but also to the picture weaving and stone carving, reflec-ting the unique characteristics of that time.在制作工艺上,元代青花瓷器的足部上下多有竹节状凸起的弦纹,器身与器足的接合部位,多采用胎接方式。在装饰上,元青花一般多装饰莲瓣纹,器物肩部绘有垂云纹,中间主题部分填以各种花卉,纹饰繁密,层次较多。这种繁密饰纹的手法,不仅表现在青花瓷器上,也表现在元代织锦和石雕工艺上,成为当时的独特风格。The major producer of the Blue and White Porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty was Jingdezhen. Besides, there were kilns for the blue and white porcelain production in Zhejiang Province, east of China and Yunnan Province, southwest of China.元代青花瓷器的主要产地是中国中部江西省的景德镇。此外在中国东部的浙江省和西南部的云南省,也有烧制青花瓷器的瓷窑。 /201512/410756

  

  

  Measured against how long we have been around, humans began ing only recently. The earliest scripts emerged about 5,000 years ago.以人类存在的整个历史衡量,人类只是在最近才开始阅读。最早的手稿出现在大约5000年前。The Greeks produced a fully-developed alphabet, with vowels, about 3,000 years ago. Johannes Gutenberg printed his bible 560 years ago.希腊人在大约3000年前发明了带有元音的、成熟的字母表。约翰内斯#8226;谷登堡(Johannes Gutenberg)于560年前印刷出了圣经。If ing from the printed page is recent, then ing from a digital screen is a just-peeled-the-protective-plastic-off novelty.如果说人类只是从最近才开始阅读印刷文字的话,那么从数字屏幕上阅读就如刚刚撕掉塑料保护膜一样的新鲜。Many have described the advent of digital ing as the biggest revolution since Gutenberg. We are still not sure what digital screens are doing to the process of ing. While researchers have tried to examine the difference between print and onscreen ing, the results are fuzzy.很多人把数字化阅读的出现描述为自谷登堡以来的最大变革。我们尚无法确定数字化屏幕对阅读过程具有何种影响。尽管研究人员尝试了研究纸质阅读和屏幕阅读的区别,但结果并不清晰。Some studies have found little difference in comprehension and recall between those ing print and those looking at screens. Others have found lower understanding and memory among screen ers.一些研究发现,纸质阅读和屏幕阅读在理解和回忆方面几乎没有区别。另外一些研究发现,屏幕阅读者在理解和记忆方面表现较差。Apart from the difficulties of assessing how people absorb meaning, digital devices are still changing and developing, attempting to make the ing process smoother.除了在评估人们如何吸收语意上存在困难外,数字化设备仍在不断变化和发展,试图让阅读过程更加顺畅。As ing researchers Anne Mangen of the University of Stavanger and Don Kuiken of the University of Alberta admit, it is best to see their and others’ studies as “an exploration of possibilities rather than explicit hypothesis testing”.正如阅读研究员、挪威斯塔万格大学(University of Stavanger)的安妮#8226;芒让(Anne Mangen)和加拿大阿尔伯塔大学(University of Alberta)的唐#8226;奎肯(Don Kuiken)所承认的那样,最好把他们和其他人的研究看作是“一次关于可能性的探索,而非明确的假设检验”。Their research examined whether people differently on a screen (the Kindle app on an iPad) and a printed page, but also looked at the difference between fiction and non-fiction. They gave their subjects a piece of writing describing an actual murder at a mall, and told one group it was made-up and the other that it was real.他们对人们在屏幕(iPad上的Kindle应用软件)和纸质阅读是否存在差异进行研究,不过也观察了阅读小说和非小说之间的差异。他们给了研究对象一篇讲述一宗发生在商场的真实谋杀案的文章,告诉其中一组这件事是虚构的,告诉另一组文章是真实的。Among those who thought it was fiction, there was little difference between screen and print ers. Those ing from the iPad were a little unsure of their location in the text. But their grasp of the narrative, their immersion in the story and how much sympathy they felt with the characters differed little from that of the print ers.在认为阅读内容为小说的研究对象中,屏幕阅读和纸质阅读之间几乎没有差别。在iPad上阅读的人对文中所述事件的发生地点有点不确定。但是他们对文字叙述的理解、对故事情节的投入以及对人物的同情程度,与纸质阅读者几乎没有差别。Among those who thought they were ing non-fiction, there was a significant difference. The iPad ers had less narrative grasp, less immersion and less sympathy.那组认为自己阅读的是非小说的研究对象,则存在显著差别。与纸质阅读者相比,iPad阅读者对文字叙述的理解更差,对故事的投入更弱,同情心也更少。Why the difference? The writers e research suggesting that ing non-fiction involves fast processing (“skimming”)” while fiction involves slow processing (“savouring”).为什么会存在差异?两位作者引用研究称,阅读非小说涉及快速处理(“略读”),而阅读小说涉及慢速处理(“品味”)。The suggestion is that ing screens for factual information encourages skimming so that when the narrative is more detailed it becomes less comprehensible.这似乎表明,在屏幕上阅读事实类信息促使阅读者进行略读,因此当文字叙述比较详细时,理解就较差。This matches my experience. I am ing 10 novels, as chairman of the judges of theFinancial Times arts awards for emerging market countries. As I have been travelling, I have mostly been ing on a Kindle.这与我的经验相符。作为英国《金融时报》评判新兴市场国家艺术奖的主席,我目前正在阅读10本小说。由于我最近在出差,我大多时候都用Kindle看书。I prefer real books, for the heft, the ease of paging back and the sense of how far I have — which I can see and feel, rather than relying on a percentage at the bottom of the page. But a Kindle is compact and easy on the eyes and, like the students in the study, I have had no problem immersing myself in the stories.我更喜欢实实在在的书,因为它有重量,能轻易翻回之前的页,也能直观感受到自己已经读了多少——这是我“看得见摸得着”的,而不需要依靠屏幕下方的进度条来判断。但是,Kindle外形小巧紧凑,阅读起来不伤眼睛,而且就像上述研究的参加者那样,我可以让自己投入故事情节。Reading news is different. When my morning train is crowded, I from an iPhone app rather than a newspaper. When I get into the office and page through the FT, I find I have most of it — but not all.阅读新闻则有所不同。当上班的列车很拥挤时,我用iPhone上的一款app看新闻,而不是直接看报纸。当我进入办公室浏览英国《金融时报》时,我发现自己看过了大部分内容——但并非全部。When I use an app, I what I am interested in. When I a print newspaper, I find myself ing things I did not know I was interested in.当我使用app时,我只看自己感兴趣的内容。但我看纸质报纸时,我会看一些之前不知道自己会感兴趣的内容。Others have spoken about the serendipity of print, but I think there is more to it. Reading from a mobile phone, the fastest-growing form of digital ing, is useful, but it is, literally, narrower than print.有人曾谈到纸质阅读的意外收获,但我认为没这么简单。作为增长最快的数字化阅读方式,手机阅读很有用,但是它显然比纸质阅读更“窄”。A newspaper offers peripheral vision. There is the likelihood not only that you will come across unexpected information, but that you will connect it to other things you have .报纸提供周边视觉。你不仅可能看到意想不到的信息,还可能会把它与你读过的内容联系起来。This is important for those whose job is to think about the threats, opportunities and changes that might affect the business. It is not an either/or. You have to be immersed in the digital world too to know what it is doing to people’s behaviour.对于职责就是思索可能影响业务的威胁、机会和变化的人来说,这很重要。这并非是个非此即彼的选择。你也必须沉浸到数字化世界中,才能了解它对人们的行为产生了什么影响。Studies in the US show that those who still a newspaper are higher-earning and better-educated.美国的研究表明,如今仍然阅读报纸的人的收入更高、受教育水平也更高。They are also generally older. But every now and then I meet a 20-something digital native who s print newspapers, too. I immediately assume they have a great future.他们也普遍年纪更大。但是我也会不时地遇到一个20多岁的“数字化原住民”在阅读纸质报纸。我会立马认为他们拥有一个光明的前途。 /201507/385725

  

  At billion, Uber has become more valuable more quickly than any other start-up we’ve seen in recent years — faster than Facebook FB 2.03% , Google GOOG 0.43% , Amazon.com AMZN 0.50% and Salesforce.com CRM 0.29% , according to our analysis of VC-backed start-ups founded since Uber was created in 2009. Earlier this month when the taxi service announced a round of financing that gave it a billion valuation at 5.93 years old, Uber set itself apart. At the same stage, Facebook was valued at about billion, while Google was just over billion.打车应用务公司Uber目前估值已经达到410亿美元。我们发现这家公司自2009年成立以来,是由风投持的初创型企业中增值最快的一家,超过了Facebook、谷歌(Google)、亚马逊(Amazon.com)和云计算务供应商Salesforce.com。本月早些时候Uber宣布了新一轮融资消息,公司估值在成立5.93年后达到410亿美元,在市场中脱颖而出。在同一阶段,Facebook的估值约为320亿美元,谷歌的估值则刚刚超过30亿美元。Uber’s valuation does not guarantee it will be the next long-term superstar. But if the company can use its rapidly rising valuation to accelerate its expansion, it has a real shot at both beating its competitor, Lyft, and growing beyond personal transportation. Further, it can expand it’s services — potentially to delivery, logistics, other adjacent markets. To be sure, Uber is facing an ever increasing amount of challenges, from legal battles with local governments, to bad PR for the way it portrays women, all of which could hamper its growth and damage its brand. Additionally competitors like Lyft are nipping at its heals and more will surely come as the market for smart-phone powered point-to-point transportation expands. Despite these problems, Uber’s lead is so large and its value has grown so quickly, it would have to stumble badly to lose the battle for supremecy in this new space.但这样的估值并不能保Uber成为下一个持久的超级巨星。但如果该公司能将快速攀升的价值用于提高扩张速度,它就真的有可能击败竞争对手Lyft,并将业务延伸到个人交通领域之外。Uber可以进一步将其范围扩大到快递、物流以及其他相关市场。当然,Uber面临的挑战也与日俱增,比如和地方政府的法律纠纷,再比如涉嫌不尊重女性的糟糕公关,所有这些都可能对其发展和品牌产生不利影响。此外,Lyft等对手正在奋起直追;而且,随着基于智能手机的点对点(P2P)交通务市场继续扩大,必将出现更多竞争者。不过,虽然存在这些问题,但在如此巨大的领先优势和增速之下,除非Uber犯下大错误,才会在这个新兴领域的王者争夺战中落败。This comes amid the development of two important trends. First, among all VC-backed technology start-ups created since 2009, the rate at which their values have risen is three times faster today compared to just a decade ago. This increase in “time to market cap”, the measures how quickly companies increase in value, has become a major advantage for modern startups as they are able to build massive financial war chests at speeds never seen before. With this latest financing Uber has become the time to market cap champ.伴随Uber成长的有两大趋势。首先,就所有2009年以来成立并且获得风投持的科技初创公司来说,其价值上升速度与10年前相比快了三倍。作为衡量公司价值增速的指标,“市值形成速度(time to market cap)”的提升已经成为现代初创企业的一项主要优势,因为它们可以用前所未有的速度筹集到巨额资金。最新一轮融资过后,Uber已经在这场速度较量中成为冠军。What’s more, it appears that new markets are being dominated by one company, especially in tech. Uber’s latest valuation is partly driven by how quickly the company is expanding abroad, but it also reflects demand for a growing global market for on-demand transportation, and Uber’s dominance in this category for years to come.其次,新兴的市场看来都由一家公司主导,特别是在科技领域。Uber最新估值提升的部分动力来自该公司在海外的迅速扩张,但这也体现了全球按需交通务市场的不断扩张和由此带来的需求,以及今后几年Uber在这个领域的统治地位。We like to call Uber a “Category King” — companies that define, develop and dominate new markets. Airbnb is doing that in on-demand rentals. Salesforce.com did it in cloud-based CRM. Of the 80 or so billion companies founded since 2000, half are Category Kings. They are more valuable than all the other companies in their categories combined. These firms routinely take more than 70% of the total available market cap of their market.我们倾向于把Uber称为“细分类之王”,即那些定义了一个全新市场,并大力开拓,占据市场主导地位的公司。Airbnb就在按需租房领域扮演着这样的角色。在基于云技术的客户关系管理务市场,Salesforce.com也是如此。2000年以来成立而且市值达到10亿美元的公司有80家左右,其中一半都是“细分类之王”。它们的价值超过了本领域其他公司的价值之和,而且往往占据所在市场中所有公司总市值的70%以上。Uber is clearly being valued as the king of a new category that stretches way beyond taxi rides. Investors see potential in on-demand delivery from Uber vehicles, for instance. Unless Uber screws up, its competitors, such as Lyft and Sidecar, will fade into the background. If Uber truly proves to be the Category King in a vastly expanding new category, it’s record valuation will seem rational.显然,人们在评估Uber的价值时,认为其所统领的新领域将远远超越出租车务。举例来说,投资者就看到了Uber车辆的按需递送的潜力。除非Uber自毁前程,否则Lyft和Sidecar这样的竞争对手就只能生活在其阴影之中。如果Uber能明自己在一个大范围扩张的新领域居于王者之位,该公司创纪录的估值就应该属于合理水平。Al Ramadan, Christopher Lochhead and Dave Peterson are co-founding partners at Play Bigger Advisors, a San Francisco-based firm that coaches technology executives to build market-leading companies. Neither the firm or its partners have investments in Uber, Lyft, Google, Amazon.com or Salesforce.com.本文作者艾尔o拉马丹、克里斯托弗o罗克海德和戴夫o彼得森是Play Bigger Advisors公司联合创始人。这家总部位于旧金山的咨询机构致力于指导科技公司高管如何打造市场领先的公司。该公司和这三位合伙人均未向Uber、Lyft、亚马逊或Salesforce.com投资。(财富中文网) /201412/349390

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